History - Final Study Guide
History - Final Study Guide HIST 2112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2112 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Rohrer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
History Test 3 Study Guide Terms: 1. June Cleaver • Definition: Leave it to Beaver mother character; TV show about a family in a typical middle class American town in the 1950’s; June was a slim, well-dressed (high heels, hair done, make up) who never raised her voice, never made sarcastic comments, had a meal on the table for her family by 6, served as a cheerleader for the family and always agrees and pleases her husband; she was an idealized image that women in the 50’s looked to for their own reality – not as easy as it looked and more of an image than a reality • Significance: This image embodied a myth of what the happy housewife was in this time period. They were not all happy homemakers, without actual salaried positions living a subordinate life. In reality, a large population was not comfortable with these gender roles. Women did not want to compromise and lower their expectations, adapting to a husband’s needs and goals. In fact, 15% of women took tranquilizers to deal with their husbands and needs of such a lifestyle. This rejected the “June Cleaver model”. 2. Viet Cong • Definition: communist supporters in South Vietnam; spies pretending to be democratic supporters – made it incredibly difficult for US military personell to identity the enemy • Significance: These spies played a huge role in the Vietnam War being so difficult to win. Because they were dispersed throughout democratic South Vietnam, soldiers could not tell who the enemy was, allowing for them to gain information they would not have gotten otherwise. 3. Baby Boom • Definition: Men return from war and start families with their wives; this increased consumer spending for the need of cars and appliances, cradles, toys, larger homes, etc. allowing for the economic to soar • Significance: The Baby Boom allowed for the US to economically soar. Populations are increasing as soldiers return home and consumerism is at an all time high. 4. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • Definition: 1964; LBJ asks Congress to respond to the civil war in Vietnam and they respond by telling him to take all necessary measures, giving LBJ a black check to wage a war; although LBJ wanted butter more than guns, he chooses to escalate the war, sending thousands of troops to Vietnam • Significance: This was the original escalation of how the US became involved in the Vietnam War. Given a blank check, LBJ had unlimited resources and abilities to try and win the war, even if the war was later deemed unwinnable. 5. Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill) • Definition: 1944 (before war ends); offers 16 million veterans job training and education at the college level; 2.5 million veterans go to school; unemployment compensation for veterans looking for jobs; low interest loans so veterans can buy houses, farms, and small businesses; 1.5 million had bough houses • Significance: This contributed the soaring of the economy after WWII. It supplied soldiers coming out of the war to increase their consumer spending in buying houses and helped them receive an education to get better jobs. 6. Operation Rolling Thunder • Definition: 1965; Part of the US’s attempt to win attack in Vietnam; long operation with sustained bombing – first targets military, then civilians • Significance: Largely because the US could not tell who was the enemy and who as the allies, the bombing soon turned from strictly military bases of North Vietnam to civilian towns and villages. This hurt both North and South Vietnam, unsuccessful in helping the US to win the war. 7. White Flight • Definition: Cities were drained of white middle class as they left for a more suburban and/or rural life; cities had a hard time raising taxes needed for programs to fix these urban areas; they were empty, dirty and poor; lack of solid schools; urban core: African Americans from Great Migration, Native Americans and Latinos are unsuccessful at finding work in rural areas, left to find low-paying and poor jobs in urban areas • Significance: This further created racial boundaries in the US. As whites left urban areas for new lives in a slower atmosphere, many of these areas were left with a wide range of races left in urban areas, creating stereotypes that many whites held for decades. Other races were left with poor paying and poor conditioned jobs and had little social and economic mobility. 8. John Kerry - discussion • Definition: soldier that became anti war by the end; Believed nothing in South Vietnam could realistically threaten the US; Why were tax dollars used for such a corrupt regime?; South Vietnam is only loosely democratic – dictatorship; We’re trying to be democratic – yet we’re supporting a dictatorial regime in South Vietnam; Just want to get rid of communism; Not fair to troops; Calls the government and its efforts hypocritical; Used soldiers to try to hide from the US that we had lost the war; witnessed terrible war crimes (Raped, cut of ears, cut off heads, electrocuted, cut of limbs, blown up bodies, shot at civilians, razed villages, shot cattle and dogs for fun, poisoned food stocks, etc.) • Significance: shows that even those put into war did not support it, yet they had to fight for the country 9. Military-industrial Complex • Definition: Big deal in 1950’s; US’s military establishment department of defense and unofficially tied companies producing needed materials, such as General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin; this created millions of jobs in military and private industries for Americans; 50% of tax revenue went to military preparedness during the Cold War • Significance: This helps to define the US during the Cold War. With fear of the Soviet Union and the threat of nuclear warfare, half of all taxes went to keep the US safe and supply it with materials to combat with the Soviet Union. It also created millions of jobs to help the economy and lower the unemployment rates. The Cold War was not a trivial deal in American lives, and they took the threats posed very seriously. 10. Sun Belt • Definition: in the early years of the modern conservative movement, there was an attempt to make the sunbelt (southwest to southeast America) more conservative; fast growing regions of the US in the years aft WWII; area of economic growth; home to the “suburban warriors” and key region in the birth and sustained growth of conservatism (from California to Texas to Georgia) • Significance: With one region at a time, the US began to turn to a more conservative, republican nation. Gaining these strong regions in an attempt to go back to a more republican nation through the spread of conservatism 11. National Defense Education Act • Definition: 1958; response to Soviet launching of Sputnik beginning the Space Race; It established the legitimacy of federal funding of higher education and made substantial funds available for low-cost student loans, boosting public and private colleges and universities. Although aimed primarily at education in science, mathematics, and foreign languages, the act also helped expand college libraries and other services for all students. The funding began in 1958 and was increased over the next several years. The results were conspicuous: in 1960 there were 3.6 million students in college, and by 1970 there were 7.5 million. • Significance: During the Cold War, Americans until that moment had felt protected by their technological superiority. Suddenly the nation found itself lagging behind the Russians in the Space Race, and Americans worried that their educational system was not producing enough scientists and engineers. 12. William F. Buckley • Definition: conservative author and commentator, founder of right wing magazine The National Review: wanted to make republican party the vehicle for conservatives, eliminate extremists from conservative movement, destroy liberals and their ideologies, policy of victory over communism; leader of Young Americans for Freedom: wanted to recruit young and energetic followers, instantly successful having over 100 groups in 6 months with 71,000 members, spread their ideas through newsletters, radio, etc. • Significance: As one of the conservative leaders of the time period, William F. Buckley demonstrates the intellectuals and architects fighting for the rise of conservatism in the US at a time when the threat of communism was so real. 13. Jim Crow Etiquette Norms • Definition: unofficial, but expected behavior of African Americans from the 40’s to the 60’s: black male could not shake hands with white men because they are not equal, black male could not touch a white woman (rape), back and white are not supposed to eat together and if they are whites are served first and there is a physical break up on table, black man cannot light a white women’s cigarette (phallic symbol showing intimacy), African Americans are not allowed to show PDA because it is offensive to whites and is “comparable to animals”, white motorists always have the right of way, white do not use courtesy titles of respect to African Americans – only first name, African Americans use them always and never use first names • Significance: This demonstrated the unofficial rules African Americans had to abide by in the Jim Crow South. Although there were no direct laws forbidding or making African Americans to things, there was an unquestioned environment people in this generation had to live in. Not only did African Americans need to accept Jim Crow laws of segregation, but also had to put up with negative attitudes and unofficial racist social laws. 14. The National Review • Definition: wanted to make the republican party the vehicle for conservatives, eliminate extremists from conservative movement, destroy liberals and their ideologies, and made a policy of victory over communism • Significance: This magazine, written by conservative leader William F. Buckley, serves as an outline of his views and republican’s hopes to make conservatism the main outlook in the US. It also outlines what their hopes were in order to disallow the spread and eventually conquer communism. 15. Jim Crow Laws • Definition: Black codes; instituted by Southern State legislatures to reinforce economic, social and political ways of pre-civil war times; keep African Americans completely subordinate; Written laws varying by state meant to segregate African Americans from whites; Oklahoma: prohibit black and white from boating together; Georgia: separate state and local parks; Alabama: black and whites cannot play checkers or dominos together; supported by real and threatened violence; violators risk homes, jobs and lives; because whites could physically harm African Americans without any real legal consequences or disapproval; little to no legal re-course – Jim Crow criminal justice system was all white and served as an example of social control • Significance: Southern States attempted to get around amendments to the constitution by implementing state laws and etiquettes to make African Americans feel just as subordinate as before the Civil War; provided African Americans with an additional, more local, hurdle to jump in their fight for civil rights 16. Young Americans for Freedom • Definition: created by William F. Buckley to recruit young and energetic conservatism followers; it was instantly successful with over 71,000 members in the first 6 months; these young Americans spread their ideas through newsletters, radio broadcasts, etc. • Significance: This is a great example of the young generations becoming more and more involved in politics and standing up for the conservatism ideals. 17. Executive Order 9981 th • Definition: executive order on July 26 , 1948 by President Harry S. Truman abolishing racial discrimination in the US armed forces and eventually leading to the end of segregation in the services • Significance: This serves as one of the leading actions African Americans had in their civil rights movement. Truman’s executive order started the de-segregation of services, helping to get the ball rolling. 18. The Conscience of a Conservative • Definition: book written by conservative leader Barry Goldwater; although it was originally rejected by media, it is one of the most important political tracks in modern history today, selling more than 3.5 million copies; reconciled differences within the conservative movement, bringing libertarians and traditionalists together • Significance: This book is still important today, spreading the ideals of republican conservatives. It also raised questions and brought forward tactics to address the spread of communism. 19. Little Rock Crisis • Definition: 1957; Arkansas governor Orval Faubus chose to ignore court order regarding the integration of an all white high school; President Eisenhower sends troops to de-segregate the school; uphold federal supremacy over any state; shows federal government commitment; shows that even some young are trying to uphold Jim Crow South • Significance: This demonstrated the federal government’s presence in attempting to break up the traditional Jim Crow South. Rather than allowing state’s to control their own decisions regarding segregation, President Eisenhower demanded the integration of a strong, southern school. 20. John Birch Society • Definition: Organization in all 50 states with tens of thousands of members as a part of the conservative movement that did more harm than good for the movement; “birchers” were too extreme; through government officials were communism agents; racist and thought civil rights and equality sounded too much like communism; extreme right wing; founded in 1958; pro-small government; evangelical Christians; separation between federal and state jurisdiction; federal government should not directly deal with anything regarding race or education; fund military; unregulated business; no unions • Significance: This may have over-done the conservative movements objectives. These birchers represent the extreme right wing end of politics and intimidated many, conservatives and not. 21. Freedom Summer • Definition: 1964; Part of the Civil Disobedience Phase of the Civil Rights movement; campaign to attempt to register as many African American voters as possibly, especially in Missouri, which was infamous for not allowing African Americans to vote; only 5.2% were registered to vote prior to the summer • Significance: This gave African American voters to feel like they were not alone when they went to register and eventually to vote. Previously, many were threatened if they even registered, so this was a huge step in the civil rights movement. This also gave African Americans a voice in the election of 1964. 22. Election of 1964 • Definition: Election after Freedom Summer’s attempt to register as many African American voters as possible; trial run for conservatives; first time a conservative republican is nominated; Lyndon B. Johnson (liberal democrat) vs Barry Goldwater (conservative republican) – choice of extremes; Goldwater was fiscally conservative, opted for a smaller government and states’ rights, wanting an aggressive stance on fighting communism and winning the Cold War • Significance: This demonstrates the conservatives first run for a place in the white house. Although they did not win, their foot was in the door when Ronald Reagan’s political career started as he supported Goldwater. 23. Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Definition: Part of the Civil Disobedience Phase in the civil rights movement; out- laws discrimination on race, sex, religion, national origin, etc.; ended unequal voting registration rights; ended discrimination in employment; disallow segregation in all public facilities; under LBJ and his Great Society – liberal on race • Significance: This was a huge step in the Civil Rights Movement, as it outlawed public discrimination. Although states raised questions as to whether or not it was up to state government or federal government regarding different cases, many African Americans felt the positive changes throughout the US. 24. Sharon Statement • Definition: the founding statement of principles of the YAF; played a significant role in influencing Republican leaders in the 1980’s; YAF was founded in 1960 in Sharon Connecticut at William F. Buckley’s family estate; here, the statement was issued to establish an organizational structure; young conservatives believed in individual’s free will, political and economic freedom, government’s role of protecting these freedoms, too much power in government diminishes order and liberty, believed in the constitution, the placement of government outside the market economy, communism is the greatest threat, etc. • Significance: This was largely significant for conservatives at this time and helped to define the organization for YAF and demonstrate their ideals. 25. Malcolm X • Definition: part of Militant Phase in the Civil Rights Movement; vocal critic of MLKJ non-violent approach; celebrating “blackness” and ending alliance with sympathetic moderate whites; thought it should be without the assistance of whites; bloodshed is necessary to show black resistance; assassinated in 1965 • Significance: This is a perfect example of the Militant Phase in the Civil Rights Movement. Many took different stances on how to approach the segregation still so present throughout the US. Malcom X felt that the only way to demonstrate the sincerity of de-segregating the US was through physical force and not even accepting help from whites who were pro-African American integration. 26. Vietnam Syndrome • Definition: defeat haunted America and made all Americans across politics hesitant to make any international commitments and made the US lose aggressiveness in international affairs • Significance: Losing the Vietnam war shattered American confidence. Americans were angry with the government and their war efforts, feeling that they were pointless and only hurt the US, unable to roll back or contain communism. This is a leading factor as Americans began to lose trust and confidence in US government. 27. Stokely Carmichael • Definition: part of Militant Phase in the Civil Rights Movement; “Black Power” book; argued African Americans should have pride and argued nothing to do with whites; wanted to split US into black and white countries; “Black Power” term = more militant/violent activist phase of the movement • Significance: This is an example of a man committed to the Militant Phase. He felt that African Americans did not need the help of sympathetic white in the war against racism. Rather than full de-segregation, he believed it would be beneficial to completely split the US into an African American country and a white country. 28. “Opening of China” • Definition: in a less aggressive approach to fighting communism, Nixon visited China in 1972 to rekindle some sort of relationship that was absent since 1949; although we wanted to roll back communism, containment politics did not make as much sense as they had in the past; reestablish diplomatic relationships with China • Significance: This demonstrates our actions drastically changing. Although we do not want communism to spread, we find that it would be incredibly hard and as long as other nations are not thinking about changing, we might as well attempt to rekindle relationships to better our own domestic issues. 29. Black Panthers • Definition: Militant Phase of the Civil Rights Movement; Militant black activists in Oakland, CA; respond to “Black Power”; Black Panther Party for self defense – social services, patrol streets to keep safe for African Americans, called for armed revolution, counseling services, daycare, GED classes, birthing classes, employment help; prompts a massive government crackdown on group and external forms • Significance: This was yet another attempt to militarily stand up to segregation and racism. Although they wanted to revolt militarily, they also helped themselves with providing services to keep African Americans safe and prompt the welfare of African Americans and their futures. 30. Watergate Scandal • Definition: In the presidential election of 1972 (Nixon vs McGovern), Nixon was running for re-election. During the Vietnam war, an aggressive campaign was essential. 6 months before the election, the Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREAP), broke into the democratic national headquarters in the Watergate Hotel in DC, stealing copies of secret documents and bugging their phones. Because the bugs did not work, they went back a month later but was caught by a security guard. Nixon claimed he had nothing to do with it, covering up all his actions and he won the re-election. Nixon was then caught taping conversations of Watergate conversations in the white house and was ordered to give up the tapes in July of 1974. Thethwere undeniable evidence that he was involved and he resigned on August 8 , 1974. • Significance: This further breaks down the trust Americans have on politics. This has created a negative view on politicians, giving them a bad reputation that has lasted throughout history and still exists today. 31. Black Power • Definition: book written by Stokely Carmichael, arguing African Americans should have pride and should not accept help from whites; militant approach; book made this a term outside of its writing • Significance: book that led many to support the militant phase of the Civil Rights Movement in comparison to more peaceful approaches, such as those led by MLKJ 32. Stagflation • Definition: stagnating economy + inflation; worst economic situation • Significance: demonstrates the US’s increasing economic problems and obstacles in the 1970’s on top of political scandals, other economic obstacles and continued rage from Vietnam 33. Michael Harrington • Definition: writer of The Other America; 1962; highly influential journalist and social critic; exposed conditions of the bottom 20% of Americans and in the process influenced politicians to take concrete action; inspired president to wage war against poverty; similar to Jacob Riis and How the Other Half Lives, but 70 years later with new problems; best selling author and soon made required reading material; felt the poor were invisible to most of Americans because they were in isolated rural or urban slums; spoke on the working poor in factories and farms • Significance: He was able to bring forward the major problem of poverty to the eyes of all Americans – poor, rich, politicians, etc. He sparked the war against poverty and demonstrates the importance of journalism just as Jacob Riis did 70 years before. His book was soon required reading, spreading information on the realities of the bottom 20% of Americans suffering from poverty. 34. Southern Strategy • Definition: political strategy; white racial fears to peal away normally southern democrats into republican party – working class; African Americans have started voting for democrats, making the platform switch to more of an integrated party; become more conservative to stay away from African Americans ideals; the once solid democratic south has taken a sharp turn • Significance: The “solid south” has been obliterated by a new republican wave spreading throughout the south as African Americans become supporters of the democratic party and the democratic party becomes supporters of African American integration. 35. New Frontier Program • Definition: JFK introduced this program in his acceptance speech in 1960 to the Democratic National as the Democratic slogan to inspire America to support him; refers to his administration introducing bills and programs that reflected liberalism: Minimum Wage Bill – raise minimum wage for poor Americans, passed by congress, which increased minimum wage by 8% and also expanded the number of jobs covered by minimum wage legislature; Social Security – funding increase expands on FDR’s new deal in the 30’s, provides financial benefits to retired Americans and keeps them financially afloat, did not pass through congress; Housing Act of 1961 – housing and urban renewal, giving $4.88 billion loans/grants to cities, towns and rural areas for renewal, housing, community facilities, and expansion of mass transportation; Education Funding increase = key to bring more Americans into middle class, competitive positions to fight communist world, set aside billions of dollar to expand education (loans, scholarships, libraries, schools, etc.), education for disabled and higher education (ex. Russell, Creswell, Brumby, Instructional Plaza) • Significance: JFK’s program has lasting effects even today. It helped to level the playing field for poor Americans, uneducated Americans, and those who cannot escape poorer regions of the US in rural or urban areas. 36. Rust Belt • Definition: informal description that straddles urban Northeast and upper Midwest America; economic decline; population loss as people move elsewhere for jobs; crime and urban decay; shrinking of once powerful industrial sector; Detroit, Indiana, Cleveland, Ohio, Pittsburg, Buffalo and NYC; politicians campaign successfully to lower taxes and jumpstart the economy, privatization and policies for big business favor • Significance: This serves as an example of American’s increasing economic obstacles in the 1970’s. The once strong industrial cities are suffering and politicians take actions to help these parts of the nation. 37. Voting Rights Act th • Definition: 1965; 15 amendment fully enforced; millions of African Americans could not register to vote in US without any backlash; The Voting Rights Act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson (1908-73) on August 6, 1965, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment (1870) to the Constitution of the United States. • Significance: The act significantly widened the franchise and is considered among the most far-reaching pieces of civil rights legislation in U.S. history. 38. Iran Hostage Crisis • Definition:1979-1981; Shiites (sect of Islam) are mad over the support for the leader of Iran by America; we had helped assign him and were treating him for his Cancer in the US; The Shah = western-supported leader of Iran; in reaction, groups of conservative Iranian students take over the US Embassy in Tehran, Iran (capital) in November of 1979; More than 60 American diplomats/citizens were held hostage for 444 days; released on January21st, 1981 • Significance: Because President Carter’s reaction to the crisis was so poorly handled, Americans are embarrassed. Negotiation and military attempts fail, causing Americans to hammer Carter. This is yet another example of Americans feeling embarrassed (like Vietnam) of the government and wanting drastic change and a stronger president. 39. VISTA • Definition: Volunteers in Service to America; domestic counter part to peace corps; anti-poverty projects all over the US; still around today • Significance: This was a part of LBJ’s Great Society to help the country on a more domestic level in comparison to international aid. This is made up of young volunteers looking to help the US in a service-oriented way. 40. Election of 1980 • Definition: Reagan and his allies (never right) appear in 1978 and receive republican nomination and wins by a huge landslide against Carter; Full support of business world, corporations and military; Took nearly 40% of union vote and ½ of all blue collar working Americans – usually these workers are heavily tied to the democratic party’ Campaign slogan 1984: “It’s morning in America”; Positive and sunny message appealed to people cynical and depressed of government since 60’s; Reagan supporters – Reagan democrats • Significance: With Reagan’s policies and presidency, he endorses old fashioned patriotism, dramatically increases military size and strength, supports big business and aggressive capitalism, and pushed traditional values. He leads a strong presidency for 8 years. 41. Ho Chi Minh • Definition: Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader; wanted to gain independence from France through communist military; Soviet Union pours money and resources into Vietnam to bring nominally democratic South Vietnam into the Communist fold • Significance: This communist leader started a civil war against South Vietnam in an attempt to further spread communism, causing America to get involved in a military fashion. 42. Deregulation • Definition: As a part of Reagan’s presidency, he attempted to support big business and aggressive capitalism, including the re-regulation of corporations. This boosted business communities, got rid of government rules (like wages and work place safety); Reagan thought government reform stifled business • Significance: This changed what had been the norm for decades, and gave businesses more independence than they have had in a long time, allowing for corporations to grow and flourish. 43. Evangelical Christianity • Definition: supported by John Birch Society and conservatism; religious and social conservatism; age of Reagan; In the 1970s, evangelical Christians were alarmed by rapid social changes, including legal abortion, homosexual rights, the legal availability of pornography, equal rights for women and a ban on public school prayer; these changes constituted a crisis that threatened the American nation; • Significance: This represents a return to a more conservative religious view and government in general. After decades of radical changes, evangelical Christians wanted to return to more traditional ways. 44. Glasnost • Definition: “openness” – greater willingness for Western ideas and goods in the Soviet Union to end the Cold War as the Soviet Union and communism collapse • Significance: key to the fall of the Soviet Union 45. Perestroika • Definition: allowed limited free market industries to further the collapse of the Soviet Union and communism • Significance: key to the fall of the Soviet Union 46. Hurricane Katrina • Definition: hurricane in August of 2005, hurting much of the US, especially Louisiana • Significance: demonstrates the racism we still see today from the federal government (housing, relief, pay, neighborhoods, etc.) 47. Iraq War • Definition: Spring of 2003; Post Resolution 1441 allowing the UN to inspect Iraq for illegal weapons – fail to account for weapons of mass destruction; American and British troops invade Bagdad, Iraq (capital) and it falls by April 9 ; War ends April 15 ; War lasted only a few weeks; Taking it over was easy, administering it is much more difficult • Significance: Not clear if liberal democratic government could be held in Iraq; Is it our right to force our democracy all over the world?; Not everyone wants to be like us Larger Themes: Essays 1. Evolving role of federal government a. People’s view of government b. ID’s i. Watergate Scandal 2. Post WW Liberalism (rise and fall) a. ID’s: i. LBJ and his policies – The Great Society (Medicare, head start); civil rights act ii. Election of 1964: post war liberalism – Goldwater (The Conscience of a Conservative) emerges as conservative and destroyed à rumblings of conservatism but liberalism still in tact iii. JFK’s New Frontier 3. Conservatism (rise) a. William Buckley b. Ronald Reagan and Election of 1980 c. The Conscience of a Conservative – Goldwater d. John Birch Society e. Evangelical Christianity f. Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) and National Review and Sharon Statement g. Why conservatism? i. Watergate Scandal ii. Vietnam Syndrome iii. Sunbelt iv. Cold War 1. In 70’s: more lenient in pushing back communists and conservatives call for more action and criticizes de-escalation v. Economic downturn 1. Stagflation: demonstrates failures of liberalism 2. Deregulation 4. Cold War: US and the world a. Think about how Cold War intersections rise of conservatism b. Containment c. US’s role in the world d. ID’s: i. Military Industrial Complex ii. National Defense Education Act iii. Vietnam, Viet Cong and Ho Chi Minh iv. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution v. Operation Rolling Thunder vi. John Kerry – Vietnam veteran who criticized war effort (speech) vii. Gorbachev and Glasnost – political openness/discourse viii. Perestroika – more economic reforms ix. “Opening of China” x. June Cleaver 5. Race Relations a. Civil rights success and failures b. ID’s: i. Freedom Summer ii. Jim Crow Etiquette Norms iii. Jim Crow Laws iv. Malcom X v. Civil Rights act of 1964 vi. Stokely Carmichael 1. Writer of Black Power; celebrate black culture and wanted separatism, leader of SNCC; militant phase vii. Black Panthers viii. Black Power ix. Voting rights act x. Southern Strategy xi. Little Rock Crisis xii. Executive Order 9981 – military xiii. Voting Rights Act 6. Hurricane Katrina a. structural inequalities (housing, pay) from federal government
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