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HIST222 Final Exam Review
Identifications (On the final you will be asked to identify 5 out of 7. 4 pts each = 20 points)
1. GI bill
a. This bill ensured that those who served in the military were able to readjust.
b. This ensured that they would get a college education and gave them the right to vote.
i. This made veterans compromise 50% of college students during 1947 & 1948.
ii. With this, they don’t have to worry about maladjustment. c. There were also home loans that let soldiers live in more affordable houses to help with readjustment.
d. Women were crowded out due to the influx of GI’s. Over 60,000 Service women were also trying to get access to education e. Women’s education went up into the 20’s, but at this point it is at a drop point. Bachelor degrees dropped from 40% in 1940 to 25% in the 1950’s.
f. Minority’s soldiers returned to either continue or start to fight for civil rights but in different ways.
2. Richard Nixon
a. Has voiced his opinion of treatment towards Native Americans as well as Marlon Brando, even giving an Address on
b. One of his biggest schemes was the Watergate scandal. This has caused a lot of controversy.
c. “Address to the Nation on the War in Vietnam” talks about his opinions on how the war has affected the morale of the country and those who fought the Vietnam War.
3. 1st and 2nd New Deal
a. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Don't forget about the age old question of How is the world divided according to samuel huntington?
b. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) helped many Americans get back into working and making a living when once they were unemployed and even helped some minorities, such as Native Americans, get jobs as well.
c. After the Dustbowl was the Resettlement Administration. d. There was also the Federal Emergency Relief Administration was installed by President Herbert Hoover in 1932 as a way to give loans to states who needed relief programs.
e. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was giving Hydro electric power and dams to not only Tennessee, but Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky, Georgia, North Carolina Virginia
4. Brown V. Board of Education
a. This has challenged the idea of “separate but equal”.
b. Responses to this included the “Little Rock 9”, 9 African American students who were let into a primarily white school in Little Rock, Arkansas in September, 1957.
c. Some schools closed down. One particular case that shows this is Norfolk Virginia, which closed its schools rather than deal with integration.
d. During this time, 6% of African American children attended integrated schools. It increased by 90% in 1973.
e. Autherine Lucy was a notable case for college integration. In 1956, she was expelled from the University of Alabama for no other reason than that she was an African American.
f. Six years later James Meredith became the first African American student to be accepted into the University of Mississippi. 5. Black Power Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of u-boats?
a. Malcolm X would become the biggest proponent in this movement as well as the Black Panther group.
6. Brown Power
a. This followed suit in the movement of the Black Power movement. This was for the Hispanic/Latino community, often referred to as “Chicanos”.
b. Reies Lopez Tijerina was the most prevalent figure following in the footsteps of figures such as Ghandi and Martin Luther King. i. He also wrote “A Letter from the Santa Fe Jail” much like MLK’s “Letter from a Birmingham jail”.
c. The movement was largely in response to the fact that the Latino community did not receive their land back from America due to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo during the aftermath of the Mexican—American War.
d. Ceser Chavez was also instrumental by participating in hunger strikes to raise awareness of Farmers who weren’t being treated fairly.
e. La Raza means “the people” in Spanish. This was a call to bring attention to issues dealing with Chicanos.
7. Red Power
a. This also followed suit in the wake of the Black Power movement. This was for Native Americans.
b. One such example would be Marlon Brando’s fish in’s for Native American awareness.
c. Another example would be the Wounded Knee when the American Indian Movement was fighting back against Tribal president, Dick Wilson, who was showing preferential treatment to assimilated, half-blooded Indians such as himself in Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota.
d. American Indian Chicago Conference (1961): 400+ Delegates from 65 tribal communities attended. “The Declaration of Indian Purpose” was sent to President Kennedy. If you want to learn more check out What happens when there is radioactive decay?
Don't forget about the age old question of How does one compute for mean square?
We also discuss several other topics like How do coroners differe from medical examiners?
e. National Indian youth Conference (NIYC): Later on, The Chicago conference voiced their outrage at getting their issues answered, so they formed this organization in Gallup, New Mexico. They demanded a new role in determining Native Americans in determining policies that affected their lives. Lyndon Johnson’s war on poverty increased federal programs and programs included many Native Americans. If you want to learn more check out What is the background of andrew johnson?
f. Fish-ins: Marlon Brando stepped in to bring awareness to the issues that Native Americans were facing, one in particular was fishing. Every tribe had an important part in the Native
Americans life. More than just food and economic base, this was also part of their spiritual activities and social activities of the communities. Salmon and fishing rights were written in many of the treaties specifically in the Pacific Northwest.
g. Mt. Rushmore was protected unlike the Black Hills. The Sioux have yet to receive the money because they will not give up control of the Black Hills.
h. They also protested beatings by the police, unlawful
imprisonment and the unlawful death of Raymond Yellow Thunder, an Oglala Indian who was beaten to death in Gordon Nebraska in 1972.
i. Leroy Shenandoah was an Onondoga Indian who was a veteran that was beaten and shot to death by the Philadelphia police who called it a “justifiable homicide”.
j. Nixon—Special Message on Indian Affairs in 1970’s about the Native Americans’ mistreatment. The political, economic and overall well being of Native Americans was something Nixon held close, as he was part Native American himself. Native Americans identified with him because of what he did. This was a turning point for all of them. This undid some detrimental policies.
8. Long Hot Summer, 1964
a. Riots based upon the slow implementation of social justice programs were making people angry. This would last for 4 years. b. Unemployment was still high despite desegregation laws being implemented.
c. 200 people would be killed in every riot that happened, the majority being African Americans.
d. Politicians would blame them on riff-raff and agitators, rather than attempt to listen to the people.
e. Harlem was the first riot to have occurred. It occurred after James Powell, a 15-year-old African American was shot by a police officer in 1964. Roads were cut off and the riots began.
f. On August 11th, 1965, an African American man in Watts, California was arrested for drunk driving. The riot began and the
traffic grew eventually leaving the road blocked off. The National Guard slowed everything down on the 14th & the 15th of August. g. Businesses were attacked in 1968 that were deemed unfair in treatment towards minorities.
9. Civil Rights Act of 1964
a. Brown v. Board of Education
b. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I have a dream” Speech.
10. United Farm Workers
a. This was used to push for better practices for farmers such as fair wages, misusing pesticides while farmers were present working in the fields
a. A man named William Levitt built Levittown’s. These were towns that were designed for the incoming veterans from World War II. b. Around the 50’s there seemed to be a general idea that all Americans were readily agreeing on everything. Shows such as “The Andy Griffifth show”, “I Love Lucy” and “Leave it to Beaver” seemed to characterize perfect children, perfect husbands who would “bring home the bacon” and perfect wives who would do what was necessary to keep the home running well.
c. Redlining started happening in which banks would deny services by raising certain prices for of certain neighborhoods based on race or ethnicity. This gave guide to mortgage home lenders if they should own mortgages or not. Yellow areas were the changing ones and the increase of sales. Red sales were not accessible. If you lived in an area of racial diversity, it would be a yellow area, and it would be difficult to gain access, but red areas would be completely inaccessible.
a. This organization was one that Martin Luther King, Jr. was a part of.
b. They pushed for Voter Registration for the African American population.
13. Barry Goldwater
a. Barry Goldwater ’64 ran on a platform of being liberal and wanted to end the Cold War and made a way of being
b. Was mainly known as a conservative in Arizona.
c. “A lot of people may not be ready to be Conservative yet.” 14. Eisenhower
a. 34th President of the US.
b. He signed treaties with South Korea in 1953 to prevent the Cold War.
c. Suffered a heart attack in 1956, but recovered and went on for his second presidency.
d. Emphasized a balanced budget during the New Deal and Fair Deal programs.
e. Started the “Little Rock 9” to help with desegregation as well as making many other attempts towards desegregation.
15. Cold War
a. Yalta Conference (1945)
ii. Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin were involved.
b. Eastern Europe would be a buffer zone.
c. United Nation (UN)
d. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
e. All sides were using Atomic Energy.
f. Soviet Actions
g. Truman doctrine
h. Marshall Plan: June 1947- Helped rebuild Europe. 13.5 billion over 4 years and met over some of the class system and money. i. Containment
j. Berlin Blockade: 1948: US and British sectors were cut off by the Soviet Union.
k. Cold War Military and Defense
i. National security Act (1947)
ii. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
iii. National Security Council (NSC)
iv. Department of Defense (1949)
Essay Themes (You will write 2 out of 3 essays) 30 pts each = 60 points Democracy for Who?
Education for who?
- We aren’t just dealing with education for African Americans and Native Americans, but also for soldiers.
Balancing the International and the Domestic
- Vietnam was not one of the US’s biggest fans.