Psychology Final Study Guide_ Part 1
Psychology Final Study Guide_ Part 1 Psyc 2010
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kala Dunnigan on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Frank Weathers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Chapter 11 Study Guide Personality- consistent set of behavioral traits Personality is used to describe 2 things 1) The stability of a person’s behavior over time and across situations consistency 2) The behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation distinctiveness Personality trait- durable disposition to behave in a particular way in many situations Five-Factor model of personality: - Most personality traits are derived from five higher order of traits known as the “big five” 1) Extraversion Outgoing Sociable Upbeat Friendly Assertive Gregarious - More positive outlook on life and motivated to pursue social contact, intimacy, and independence 2) Neuroticism Anxious Hostile Self-conscious Insecure Vulnerable - Exhibit more impulsiveness and emotional instability 3) Openness to experience Curiosity Flexibility Vivid fantasies Imaginativeness Artistic sensitivity Unconventional attitude - Tend to be tolerant of ambiguity and have less need for closure on issues that others 4) Agreeableness Sympathetic Modest Trusting Straightforward Cooperative - Empathetic, and helping behavior 5) Conscientiousness Diligent Disciplined Well-organized Punctual Dependable - Strong self-discipline and ability to regulate oneself effectively Psychodynamic perspectives 1) Psychodynamic 2) Behavioral 3) Humanistic 4) Biological Sigmund Freud unconscious Freud’s psychodynamic theory: attempt to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts, and on the methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges Freud’s personality components 1) I.d – instinctive component that operates according to the pleasure principle [demands immediate gratification from urges. Example: eat, sleep, sex, bathroom] 2) Ego – decision making component that operates according to the reality principle [delays the gratification of the I.d’s urges till an appropriate time] 3) Superego – moral component that incorporates the social standards of what is right and what is wrong Freud’s levels of awareness 1) Conscious – whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time 2) Preconscious- contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can be easily retrieved [ middle name, what you ate for lunch, argument you had yesterday] 3) Unconscious – thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness, but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior [ forgotten trauma from childhood, repressed sexual desire] Conflict Freud believed that behavior is the outcome of ongoing series of internal conflicts between the I.d, ego, and superego because the I.d wants instant gratification but the norms of civilized society frequently dictate otherwise [example: you may get irritated with a co-worker and your I.d tells you to punch them for gratification, but your ego would keep you from doing so because society would frown upon it] Sexual and Aggressive urges -conflicts centering sexual or aggressive impulses are especially likely to have far-reaching consequences because you cannot gratify these urges as easily as other urges such as hunger Anxiety Defense mechanisms- largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt 1) Repression - Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious 2) Projection - Attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motived to another 3) Displacement - Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from the original source to a substitute source 4) Reaction formation - Behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of one’s true feelings 5) Regression - A reversion to immature patterns of behavior 6) Rationalization - Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior 7) Identification - Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group 8) Sublimation - Channeling unconscious, unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable or admirable activities Development: Psychosexual stages Stage: Oral Age: 0-1 years Erotic Focus: Mouth (sucking or biting) Key tasks/experiences: weaning from breast or bottle Stage: Anal Age: 2-3 Erotic Focus: Anus (expelling or retaining feces) Key tasks/experiences: toilet training Stage: Phallic Age: 4-5 Erotic Focus: Genitals (masturbating) Key tasks/experiences: Identifying with adult role models Oedipal complex- children manifest erotically tinged desires fir their opposite sex parent accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their same sex parent Stage: Latency Age: 6-12 Erotic Focus: None (sexual repression) Key tasks/experiences: expanding social contacts Stage: Genital Age: puberty onward Erotic Focus: Genitals (being sexually intimate) Key tasks/experiences: establishing intimate relationships Psychodynamic perspectives: 1) Poor testability - Psychodynamic perspectives are often too vague to permit a clear scientific test - Ex. How do you prove or disprove that the I.D is entirely unconscious? 2) Unrepresentative examples - Freud’s examples were not representative of western European culture, or other cultures. His theories were based on an exceptionally narrow sample of upper class, neurotic, sexually repressed Viennese women. 3) Inadequate evidence - Psychodynamic theories depend too heavily on clinical case studies where it was easy for clinicians to see what they expected to see. 4) Sexism - Many critics say psychodynamic theories are characterized by a sexist bias against women Skinner’s ideas applied to personality - Determinism- behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli - Stable response tendencies- people acquire these throughout their years of experience. They may change in the future as a result of new experience. Personality development as a product of conditioning -- Bandura’s social cognitive theory * believes personality is shaped a lot by learning. However, he says that conditioning is not a mechanical process in which people are passive participants. Instead, he maintains that people actively seek out and process information about their environment to maximize favorable outcomes. - Observational learning – when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others - Self-efficacy- one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes -- Evaluating behavioral perspectives (ignored cognition, or if attended to cognition then not very behavioral, over-generalized from animal behavior to human behavior) Humanistic perspectives: Humanism- theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth -- They believed: 1) that people can rise above their primitive animal heritage 2) people are largely conscious and rational beings who are not dominated by unconscious, irrational conflicts 3) people are not helpless pawns of deterministic forces -- Rogers Self-concept- collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior (your own picture of yourself) Incongruence – the degree of disparity between one’s self- concept and one’s actual experience -- Development of the self condition vs. unconditional love conditional love = depends on if the child is behaving well and living up to expectations; child may feel unworthy of love unconditional love = not depending on any circumstances; loving the child regardless of situations and the child feels worthy of affection no matter what they do -- Anxiety and defense - experiences that threaten people’s views of themselves are the principal cause of troublesome anxiety -- Maslow -- Hierarchy of needs- a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused -- Self-actualization- need to fulfill one’s potential -- The health personality Characteristics of self-actualizing people: - accurately tuned in to reality - at peace with themselves - open and spontaneous - retain a fresh appreciation of the world around them - socially, sensitive to others needs and enjoy rewarding interpersonal relations - not dependent on others for approval or uncomfortable with solitude - thrive on their work - enjoy a sense of humor (Look on the graph at top of page 379 for more characteristics) Evaluating humanistic perspectives - they are difficult to test - humanists are unrealistically optimistic - more experimental work needed to be done Biological perspectives -- Eysenck, Extraversion and Introversion Introverts tend to have high levels of physiological arousal which makes them more easily conditioned than extraverts. Because of this, they learn to control their inhibitions which can make them more bashful, tentative, and uneasy in social gatherings. -- Behavioral genetics and personality Heritability—personality traits have been proven to be at least 50% determined by genetics and inherited through parents Role of shared family environment- surprisingly seems to have little impact on personality -- Evaluating biological perspectives Critics say… 1) too much emphasis on heritability 2) can’t separate nature and nurture that cleanly Chapter 12 Study Guide Person perception -- Effects of physical appearance - good looking people command more attention that less attractive individuals - judgements of other’s personality are often swayed by their appearance, especially their physical attractiveness - attractive people tend to be seen as more sociable, friendly, poised, warm, and well-adjusted than those who are less attractive - people tend to think of attractive people as more competent - attractive people re overrepresented in the media and seen as favorable -- Stereotypes Stereotypes are widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because they are a member in a particular group * Stereotypes are a part of a normal cognitive process and are automatic -- Subjectivity in person perception Illusory correlation- occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen Memory bias- often, people selectively recall facts that fit with their schemas and stereotypes -- Evolutionary perspective In-group- a group that one belongs to and identifies with Out-group- a group that one does not belong to or identify with Attribution processes: Explaining behavior -- Attributions- inferences that people draw about the causes of events, other’s behaviors, and their own behaviors Ex. If you said your friend did not come to your party because she had a lot of homework to do, you would be making an attribution. You attribute her absence to the amount of homework. -- Internal attributions- ascribes the cause of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings. (Ex. She didn’t come to my party because she is shy around lots of people) -- External attributions- ascribes the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints (Ex. She didn’t come to my party because she was grounded) -- Attributions for success and failure Four types of attributions for success and failure 1) Internal + Unstable cause = Effort, mood, fatigue 2) Internal + Stable cause = Ability, Intelligence 3) External + Unstable cause = Luck, Chance, Opportunity 4) External + Stable cause = Task difficulty -- Bias in attribution- attributions are ONLY inferences and may not be correct; They are guesses -- Actor-observer bias Fundamental attribution error- refers to observers’ bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others’ behavior Actor-observer difference- observers have tendency to overestimate the likelihood that an actors’ behavior reflects personal qualities rather than situational factors *This is because relating people’s behavior to their dispositions is a relatively effortless, automatic process -- Self-serving bias- the tendency to attribute one’s successes to personal factors and one’s failures to situational factors (Ex. Kid hits a homerun and says it was because he practices long and hard, but when he strikes out he says it was because the sun was in his eyes) -- Culture and attributions Individualism- putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining ones’ identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships Collectivism- putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining ones’ identity in terms of the groups one belongs to Interpersonal attraction: Liking and loving -- Key factors in attraction 1) Physical attractiveness Matching hypothesis- males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners 2) Similarity Attitude alignment- people who close gradually modify their attitudes in ways that make them more congruent 3) Reciprocity - We like people who show they like us in return -- Perspectives on love Passionate love- complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion Companionate love- warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own -- Love as attachment Secure- relatively easy to get close to others and describe their love relations as trusting Anxious-ambivalent – preoccupation with love accompanied by expectations of rejection and they described their love relations as volatile and marked by jealousy Avoidant attachment- found it difficult to get close to others and described their love relations as lacking intimacy and trust -- Culture and close relationships - Romantic love seems to appear in all cultures th - Passionate love as a basis for marriage is an 18 century invention of western culture - collectivist societies’ people contemplating marriage still tend to think in terms of “what will my parents think?”, rather than “what does my heart say?” - subjects from societies high in individualism tend to report that romantic love is more important for marriage than subjects from collectivist cultures do -- The Internet and close relationships - internet provides a wealth of opportunities to interact for those who suffer from physical infirmities or social anxieties - provides a safer venue than real life for individuals with stigmatized identities to interact and receive support (for example, gay people) - virtual relationships are just as intimate as face-to-face ones and are sometimes even closer - many virtual relationships eventually evolve into face-to-face ones - similarity plays a big role in internet relationships -- Evolutionary perspective on attraction Facial symmetry- thought to be valued because a variety of environmental insults and developmental abnormalities are associated with physical asymmetries, which may serve as a marker of relatively poor genes or health --Mating preferences - fairly consistent over across highly varied cultures - Men: interested in youthfulness and physical attraction because these traits should be associated with greater reproductive potential - Women: interested in ambition, social status, and financial potential because these traits should be associated with the ability to invest material resources for children Attitudes: Making social judgments Attitudes- positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought -- Components and dimensions of attitudes Cognitive component- made up of the beliefs that people hold about the object of an attitude Affective component- emotional feelings stimulated by an object of thought Behavioral component – consists of predispositions to act in certain ways toward an attitude object Strength dimension- attitudes that are generally viewed as ones that are firmly held, resistant to change, durable over time, and have a powerful impact on behavior Accessibility dimension- How often one thinks about an attitude and how quickly it comes to mind Ambivalence dimension- conflicted evaluations that include both positive and negative feelings about an object of thought implicit vs. explicit attitudes & how implicit attitudes are measured Explicit attitudes- attitudes that one holds consciously and can readily describe Implicit attitudes- covert attitudes that are expressed in subtle automatic -- Trying to change attitudes: Factors in persuasion Source factors: 1) credibility 2) expertise 3)trustworthiness 4) likability 5) similarity Message factors 1) two-sided arguments 2) fear appeals 3) mere exposure effect Receiver factors 1) forewarning 2) attitude strength 3) resistance -- Theories of attitude formation and change -- Learning theory Classical conditioning- also known as evaluative conditioning, consists of efforts to transfer the emotion attached to an unconditioned stimulus to a new conditioned stimulus Operant conditioning- may come into play when you openly express an attitude. Agreement from others may function as a reinforce, while disagreement may function as a form of punishment Observational learning- The opinions and views of people around us tend to blend in with, or change your own attitude toward something completely -- Dissonance theory Cognitive dissonance – exists when related attitudes or beliefs are inconsistent, or when they contradict each other Festinger & Carlsmith study * remember video when psychologists gave people boring tasks and asked them to convince the next person that it was so fun, that was this study ^ -- Effort justification- when people turn attitude somersaults to justify efforts that haven’t panned out -- Elaboration likelihood model (Model on page 416) - two basic routes to persuasion Central route- taken when people carefully ponder the content and logic of persuasive messages Peripheral route- taken when persuasion depends on non-message factors, such as attractiveness or credibility of the source, or on conditioned emotional responses -- Conformity and obedience: Yielding to others -- Conformity definition: occurs when people yield to real or imagines social pressure Asch studies (Example. Video when the women was stopped in an airport and asked questions. Everyone around her responded confidently with the same answers, so then she responded with the same answers even though she did not know the real answer) Group size- bigger groups increase risk of conformity, to a point Group unanimity- If one person in a large group breaks the unanimity of a response, conformity decreases single dissenter -- Obedience Definition: form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority Milgram’s studies- The study/video where people were told to electrocute people if they answered wrongly. The subjects felt bad about harming the people, but they did it anyways because they were told to by an authority figure Controversy- people believed his findings wouldn’t generalize the whole world Current status- People are just as prone to obedience as they were 45 years ago -- Cultural variations in conformity and obedience - conformity and obedience are not unique to American culture - higher levels of conformity in collectivistic cultures - lower levels of conformity in individualistic cultures -- Stanford prison study Social roles- widely shared expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave - The people asked to play guards soon became too engulfed in the role; aggressive - The people asked to be prisoners soon became submissive -- Behavior in groups: Joining with others -- Bystander effect- Less likely to help if you are in a group than if you are alone Group productivity and social loafing: Two factors contribute to reduced individual productivity in larger groups… - reduced efficiency - loss of coordination Social loafing- reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves -- Decision-making in groups -- Group polarization- occurs when group discussion strengthens a group’s dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction -- Groupthink- occurs when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision
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