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Introduction to Anthropology Final Exam study guide

by: Erica Jingozian

Introduction to Anthropology Final Exam study guide Anthropology 1006

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Intro to Anthropology
Kevin McBride
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Jingozian on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anthropology 1006 at University of Connecticut taught by Kevin McBride in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Connecticut.

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Date Created: 04/30/16
Anthropology 1006 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 2: Culture What is culture: systems of human behavior and thought Characteristics/aspects of culture (i.e., shared, learned, uses symbols, ect.)  Culture is shared and learned  Set of structured rules, values, standards of behavior  Ensures predictable behavior within a group  Unifies people through a collective experience  Symbols: stands for something else o Verbal­language  o Non­verbal­ ex: flags, totems..  Enculturation: the process by which a child learns their culture   Conscious learning­ direct teaching  Unconscious learning­ transmitted through observation Cultural relativism: inappropriate to use outside standards to judge behavior in a given society; anthropologists must be unbiases,  objective; cultures are different, not ranked Ethnocentrism: tendency to see one’s own culture as superior and to use one’s own standards and values in judging other people and  cultures  Mechanisms of culture change  Diffusion: borrowing of traits between cultures  Acculturation: exchange of cultural features that results when groups have continuous firsthand contact; parts of the culture changes, but each group remains distinct   Independent invention: process by which human innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems Chapter 6 Human Variation and Adaptation Two approaches to biological diversity  racial classification: attempt to assign humans to discrete categories presumably based on a common ancestry. Based on  several fundamentally flawed propositions: o human species can be natural divided into a small number of discrete races o members of different races are genetically different in important ways, so knowing a person’s race gives you  important information about what she or he is like o the difference between races are due to biological heritage o Biological definition of race is intended to reflect shared genetic material BUT early scholars instead used  phenotypical trains for racial classification  explanatory approach: seek explanations for human diversity  o races are not biologically distinct o human groups do vary biologically, but we observe gradual not abrupt shifts in gene frequencies betqeen  neighboring groups­ ex: CLINES  Historical background:   Racial categories­ static   Mixed with history of colonial domination (Europeans controlled 85% of the world)  Colonials justify superiority  o Cultural sophistication­ superiority o Idea races are fixed o Codified into law Social Darwinism  Theories of society that emerged in the 1870s, seeking to apply the principles of Darwinian evolution to sociology and  politics Human Biological Variation     Clines o Distribution across cline­ continuous   Division arbitrary o Individuals have many traits   Each trait is controlled separately   Each trait has its own geographic distribution  Individuals generally don’t have all the traits associated with a particular race      Skin color/melanin o natural selection plays a key role in producing variation in skin color  o Melanin­ primary determinant of skin color is manufactured in the epidermis o Dark skinned people produce more and larger granules of melanin o Correlation between dark skinned people and tropics o How is skin color adaptive?  Protection from UV radiation­ sunburn damages sweat glands and reduces ability to perspire  Ability to produce vitamin D  Northern light skinned people must maximize exposure to sun   Shortage of vitamin D causes rickets      Bergmann’s rule o Thermoregulation  Causes of Human variation  Genetic variation: differences between individuals that are caused by genes inherited from their parents  Environmental variation: differences between individuals caused by environmental factors (climate, habitat) on an  organisms phenotype.   Cultural variation: for humans, culture is an important source of environmental variation     Distribution of hemoglobin S o Common in tropical areas where malaria is prevalent o Absent in areas where malaria is absent  Humans are a polytypic species:  o Polytypic­ taxonomic group with more than one subgroup  o Local populations o Differ in expression of one or more traits (different allele frequencies) o Skin color, face shape, nose shape, hair color, hair form, eye shape & color  Biological Diversity o Diverse biological features reflect historical adaption to a wide range of environments and mating patterns  o Physical contrasts resulting from various adaptions are evident  Race & Ethnicity  ethnic groups are distinguished based on cultural attributes defining group membership: o shared language, religion, custom/history  o includes internal self definition & external definition by others   cultural identity based on: o regular group interaction, marriage laws  o this mimics but is not the same as biological isolation   Race does NOT equal ethnicity  Chapter 9: The Genus Homo Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) Chapter 11 FIRST FARMERS Neolithic: new stone age (12,00­8,000 kya)   Characterized by grinding and polishing stone tools  First cultural period in a region with evidence of domestication   Takes place within context of Holocene (12,000kya­ present) interglacial period Mesolithic to Neolithic transition  Expansion in sue of ecosystems  Expansion in range and variability of plants and animals used  Food storage  Increasing sedentism  Oasis Theory  V. Gordon Childe   Agriculture is better   How did it arise?  o Climate change – dry o People move to oases o Pushed people into greater contact with animals  Broad spectrum revolution – Mesolithic; middle stone age (30,000­ 12,000 kya)  Period in which a wider range or a broader spectrum of plant and animals were hunted, gathered, collected, caught and  fished  Revolutionary development because it led to food production   Occurred 15,000 in middle east; 12,000 bp in Europe; 8,000 bp in new world  Flannery, 1969 o Added new stage: hunting/gathering­ broad spectrum revolution­ then agriculture o Intensification & even sedentary living begins with hunting­gathering not with agriculture  o Intensification: need for more complex “extractive” technology; bow and arrow, nets, traps, grind stones appear  Focus shifts to less preferred food items: dangerous game, smaller game, shellfish, snails, birds  More work; increases carrying capacity   Wild cereals another example: harvest, thresh, winnow  The First Farmers and Herders  Sedentism: practice of living in one place for a long time   Consequences of sedentism: o Reduced birth interval­ hunter gatherers have to carry children o Weaning age decreases­ cereals good weaning foods o Even out issues of seasonality­ food shortages in lean season, affects fertili Genetic Changes & Domestication  Main differences between wild and domesticated plants o Increased use of plant over time; manipulation of the environment (fire, pollen, soil); plant is found outside  normal range; presence and increase in agricultural/plant processing artifacts  o Intentional factors: recognize changes in wild plants as beneficial and intentionally select  o Foraging and unintentional tending­cultivation­domestication  Other Old World Producers  Areas in the world where food production was independently invented (primary centers of food production) o Middle east: 11,000­10,000 ya: millet, sorghum, wheat, barley  o New world: 10,000 ya – 8,000 ya: maize o Asia: 9,000 – 7,000: rice  First American Farmers  Differences between old & new world food production o The plow­ mix the soil; fertilizer and oxygen o Domestic animals­ draft, not just food o Pottery  o Clothing made from woven textiles Explaining the Neolithic  Why have some large animals not been domesticated o Select for: amount of meat, fur, hide, tractability, and docility; retention of juvenile characteristics (deposition  of fat under skin, short jaw, curly tail, submissive behavior) Costs & Benefits of Food production Benefits Costs Discoveries and inventions Harder work New forms (spinning, weaving, bricks) Less nutritious diets Monumental architecture, sculpture Child labor and child care demands Writing Taxes and military drafts Mathematics, weights Public health declines Trade and markets Ride in protein deficiency and dental caries Urban life Greater stress Economic production increases Social inequality and poverty More reliable crop yield Slavery Rise in crime, war  What date did people first begin to domesticate plants & animals? (10,000 years ago) Chapter 12 FIRST CITIES & STATES The origin of the State  State­ based on central government and socioeconomic stratification­ division of society into classes. o Form of social and political organization that has formal, central government and a division of society into  classes o VS. Chiefdoms (precursors to states)  When and where did the first states develop­ Mesopotamia by 5500 B.P and Mesoamerica by 2500 B.P  Explanations why the first states developed­ emerge because of population growth in socially or physically limited areas;  earliest states arose from competition between chiefdoms­ powerful chiefdoms conquered others and extended their control over a larger territory o Correlates to: large dense populations, social complexity, systems of political control, competition for resources and territory, warfare o Systems of political and social control typically develop to handle regulatory problems encountered with  growing population numbers and density and/or economy increases in scale and diversity o Competition, including warfare, among chiefdoms for territory and resources  Hydraulic systems­ Irrigation; labor and management needed for upkeep of irrigation; gave rise to formation of a political elite; led to intensification of production   Long­distance trade­ producing items for export; redistributing imported items; defending trading parties   Population­    War­ competition and warfare (nowhere for losers to go; no choice but to submit to political domination); most powerful  villages grew to dominate entire valleys (chiefdoms to kingdoms)   Circumscription­ environmental; steady population growth; new villages form; increasing land shortage     Empire Attributes of States:  Controls a specific regional territory   Productive farming economics (water control?) – could support large and dense populations  Used tribute and taxation to accumulate resources at central places­ redistribution systems to support specialists  Control over human labor  Stratified into social classes  Monumental and public architecture  System of record keeping Social Ranking & Chiefdoms  Egalitarian society­ lacks status distinctions except for those based on gender, age and individual qualities, talents and  achievements. All members have equal access to resources and social/political influence.   Ranked societies­ hereditary inequality but not social stratification. Individuals ranked in terms of genealogical closeness to chief.  Stratification­ division of social into classes; states use this  Chiefdom­ Why States Collapse  Factors that explain decline and fall of states Chapter 13 METHOD & THEORY IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY Ethnography­ try to understand the whole of a particular culture­ the totality and interconnectedness of social life; move from setting  to setting and subject to gather information.  Ethnology­ draws on comparisons of ethnographic data; compares/contrasts; make generalizations; explains similarities/differences Role of ethnographers­ try to gain trust!  Ethnographic techniques o Direct firsthand observation of behavior­ participant observation o Conversations with different people with varying degrees of formality o Genealogical method o Work closely with key informants o In­depth interview to collect life histories o Discovery, observation, recording of local beliefs and customs o Problem oriented research o Longitudinal research o Team research Ethnographic Perspectives  Emic perspective­ people’s view of their needs concerns they have; “insider”  Etic perspective­ “outsider”; uses as its stating point theories, hypothesis, perspectives, and concepts from outside of the  setting being studied Code of Ethics­ Chapter 14 LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION What is Language?  Language­ may be spoken (speech) or written (writing); primary way humans communicate o Transmitted through learning­ enculturation o Based on arbitrary, learned associations between words and things o Human language I complex­ imagery, past, present and future tense o Must be studied in its cultural and social context  Non­human primate communication – call systems o Only humans speak o Call systems – instinctive, limited, specific environmental stimuli (food, danger, competition for mates); can’t  combine calls o Apes have rudimentary capacity for language Language, Culture & Thought      Noam Chomsky/universal   grammar  hypothesis o Human brain contains limited set of rules for organizing language­ all language have a common structural basis  and all humans have similar linguistic abilities and thought process o Evidence: learn foreign language; ideas and words translate between languages; creole/pidgin language  Sapir­Whorf Hypothesis­ no universal structures and processes, different languages produce different ways of thinking. Sociolinguistics (definition)­ social differences in nation­states and stratified/ranked societies­ no language is uniform; not everyone  talks the same; relationship between social and linguistic variation  Gender speech contrasts­ difference in phonology, grammar, vocab; kinesics; swearing, sports, color  Pigen & creole­ form in situations of acculturation; blending of two languages; English and native languages  Historical linguistics (definition) Chapter 16 MAKING A LIVING Adaptive Strategies  Foraging­ hunting, fishing, gathering wild plant foods o Highly mobile; availability of water, not aimless wandering, follow food supply; small group size, carrying  capacity of land o Historically known foragers: Eskimos, Subarctic Indians, Indians o Requires freedom of movement and access to land­ no one owns land o Foraging economics: decision­making is by consensus, cooperation, aggregations during times of plenty,  dispersal, division of labor, food sharing  Correlates of foraging­ between economy and social life: o Live in hand­organized societies o All related by kin and marriage o Band usually between 30­60 people     Cultivation: o Horticulture­ cultivation that makes use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capitol and machinery  Use simple tools such as hoes and digging sticks; no use of domesticated animals; slash and burn  techniques; division of labor by gender  Land ownership by extended family; men generally hunt and clear fields; women work in fields;  women have more political power as food producers; no real leaders (power by reputation); low  population density  Household = unit of economic production o Agriculture­ cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture because it uses land intensively and  continuously  Employs domesticated animal for labor and fertilizer; uses irrigation  Supports more people­ technology (plows, animals, irrigation, terracing); sedentary farmers (concept of private property)  Great labor demands; control of larger population; emergence of absolute power  Household = economic unit of production; emergence of a money economy  Means of production?  Costs and benefits of agriculture  Pastoralism Distribution­ how goods are given out Exchange (be prepared to know examples of each)­ in egalitarian societies  Market principle­ capitalist economy  o Buying, selling, and valuation based on supply and demand o Labor translated into money; used to acquire consumable goods o Ex:   Redistribution­ flow of goods from local level to center, then back out­ chiefdoms o Goods gathered to central place, sorted, counted, distributed to others o Ex: Ongka’s Big Moka   Reciprocity­ principle governing exchanged among social equals; the exchange of goods and services of proximately equal  value between two parties o Generalized (between kin, value not calculated); balanced (immediately returned of equal value), negative  (where the giver tries to get the better)  o Ex: Kula Ring Trade­ give a necklace in return for armband; give an armband in return for necklace­ establish  friendly relations o Those who own the most important valuables = hereditary chiefs Chapter 17 POLITICAL SYSTEMS Bands & Tribes (definition of band & tribe)  Bands­ small kin­based group (all members related to each other by kinship or marriage ties); most often associated with  foragers; usually nuclear families; tend to be independent  o Importance of personal relationship; no formal leaders (based on talents and respect); decisions made by  consensus o Social control; conflict resolved informally   Tribes­ economies based on non­intensive food production (horticulture or pastoralism) o Groups reside in villages and organized into kin groups based on common descent o Lack formal government and have reliable way of enforcing political decisions o Members consider themselves descended from the same ancestors or as part of the same people o Kin­based social system o Linked by reciprocity and redistribution  o Decisions generally by consensus; no central authority; small populations o Warfare­ raiding other villages; linked to kin groups; ritual combat o Ex: Moka  Chiefdoms (definition)­ form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between tribe and state; social relations kin based but feature  differential access to resources (wealth, prestige, and power)  Associated with sedentary agriculture  Few remain today  Based on the concept of hereditary inequality   Centralized leadership; two or more groups organized under chief  Social Status in Chiefdoms­  Social control­ chief has authority to make judgments, to punish and to resolve disputes; allocate land; conscribe into  military service; his word is law  Status Systems in Chiefdoms  Differential access­ favored access to resources by superiordinates over subordinates; unequal access Stratification (wealth, power, prestige)­  Power­ ability to exercise one’s will over others  Authority­ socially approved use of power States­ form of sociopolitical organization based on formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification­ based on formal  law; expand indefinitely; maintain armies  Social control­ maintained through government; not kin networks; concept of nationality; central government that has the  legal monopoly over the use of force; government creates public policy     Specialized functions associated with states­   Population control­  Judiciary­ passes laws  Enforcement­ uses force to uphold judiciary decisions  Taxation­ intervenes in every aspect of the economic process; levying of tax Social Control­ informal social control with bands (gossip, banishment…); states use a central government  Hegemony­ leadership or dominance  Chapter 19 Families, Kinship & Descent Nuclear family­ monogamous; domestic group consisting of marries couple and their children; highly mobile, lacks support systems  Both parents need to work outside the home; long absence; women face pregnancy and young child rearing alone Extended Family­ created when newly married couple moves in with brides or groom’s family and dwells in the same household  Several generations; importance of descent  Decisions rest with older individuals; difficulties for spouses; marrying into family Patrilineal descent­ tracing descent through the male line; keeps male together when cooperative labor is required Matrilineal descent­ descent traced through the female’s line or group; cooperative labor of women   Husband to wife bone is weak  Mother’s brother is the dominate male figure­ distributes good, organizes work, settles disputes, controls inheritance, legal  authority  Marriage rights: contract regulates sex, labor, property, child rearing, exchange, status  Dowry= societies where men are laborers, women valued for reproductive potential   Incest taboo? Lineage­ corporate descent group: consanguineal kin; claim descent from a common ancestor; traced through known lines; unilineal  descent; ancestor oriented; residential unity Functions of the family: 1. Provides socially approved sexual relationships between men and women 2. Provides for basic education 3. Established a social identity for the individual 4. Provides a fundamental economic unit; household


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