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Final Exam Study Guide - Christianity

by: Alexa_Nelson

Final Exam Study Guide - Christianity 10043

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Religious Studies > 10043 > Final Exam Study Guide Christianity
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A comprehensive study guide for our final
World Religion through the arts
Dr. Elwell
Study Guide
christianity, Religious Studies, Art
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexa_Nelson on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 10043 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Elwell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see World Religion through the arts in Religious Studies at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 04/30/16
Christianity Study Guide 1.1 Council of Nicea - Constantine wants an answer about Jesus’s divinity and existence  325 – the council of Nicea convenes to discuss  Their decision = none of the above deacons, Jesus was co-eternal (the deacons were called heretics – people who have their own ideas) 2. 2 Council of Nicea - 787 – the 2 Council of Nicea was convened – It is decided that icons are good and god-pleasing – because the emperor does not get to boycott icons because he does not have that power (almost out of spite of the Emperor) 3. 312 – 312 – Constantine converts to Christianity  Had a mystical experience  Due to his wife’s beliefs  As a result – a unification of Rome occurred due to this transition 4. 326 – Constantine moved the capital of Rome to a place called Byzantium and changes the name to Constantinople 5. 95 Theses – written by Martin Luther in 1517 about why the sale of indulgences and other aspects of the Catholic Church needed to be reformed and posted them on the door to the Cathedral in the Wittenberg Castle 6. Acts – second part of the Gospel of Luke; portrays Jesus as moving inevitably toward his sacrifice in Jerusalem and Paul to his in Rome. At the heart of both books is a single beautiful image of a stone, dropped in a pond, that makes ever-widening ripples just as the life of Jesus makes ripples as it spreads throughout Jerusalem 7. Adamic contagion of shame – our shame from the sin of Adam is why we feel shame if Jesus is to be portrayed nude 8. All Hallows Eve – Day when the sale of indulgences were at an all time high 9. Apocalyptic Church – Jesus is going to come back any second, who cares about the hierarchy (Paul and other apostles set these type of churches up) 10. Apostle – one of Jesus’s 12 disciples; any early preacher of Christianity 11. Arius – (250) – argued that if Jesus was the son of God, there was a time when he was not begotten (meaning he did not exist in any way shape or form) 12. Atmospheric Perspective - things in the distance will be hazier than those closer to you 13. Baptism – the Christian rite of initiation, involving immersion in water or sprinkling with water 14. Bible – The scriptures sacred to Christians, consisting of the books of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament 15. Bishop – “overseer”; a priest and church leader who is in charge of a large geographical are called a diocese th th 16. Black Death – Spread of Bubonic Plague 14 -15 century (Jews were accused)  Why God is punishing you because you have inherited the sin of Adam – therefore no matter how good of a person you are, when you die, you will not go to heaven or hell, but a third state of being called purgatory – a place of purging, where your soul is prepared to go into heaven 17. Byzantine – replaced Rome as the capital and was renamed to Constantinople 18. John Calvin – French Theologian who saw human nature as being basically sinful and almost irresistibly drawn to evil. He believed in predestination; one’s deeds do not cause one’s salvation or damnation rather they are a sign of what God has already decreed. Encouraged the removal of all statutes and pictures from the churches and the adoption of a style of congregational singing that had no organ accompaniment. FOCUS = SERMON 19. Canon – “measure”; “rule”; a list of authoritative books or document 20. Carnality – to make in flesh 21. Chastity – is not because you cannot, but you choose not to 22. Chiaroscuro – extreme contrast between light and dark (caravaggio) 23. Circumcision – the removal of a male’s foreskin as a part of Judaism 24. Constantine – unifies Rome by converting the nation to Christianity 25. Constantinople – new capital of Rome 26. Council of Chalcedon – 451 – Jesus was 100% man and 100% divine – becomes church dogma 27. Lucas Cranach – artist who popularized Luther’s message through the arts 28. Decarnify – to make you less in flesh 29. Deification – worship, regard, or treat (someone or something) as a god: 30. Diaspora – The excommunication of Jews 31. Diet of Worms – Where Luther was summoned to declare his beliefs/recant what he has written and preached against the Catholic Church’s beliefs 32. Ecumenism – dialogue between Christian denominations 33. Emperor Leo III – around 725-730 he boycotts icons 34. Entrepreneurial Capitalism – as an individual you can gain wealth and participate in trade with others in order to promote my own business (creates a market based economy) 35. Epistle – Letter 36. Eucharist – “Good Gift”, the Lord’s Supper 37. Evangelical – emphasizing the authority of scripture; an adjective used to identify certain Protestant groups 38. Feudalism – individual works the land of a wealthy owner, not actually making money but lord provides them a place to live and food to eat and the men could be asked to fight for the castle (hard to move to different social classes) 39. Filoque – “And from the Sun”; a Latin word added to the creeds in the Western Church to state that the Holy Spirit arises from both Father and Son. The notion, which was not accepted by orthodox Christianity, contributed to the separation between the Western and Eastern Churches 40. Foreshortening – The application of linear perspective to the human body  Omit parts of the body even though you know it is there 41. Fra Filippo Lippi – artist of the Annunciation 42. Garment of Misery – metaphorical aspect of the controversy of whether or not Christ should be depicted in the nude. It is not his shame, but it represents our shame. 43. Gospel – “good news” 44. Heresy – belief or opinion contrary to orthodox religious (especially Christian) doctrine: 45. Heretic – someone who does not agree with church doctrine 46. Humanation – making God/Jesus more relatable to humanity 47. Humanism – focused on the earthly concerns of human beings and disregarded the supernatural 48. Iconoclast Controversy – The church in the East really likes to use icons, West needs them to explain why – how when you are making an image of Jesus are you not committing a heresy? You are somehow making something divine if Jesus is considered both man and divine. West believes you cannot separate between the human and the divine Christ. The East then claims that the images of Christ they make are only for his 100% human. The west then claims that they are committing the heresy of separating his human and his divinity. 48. Incarnation – “in flesh”; a belief that God became visible in Jesus 49. Indulgence – a certificate that guaranteed the shortening of the time a loved one would spend in purgatory that you could buy from the priests that issued them 50. James – brother of Jesus from Mary and Joesph, was considered a pillar of the early church with Peter 51. Johann Tetzel – really great at selling indulgences – money he is collecting is going back to Rome to the Pope to build a nice new palace 52. John of Damascus – (676-749): a monk and writer came to the defense of icons and he argues that images served the same purpose for the illiterate as the Bible did for those who could read and that God, by becoming incarnate in Jesus did not disdain the material world 53. John the Baptist – Gospel calls him the cousin of Jesus; preached that the end of the world was near, when God would punish evildoers. As a sign of purification; he immersed his followers in water of the Jordan River and baptized Jesus as well and when JB died, Jesus allowed his followers to continue his practice of baptizing people. 54. John Wycliffe – early proponent of the reform of the Catholic Church 55. Josephus – a Jewish general and historian; wrote about the Essenes 56. Lapse – a fault or sin 57. Lent – “lengthening day”; “spring”; the preparatory period before Easter, lasting 40 days 58. Linear Perspective – idea that all orthogonal lines will converge to one point 59. Logos – Logic 60. Marcion – (85 – 140) Marcion – Doectist: believed that Jesus did not have a body, he just seemed to have been here (that we perceived everything – Jesus was pure spirit) 61. Messiah – “anointed one” 62. Metier – occupation/duty/prerogative 63. Michelangelo – artist of nude sculpture called “Christ Risen” 64. Omnibenevolence – being all good 65. Omnipotence – having unlimited power 66. Original Sin – An inclination towards Evil; inherited by human beings as a result of Adam’s disobedience 67. Ostentation – originally means without embarrassment 68. Overseer – in order to perform the eucharist you needed someone to “oversee” it and this stemmed the need for a hierarchy within the church. James for Jerusalem’s church and Peter in Rome 69. Patriarch – In Constantinople they don’t call them bishops they are called patriarchs 70. Paul – Saul was initially was a Pharisee or Zealot but he had a mystical experience (a vision of Jesus), asks him why he is persecuting him. Then he changed his name to Paul (the one who wrote most of the letters in the Christian books). Begins to spread his interpretation of the message of Jesus to people who are NOT Jewish.  This changes the course of the Christian religion  He taught in synagogues, read from the Hebrew Bible – preaching to gentiles (anyone who is not Jewish)  Walking into towns that people who are Hellinized and preaching his version of the message of Christ  Calls himself an apostle – but he never met Jesus  The other apostles call him out – Peter and James tell Paul that what he is doing is unacceptable. Neither like the other.  Paul comes back to Jerusalem and they force him to go back to the temple and recant everything he has been doing and go back to his Jewish roots – Paul says that if they want Jesus’s message contained for only Jews, then it will never spread and it has to be allowed to be spread to gentiles and you CANNOT ask grown men to circumcision.  So Peter and James say that Paul can go back and do not have to preach circumcision but they have to keep some Jewish laws  The first question of the Christian council is: Do I have to be Jewish to follow Jesus?  Have to follow certain rules o Follow the Hebrew bible o No idol worship – only Yahweh o Kosher laws th o Keep the Sabbath (changed from Saturday to Sunday by Constantine in the 4 Century)  40, 50 ,60 c.e. Paul goes about setting up early churches – maybe one gospel but many letters of Paul, have divisions 71. Peasants Revolt – Started after Martin Luther was summoned to the Diet of Worms and was then in hiding in order to continue his work. He did not agree with the massive amounts of bloodshed that occurred during his time even though the peasants were fighting for his ideals 72. Peter – the “rock” or the foundation of the church, one of the pillars of the early church with James and did not care for Paul. He established a church in Rome and Jesus says that he will “give the keys to the kingdom to Peter”. 73. Pope – bishop of all bishops, father of all fathers 74. Post-Apocalyptic Church – Jesus may come back but it has been a while but now there is a need for church structure (70s c.e.) 75. Post-Lasparian – After the Original Sin of Adam, this is the form that man will take 76. Predestination – The belief that because God is all-powerful and all-knowing, a human being’s ultimate reward or punishment is already decreed by God; a notion emphasized in Calvinsim 77. Pre-Lapsarian – Before Adam commits the Original Sin 78. Priesthood of all Believers – means that everyone is responsible for working out their own salvation – each person to make peace with God (before you went through the priest to ask for salvation) – takes away the priest 79. Printing Press – The first one was in Gutenberg and the first thing printed was Martin Luther’s 95 Theses and then his translation of the Bible in German for the common man to read 80. Protestant Principle – The right of each believer to radically rethink and interpret the dieas and values of Christianity apart from any Church authority 81. Prurience – having or encouraging an excessive interest in sexual matters 82. Purgatory – a place between heaven and hell; the waiting room as God will determine whether you go to heaven or hell 83. Q (Quelle) – According to the Two Source Hypothesis accepted by a majority of contemporary scholars, the authors of Matthew and Luke each made use of two different sources: the Gospel of Mark and a non-extant second source termed Q. The siglum Q derives from the German word "Quelle," which means "Source." Q primarily consists of the "double tradition" material, that which is present in both Matthew and Luke but not Mark. However, Q may also contain material that is preserved only by Matthew or only by Luke (called "Sondergut") as well as material that is paralleled in Mark (called Mark/Q overlaps). Although the temptation story and the healing of the centurion's son are usually ascribed to Q, the majority of the material consists of sayings. For this reason, Q is sometimes called the Synoptic Sayings Source or the Sayings Gospel. Some scholars have observed that the Gospel of Thomas and the Q material, as contrasted with the four canonical gospels, are similar in their emphasis on the sayings of Jesus instead of the passion of Jesus 84. Redemption –“buy back”;the belief that the death of Jesus has paid the price of justice for all human wrongdoing 85. Renaissance – the rebirth of classical ideas and ideals; started in Florence in the 14 century; when the individual had value on their own; we can know and represent our world through accuracy and investigation 86. Righteousness – being sinless in the sight of God; also called justification 87. Rome – where Catholicism originally began 88. Sabellius – (215) – argued that we have this idea of a progressive trinity – the father, the son, the holy spirit (how god chose to manifest himself at the time) – they do not all coexist 89. Sacrament – “sacred action”; one of the essential rituals of Christianity 90. Sayings Gospel – see Q 91. Secular Daily Life – a transition from religious daily life into one dictated by economics 92. Secularization Thesis – Secularization is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions. The secularization thesis refers to the belief that as societies progress, particularly through modernization and rationalization, religion loses its authority in all aspects of social life and governance 93. Sin – an immoral act 94. Sin Qua Non – “that without which” – If Christ was 100% human then he would have been subjected to sexual temptation just like everyone else and if you have never been tempted then we cannot credit your chastity with anything 95. Solo Gratia – Grace alone could save you, there is no amount of good deeds or hail Mary’s or money that will merit your salvation – inherited the sin of Adam, only by God’s grace can you be saved then (takes out the priest) 96. Solo Scripture – should be your authority, when you have a question about Christian authority, go to the scriptures, translated the New Testament to German so the common people can read it for themselves (takes out the priest) 97. Son of God – Jesus 98. Spread of Islam – Islam was rising and was severely anti-icon, they were destroying images of Christ in churches – problem for Roman Empire  Islamic empire will not accept Roman currency (it has a cross on it), they drop the top of the cross, becomes a stick and now they can trade again 99. Suetonius – the Roman author of Acts 100. Synoptic Gospels – The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar wording. They stand in contrast to John, whose content is comparatively distinct. 101. Synoptic Problem – The word synoptic basically means “to see together with a common view.” The similarities among the Synoptic Gospels have led some to wonder if the Gospel authors had a common source, another written account of Christ’s birth, life, ministry, death, and resurrection from which they obtained the material for their Gospels. The question of how to explain the similarities and differences among the Synoptic Gospels is called the Synoptic Problem. 102. Tacitus – Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors. These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus in AD 14 to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War in AD 70. There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals that is four books long. 103. Testament – covenant 104. The Annunciation – when the angel Gabriel comes down and tells Mary she is pregnant with the son of God 105. Theodicy – the vindication of divine goodness and providence in view of the existence of evil 106. Trinity – The Holy trinity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit 107. Two Kingdoms Doctrine – two kingdoms, the Kingdom of God, the Kingdom of Man; those two should be separate (separation of church and state essentially as some would see it, getting out of paying taxes to the Catholic Church) 108. Wartburg Castle – the place where Martin Luther translated the New Testament of the Bible into German 109. Weimar Altarpiece – By Cranach’s son, put his dad in the picture, blood of Christ is spilling on his head = the every man, not like John the Baptist and Luther)  Says my dad stands between who first said Jesus was the messiah and who made the reform  Allusion to being healed through Christ, the background is from the Book of Numbers of those who are healed from seeing a snake 110. Wittenberg Castle Church – where Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses 111. Wittenberg Altarpiece - In the center = depiction of the last supper  Painted Luther when he was in disguise – metaphorically he is one of the people bringing something new to the masses just like the 12 disciples of Christ  On the left, a guy who is not a priest is performing a baptism  On the left, Luther’s confessor is forgiving a penitent man, but not the wealthy man  Bottom of altar piece – Jesus on a cross, painted himself and Luther as witnesses on his crucifixion, only two people wearing red, the boy (Luther’s god son) and the collar of the new bishop for the reformers


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