Psychology of Aging Final Exam
Psychology of Aging Final Exam 22392
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kenedy Ramos on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 22392 at Gonzaga University taught by Dr. Wolfe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Psychology of Aging Final Exam Study Guide Cohort: a group of people born within a specified period of time, who travel through life at the same point in history. Many factors influence how a particular cohort experiences the aging process including music, art, fashion and other cultural trends as well as technology, economics and politics etc. Average Life Expectancy: Age to which an individual has a 50/50 probability of living, from a specific age, most often birth. There has been a significant increase in life expectancy in the past century due to two specific phases: The first one being a tremendous increase in medical advances that cured childhood diseases like polio and the chicken pox and secondly medical advances that focused more on elderly diseases and illnesses. Morality: the number of people who will die from a disease at a given period of time, usually a year Morbidity: the number of people who actually have the disease at a given point in time Morbidity is an index of both personal impact and caregiver burden Young-Old: defined as ages 65-74, typically do not have disabling disease and have interests and activities similar to the middle aged Old-Old: defined as 75-84, more likely to have disabling physical and mental diseases Oldest-Old: variously defined but 85-100+ Selective Optimization and Compensation: the idea that as people age, they engage in adaptation through which gains and loses they have experienced; general reserve capacity and capacity in specific domains of function are included (introduced by Paul Baltes) Pluralism: having a variety of points of view is the best policy to follow in understanding age change Different points of view will provide different but important information to understand aging Changes are multidirectional in which some abilities improve, others decline and others remain stable Changes are multidimensional in which cognition, health and personality and such are included and affected The context in which the totality of influences, shape how we develop Cross Sectional Studies: compares different age groups at the same time on the variable(s) of interest Strengths: less expensive and less time Weaknesses: show age differences but not age change, cohort factors or bias, tell how groups differ but not how individuals change over time Longitudinal Studies: testing the same cohort at different intervals on the variable(s) Strengths: greater confidence of changes in individuals over time Weaknesses: expensive and time demanding, participant selection bias, practice effects, selective attrition, time of measurement effects Maximum Life Expectancy: maximum age to which the members of a species can live, has not changed much if at all and appears to be around 105-110 Primary Aging, physical changes that are absolutely inevitable in the aging process Secondary Aging, no inevitable age-related deterioration caused by environmental damage Chronic Disease: long-term progressive illness typically without any clear-cut external cause or cure Random Damage Model: issues include the fact that aging appears to follow a somewhat orderly and predictable pattern for each species. Each species appears to have a fairly fixed maximum lifespan. Both of these issues point toward some programmed (genetic?) mechanism that produces aging changes Diabetes, Heart Disease and Stroke: 65% of people with diabetes will die of heart disease or stroke (2-4 time as likely as those without diabetes) Diabetes, Blindness: 12,000-14,000 will lose sight annually due to diabetic retinopathy, leading cause of blindness in the 20-74 age group Diabetes, Kidney Disease: diabetic nephropathy is leading cause of end stage kidney disease accounting for 43% of new cases Diabetes, Nerve Disease and Amputation: 60-70% of people with diabetes have mild to severe peripheral nerve damage and 82,000 amputations per year of foot or leg Stress Resistance: the body’s resistance to stress can only last so long before exhaustion sets in Alarm reaction (mobilize resources), Resistance (cope with stressor), Exhaustion (reserves depleted) in which you succumb to your stress Memory: the ability to register information (encode), organize the information in a meaningful way (storage), and recall or reorganize the information when needed (retrieval) Dementia: an acquired and persistent syndrome of intellectual impairment, impairments in memory and other cognitive domains, impairments in social and/or occupational functioning, degenerative dementias are pathological processes, nondegenerative dementias are a mixed group of disorders with diverse etiologies David Wechsler: worked with army alpha and beta during WWI, believe they had many shortcomings, developed one of the most widely used intelligence test, good normative data that is still in use today in later form (now used for extensive, long- term studies in aging) Age Insensitive Abilities: information, vocabulary and comprehension Age Sensitive Abilities: digit symbol, black design and picture arrangement Classical Aging Pattern: starting the 20’s a gradual decline in the performance scale with less decline on verbal scale until around age 65 when more significant loss is found on both. Cross sectional studies tended to find more significant differences across ages. Longitudinal studies showed more stability and perhaps improvement on verbal scales through middle age with decline on performance. Classic pattern still found in old age with declines on both. Terminal Drop Hypothesis: theory in which your IQ drop significantly right before your death Stages of Death: Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance The Hospice Movement:: physician statement of less than 6 months to live, many people don’t have this “frank” discussion with their physician, most patients have some type of cancer or “lingering” diagnosis Includes inpatient hospitals, inhome services, multidisciplinary teams available 24 hours per day, nursing and care attendants and social works, pain control, and bereavement counseling are allowed by the person to control
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