Introduction to Anthropology Final Exam study guide
Introduction to Anthropology Final Exam study guide Anthropology 1006
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Jingozian on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anthropology 1006 at University of Connecticut taught by Kevin McBride in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Connecticut.
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Anthropology 1006 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 2: Culture What is culture: systems of human behavior and thought Characteristics/aspects of culture (i.e., shared, learned, uses symbols, ect.) Culture is shared and learned Set of structured rules, values, standards of behavior Ensures predictable behavior within a group Unifies people through a collective experience Symbols: stands for something else o Verballanguage o Nonverbal ex: flags, totems.. Enculturation: the process by which a child learns their culture Conscious learning direct teaching Unconscious learning transmitted through observation Cultural relativism: inappropriate to use outside standards to judge behavior in a given society; anthropologists must be unbiases, objective; cultures are different, not ranked Ethnocentrism: tendency to see one’s own culture as superior and to use one’s own standards and values in judging other people and cultures Mechanisms of culture change Diffusion: borrowing of traits between cultures Acculturation: exchange of cultural features that results when groups have continuous firsthand contact; parts of the culture changes, but each group remains distinct Independent invention: process by which human innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems Chapter 6 Human Variation and Adaptation Two approaches to biological diversity racial classification: attempt to assign humans to discrete categories presumably based on a common ancestry. Based on several fundamentally flawed propositions: o human species can be natural divided into a small number of discrete races o members of different races are genetically different in important ways, so knowing a person’s race gives you important information about what she or he is like o the difference between races are due to biological heritage o Biological definition of race is intended to reflect shared genetic material BUT early scholars instead used phenotypical trains for racial classification explanatory approach: seek explanations for human diversity o races are not biologically distinct o human groups do vary biologically, but we observe gradual not abrupt shifts in gene frequencies betqeen neighboring groups ex: CLINES Historical background: Racial categories static Mixed with history of colonial domination (Europeans controlled 85% of the world) Colonials justify superiority o Cultural sophistication superiority o Idea races are fixed o Codified into law Social Darwinism Theories of society that emerged in the 1870s, seeking to apply the principles of Darwinian evolution to sociology and politics Human Biological Variation Clines o Distribution across cline continuous Division arbitrary o Individuals have many traits Each trait is controlled separately Each trait has its own geographic distribution Individuals generally don’t have all the traits associated with a particular race Skin color/melanin o natural selection plays a key role in producing variation in skin color o Melanin primary determinant of skin color is manufactured in the epidermis o Dark skinned people produce more and larger granules of melanin o Correlation between dark skinned people and tropics o How is skin color adaptive? Protection from UV radiation sunburn damages sweat glands and reduces ability to perspire Ability to produce vitamin D Northern light skinned people must maximize exposure to sun Shortage of vitamin D causes rickets Bergmann’s rule o Thermoregulation Causes of Human variation Genetic variation: differences between individuals that are caused by genes inherited from their parents Environmental variation: differences between individuals caused by environmental factors (climate, habitat) on an organisms phenotype. Cultural variation: for humans, culture is an important source of environmental variation Distribution of hemoglobin S o Common in tropical areas where malaria is prevalent o Absent in areas where malaria is absent Humans are a polytypic species: o Polytypic taxonomic group with more than one subgroup o Local populations o Differ in expression of one or more traits (different allele frequencies) o Skin color, face shape, nose shape, hair color, hair form, eye shape & color Biological Diversity o Diverse biological features reflect historical adaption to a wide range of environments and mating patterns o Physical contrasts resulting from various adaptions are evident Race & Ethnicity ethnic groups are distinguished based on cultural attributes defining group membership: o shared language, religion, custom/history o includes internal self definition & external definition by others cultural identity based on: o regular group interaction, marriage laws o this mimics but is not the same as biological isolation Race does NOT equal ethnicity Chapter 9: The Genus Homo Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) Chapter 11 FIRST FARMERS Neolithic: new stone age (12,008,000 kya) Characterized by grinding and polishing stone tools First cultural period in a region with evidence of domestication Takes place within context of Holocene (12,000kya present) interglacial period Mesolithic to Neolithic transition Expansion in sue of ecosystems Expansion in range and variability of plants and animals used Food storage Increasing sedentism Oasis Theory V. Gordon Childe Agriculture is better How did it arise? o Climate change – dry o People move to oases o Pushed people into greater contact with animals Broad spectrum revolution – Mesolithic; middle stone age (30,000 12,000 kya) Period in which a wider range or a broader spectrum of plant and animals were hunted, gathered, collected, caught and fished Revolutionary development because it led to food production Occurred 15,000 in middle east; 12,000 bp in Europe; 8,000 bp in new world Flannery, 1969 o Added new stage: hunting/gathering broad spectrum revolution then agriculture o Intensification & even sedentary living begins with huntinggathering not with agriculture o Intensification: need for more complex “extractive” technology; bow and arrow, nets, traps, grind stones appear Focus shifts to less preferred food items: dangerous game, smaller game, shellfish, snails, birds More work; increases carrying capacity Wild cereals another example: harvest, thresh, winnow The First Farmers and Herders Sedentism: practice of living in one place for a long time Consequences of sedentism: o Reduced birth interval hunter gatherers have to carry children o Weaning age decreases cereals good weaning foods o Even out issues of seasonality food shortages in lean season, affects fertili Genetic Changes & Domestication Main differences between wild and domesticated plants o Increased use of plant over time; manipulation of the environment (fire, pollen, soil); plant is found outside normal range; presence and increase in agricultural/plant processing artifacts o Intentional factors: recognize changes in wild plants as beneficial and intentionally select o Foraging and unintentional tendingcultivationdomestication Other Old World Producers Areas in the world where food production was independently invented (primary centers of food production) o Middle east: 11,00010,000 ya: millet, sorghum, wheat, barley o New world: 10,000 ya – 8,000 ya: maize o Asia: 9,000 – 7,000: rice First American Farmers Differences between old & new world food production o The plow mix the soil; fertilizer and oxygen o Domestic animals draft, not just food o Pottery o Clothing made from woven textiles Explaining the Neolithic Why have some large animals not been domesticated o Select for: amount of meat, fur, hide, tractability, and docility; retention of juvenile characteristics (deposition of fat under skin, short jaw, curly tail, submissive behavior) Costs & Benefits of Food production Benefits Costs Discoveries and inventions Harder work New forms (spinning, weaving, bricks) Less nutritious diets Monumental architecture, sculpture Child labor and child care demands Writing Taxes and military drafts Mathematics, weights Public health declines Trade and markets Ride in protein deficiency and dental caries Urban life Greater stress Economic production increases Social inequality and poverty More reliable crop yield Slavery Rise in crime, war What date did people first begin to domesticate plants & animals? (10,000 years ago) Chapter 12 FIRST CITIES & STATES The origin of the State State based on central government and socioeconomic stratification division of society into classes. o Form of social and political organization that has formal, central government and a division of society into classes o VS. Chiefdoms (precursors to states) When and where did the first states develop Mesopotamia by 5500 B.P and Mesoamerica by 2500 B.P Explanations why the first states developed emerge because of population growth in socially or physically limited areas; earliest states arose from competition between chiefdoms powerful chiefdoms conquered others and extended their control over a larger territory o Correlates to: large dense populations, social complexity, systems of political control, competition for resources and territory, warfare o Systems of political and social control typically develop to handle regulatory problems encountered with growing population numbers and density and/or economy increases in scale and diversity o Competition, including warfare, among chiefdoms for territory and resources Hydraulic systems Irrigation; labor and management needed for upkeep of irrigation; gave rise to formation of a political elite; led to intensification of production Longdistance trade producing items for export; redistributing imported items; defending trading parties Population War competition and warfare (nowhere for losers to go; no choice but to submit to political domination); most powerful villages grew to dominate entire valleys (chiefdoms to kingdoms) Circumscription environmental; steady population growth; new villages form; increasing land shortage Empire Attributes of States: Controls a specific regional territory Productive farming economics (water control?) – could support large and dense populations Used tribute and taxation to accumulate resources at central places redistribution systems to support specialists Control over human labor Stratified into social classes Monumental and public architecture System of record keeping Social Ranking & Chiefdoms Egalitarian society lacks status distinctions except for those based on gender, age and individual qualities, talents and achievements. All members have equal access to resources and social/political influence. Ranked societies hereditary inequality but not social stratification. Individuals ranked in terms of genealogical closeness to chief. Stratification division of social into classes; states use this Chiefdom Why States Collapse Factors that explain decline and fall of states Chapter 13 METHOD & THEORY IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY Ethnography try to understand the whole of a particular culture the totality and interconnectedness of social life; move from setting to setting and subject to gather information. Ethnology draws on comparisons of ethnographic data; compares/contrasts; make generalizations; explains similarities/differences Role of ethnographers try to gain trust! Ethnographic techniques o Direct firsthand observation of behavior participant observation o Conversations with different people with varying degrees of formality o Genealogical method o Work closely with key informants o Indepth interview to collect life histories o Discovery, observation, recording of local beliefs and customs o Problem oriented research o Longitudinal research o Team research Ethnographic Perspectives Emic perspective people’s view of their needs concerns they have; “insider” Etic perspective “outsider”; uses as its stating point theories, hypothesis, perspectives, and concepts from outside of the setting being studied Code of Ethics Chapter 14 LANGUAGE & COMMUNICATION What is Language? Language may be spoken (speech) or written (writing); primary way humans communicate o Transmitted through learning enculturation o Based on arbitrary, learned associations between words and things o Human language I complex imagery, past, present and future tense o Must be studied in its cultural and social context Nonhuman primate communication – call systems o Only humans speak o Call systems – instinctive, limited, specific environmental stimuli (food, danger, competition for mates); can’t combine calls o Apes have rudimentary capacity for language Language, Culture & Thought Noam Chomsky/universal grammar hypothesis o Human brain contains limited set of rules for organizing language all language have a common structural basis and all humans have similar linguistic abilities and thought process o Evidence: learn foreign language; ideas and words translate between languages; creole/pidgin language SapirWhorf Hypothesis no universal structures and processes, different languages produce different ways of thinking. Sociolinguistics (definition) social differences in nationstates and stratified/ranked societies no language is uniform; not everyone talks the same; relationship between social and linguistic variation Gender speech contrasts difference in phonology, grammar, vocab; kinesics; swearing, sports, color Pigen & creole form in situations of acculturation; blending of two languages; English and native languages Historical linguistics (definition) Chapter 16 MAKING A LIVING Adaptive Strategies Foraging hunting, fishing, gathering wild plant foods o Highly mobile; availability of water, not aimless wandering, follow food supply; small group size, carrying capacity of land o Historically known foragers: Eskimos, Subarctic Indians, Indians o Requires freedom of movement and access to land no one owns land o Foraging economics: decisionmaking is by consensus, cooperation, aggregations during times of plenty, dispersal, division of labor, food sharing Correlates of foraging between economy and social life: o Live in handorganized societies o All related by kin and marriage o Band usually between 3060 people Cultivation: o Horticulture cultivation that makes use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capitol and machinery Use simple tools such as hoes and digging sticks; no use of domesticated animals; slash and burn techniques; division of labor by gender Land ownership by extended family; men generally hunt and clear fields; women work in fields; women have more political power as food producers; no real leaders (power by reputation); low population density Household = unit of economic production o Agriculture cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture because it uses land intensively and continuously Employs domesticated animal for labor and fertilizer; uses irrigation Supports more people technology (plows, animals, irrigation, terracing); sedentary farmers (concept of private property) Great labor demands; control of larger population; emergence of absolute power Household = economic unit of production; emergence of a money economy Means of production? Costs and benefits of agriculture Pastoralism Distribution how goods are given out Exchange (be prepared to know examples of each) in egalitarian societies Market principle capitalist economy o Buying, selling, and valuation based on supply and demand o Labor translated into money; used to acquire consumable goods o Ex: Redistribution flow of goods from local level to center, then back out chiefdoms o Goods gathered to central place, sorted, counted, distributed to others o Ex: Ongka’s Big Moka Reciprocity principle governing exchanged among social equals; the exchange of goods and services of proximately equal value between two parties o Generalized (between kin, value not calculated); balanced (immediately returned of equal value), negative (where the giver tries to get the better) o Ex: Kula Ring Trade give a necklace in return for armband; give an armband in return for necklace establish friendly relations o Those who own the most important valuables = hereditary chiefs Chapter 17 POLITICAL SYSTEMS Bands & Tribes (definition of band & tribe) Bands small kinbased group (all members related to each other by kinship or marriage ties); most often associated with foragers; usually nuclear families; tend to be independent o Importance of personal relationship; no formal leaders (based on talents and respect); decisions made by consensus o Social control; conflict resolved informally Tribes economies based on nonintensive food production (horticulture or pastoralism) o Groups reside in villages and organized into kin groups based on common descent o Lack formal government and have reliable way of enforcing political decisions o Members consider themselves descended from the same ancestors or as part of the same people o Kinbased social system o Linked by reciprocity and redistribution o Decisions generally by consensus; no central authority; small populations o Warfare raiding other villages; linked to kin groups; ritual combat o Ex: Moka Chiefdoms (definition) form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between tribe and state; social relations kin based but feature differential access to resources (wealth, prestige, and power) Associated with sedentary agriculture Few remain today Based on the concept of hereditary inequality Centralized leadership; two or more groups organized under chief Social Status in Chiefdoms Social control chief has authority to make judgments, to punish and to resolve disputes; allocate land; conscribe into military service; his word is law Status Systems in Chiefdoms Differential access favored access to resources by superiordinates over subordinates; unequal access Stratification (wealth, power, prestige) Power ability to exercise one’s will over others Authority socially approved use of power States form of sociopolitical organization based on formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification based on formal law; expand indefinitely; maintain armies Social control maintained through government; not kin networks; concept of nationality; central government that has the legal monopoly over the use of force; government creates public policy Specialized functions associated with states Population control Judiciary passes laws Enforcement uses force to uphold judiciary decisions Taxation intervenes in every aspect of the economic process; levying of tax Social Control informal social control with bands (gossip, banishment…); states use a central government Hegemony leadership or dominance Chapter 19 Families, Kinship & Descent Nuclear family monogamous; domestic group consisting of marries couple and their children; highly mobile, lacks support systems Both parents need to work outside the home; long absence; women face pregnancy and young child rearing alone Extended Family created when newly married couple moves in with brides or groom’s family and dwells in the same household Several generations; importance of descent Decisions rest with older individuals; difficulties for spouses; marrying into family Patrilineal descent tracing descent through the male line; keeps male together when cooperative labor is required Matrilineal descent descent traced through the female’s line or group; cooperative labor of women Husband to wife bone is weak Mother’s brother is the dominate male figure distributes good, organizes work, settles disputes, controls inheritance, legal authority Marriage rights: contract regulates sex, labor, property, child rearing, exchange, status Dowry= societies where men are laborers, women valued for reproductive potential Incest taboo? Lineage corporate descent group: consanguineal kin; claim descent from a common ancestor; traced through known lines; unilineal descent; ancestor oriented; residential unity Functions of the family: 1. Provides socially approved sexual relationships between men and women 2. Provides for basic education 3. Established a social identity for the individual 4. Provides a fundamental economic unit; household
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