Geology Final Exam Study Guide
Geology Final Exam Study Guide GEO 101
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carter Cox on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Geology Final Study Guide Scientific Method - Exploration and Discovery - Identifying a Problem - Community Anaslysis and Feedback - Testing Ideas o Interpreting/ gathering data Major Rock Types/ where they’re found - Igneous o Start from hot to cold o “freeze” out of lava/ magma o Found in volcanoes Convergent and Divergent Plate Boundaries - Sedimentary o Detrital- weathering and erosion Clast size, sorting, grain shape, clast composition, cement composition o Chemical o Biochemical o Found near rivers, bottom of mountain, and deep ocean - Metamorphic o Convergent. Middle of mountain o Parent rocks – component mineral s o Texture – foliated/ non foliated What happens at each tectonic boundary? - Convergent o Two plates moving away from each other Subduction zone – reason for earthquakes at plate boundaries Collision - Divergent o Two plates move apart Mid ocean ridge – cooling creates topography, gravity acts on it Continental rift - Transform o Two plates sliding past each other Mostly ocean / ocean o Fracture zone Active is transform Inactive is no longer boundary - Collision o Continent vs continent Cant go down so they go up - Subduction zone o Ocean/ continent o Continental plates never sub duct Dating Rocks - Relative Dating o Original horizontality How is sediment deposited Fairly horizontal o Superposition Apply to Sedimentary only Undeformed Older on bottom Can get tricky o Lateral Continuity Sediments are deposited in continuous layers Can be distributed later o Cross cutting relationships Formations in relation to each other Baked Contact Inclusions - Numerical o Decay and Half Life Unstable atoms eject particles predictably Become more stable atom (14C – 14 N) Parent isotope Daughter Isotope o Half Life Time it takes for half of the population to decay Cannot predict when single atom will decay o Carbon dating o Radioactive decay What do geologists Study - Everything - Every aspect of Earth: land, air, and oceans Why is geology important? - Constantly going on around us - Alabama o Coal, oil, natural gas, iron ore geological resources Basics of Earths history - - How old are the earth and universe o 4.6 and 13.7 - How do we know o By numerical and relative dating - Very general timeline of Earth History o Beginning (no life) o Land then photosynthesis (oxygen/ life) Cambrian explosion Diversified life o Shelled creature then fish, then amphibians, then mammals Major Fossil energy sources/ how to obtain/ how formed - - How do we get them o Mining or fracking/ drilling o Fossil fuel Coal, oil, gas - How are they formed o Over time o Oil is temperature o Coal is carbon and pressure o Aren’t easy to make or preserve Rivers and Streams definitions Hydrologic Circle - Circulation of Earths water supply Tributaries - Side channels that flow into the main channel of a stream Drainage Network - A group of interconnecting stream that form patterns reflecting the underlying geology Dendritic - Drainage network pattern that looks like a branching tree formed due to uniform underlying geology and slope Water Shed - Land area contributing water to a stream Divide - Imaginary line separating one basin from another Continental Divides - Water flowing down either side of this divide will flow to different oceans Permanent Stream - Stream that flows all year long because it is always at or below the water table Ephemeral Stream - Stream that does not flow all year because it is above the water table; dry climate Turbulence - Twisting, swirling motion Discharge - Volume/ time (gallons/ minute) in one section Sediment Load - Total volume of sediment carried Competence - Maximum particle size a stream can carry Capacity - Total quantity of sediment a stream can carry, depends on competence and discharge Deposition - Decrease in velocity that causes sediment to dump out of the water Base Level - Lowest elevation a stream can reach Floodplain - An area next to a stream that regularly gets flooded Recurrence Interval - Average number of year between floods of the same size Annual Probability - The likelihood that a flood of a given size will happen at a specific location during any given time What are ores, formation, and use. - Naturally occurring solid material from which a metal or valuable mineral can be profitably extracted - Economic minerals - Ore deposit – economic significant occurrence of ore How do we extract mineral resources and what are the drawbacks? Hydrologic Cycle - Circulation of earths water supply How do streams erode, transport, and deposit sediment - Down cutting o Relatively clear of sediment Carries sediment that has fallen or slumped into the channel from the stream walls - Undercutting - V- shaped - Stair step canyon - Characteristics landforms of stream systems, how do they form or change - Types of Floods, causes - Seasonal o Wet season- rainfall is heavy o Submerge floodplains- produce floodplain floods Submerge delta plain- delta plain floods - Flashfloods o Floodwaters rise so fast that it may be impossible to escape from the path of the water Effect Humans have on rivers and vice versa - Urbanization o Increased paved areas o Building in floodplains o Pollution - Agriculture o Increase sediment in streams o Change the stream chemistry Fertilizers Animal waste o Ecosystem change - Dam Construction o Changes ecosystem Migrating fish Sediment load Nutrients o Flood control Positive and negative - Overuse- our water o Central Arizona project canal o Los Angeles canal Major features of the ocean floor - Continental Shelf - Continental Slope - Abyssal Plain - Seamounts - Canyons (underwater) o Rivers cut into sediment Types of underlying causes of ocean currents - Currents - Flowing water in defined area o Surface Driven by wind/ affected by Coriolis effect o Deep Down welling Upwelling Caused by Density (thermohaline circulation) Temperature Salinity Causes of Tides - Tides - High and low tides - The larger tidal bulge is on the side closer to the moon - Smaller tide on the other side of earth opposite of the moon - Tidal reach Types of wave and waves action - Waves o Energy moves forward o Water stays put - Open ocean waves o Energy moves forward o Water stay - Breaker o Friction between wave and ocean floor - Wave Refraction - Long shore Current Different Kinds of Coast lines - Tidal Flat - High Tide- covered by water - Low Tide- exposed - Rocky Coast o Embayment o Headland o Always Changing - Fjords o Glacial valley o Flood after glaciers melt - Coastal Wetland o Shallow Water o No Wave Action o Temperate climate Salt marsh o Subtropical climate Mangrove swamp o Coral Reef o Shallow, warm o Grows until conditions change o Erodes into coral sand - Estuaries o Ocean rises into river valley o Mix of fresh and salt water - What determines type of coast? o Tectonic Settling o Sea level o Sediment Supply o Climate Helps stabilize the coastline - Jetty protect harbor entrance - Breakwater- decreases wave energy - Riprap – decrease wave erosion - Beach Nourishment - Bring in new sand - Groin- barrier built to keep sand from eroding Hazards associated with living near the ocean - Growing or eroding away Characteristics of a good Aquifer - Allows water to flow - High porosity and permeability o % Of pore space and ease of flow between pores Size number, shape Groundwater Movement/ how affected by different sediments and rocks - Unsaturated zone, gravity moves groundwater - Saturated zone, pressure moves groundwater - Moves from more pressure to low pressure - All moves slowly o Dacrys Law More permeable = faster Steep slope Easier to move through rocks than sand because rocks have a bigger avenue How do Humans access groundwater? - Wells o Ordinary well o Seasonal Well – only filled with water during some seasons o Artesian well Works like water tower - Spring o Place where groundwater naturally flows to the surface - Hot springs o Hot water comes to surface o Very deep groundwater forced up by pressure or pathway o Geothermal regions Magma near the earths surface Components of a geyser - Water under pressure - Water supply o Recharge - Heat source o Super heated water - Plumbing system o To store water while being heated o Pressure tight Can humans deplete groundwater supplies? - Yes o Lowering the water table o Saline intrusion o Reversing flow o Land subsidence Groundwater Quality - Most is safe to drink - ‘Soft water’ – more salt - ‘Hard water’- lot of calcium, magnesium o erodes pipe - Hydrogen sulfide- rotten egg - Iron- rich Geological Features Created by Groundwater - Caves- form below water table o Limestone in acidic groundwater, water table lowers, cave collapses o Speleothems Calcium filled water Evaporates and deposits calcite o Stalactite Not hollow, water drips off end, grows like icicle o Stalagmite Mound on floor Types of deserts - Subtropical o Global air circulation - Rain Shadow - Coastal - Continent Interior o Far from ocean o Air moisture used over continent - Polar o Global air circulation o Cold air is dry Weathering and Erosion/ Main Causes of Weathering and Erosion Desert Weathering - Physical weathering o Wedging, abrasion, jointing, biological, mass wasting - Chemical o Desert varnish- microbial action on clay Water Erosion - Flash floods - High competency and capacity - High turbulence Wind Erosion - Wind is a fluid- erodes like water o Energy level determines grain size Desert Deposition - Alluvial Fan o Abrupt change in velocity o Stream dumps coarse sediment - Talus Apron o Pile of debris o Gravity - Salt Lake o No outlet o Water collects and evaporates o Salt concentrates - Playa o Dry lake bed - Dunes o Wind moves sand o Wind carries small grains away o Larger grains only move so far Types of Dunes/ Geological Formation - Amount of sand - Wind direction and speed Desertification - Changing non deserts into deserts - Causes o Deforestation o Overgrazing o Agriculture o Water mismanagement o Drought Types of Glaciers - Mountain - Continental - Polar - Temperate Formation - Large amount of snow that doesn’t melt - Gentle slope - Stratified - Compact over time Glacier Movement - Gravity is prime mover - Each glacier is moving at a different rate - Two main types o Basal Sliding Slides on melt o Plastic Deformation Solid changing shape Occurs below about 60 meters Ice cracks above 60 meters - Glacier always move downslope or out from center Glacier Advancing and Retreating - They also advance and retreat o Larger or smaller over time o Advancing- larger o Retreating- smaller o Causes Amount of snow Summer temperatures Glacial Erosion - Incorporation- of rocks - Plucking - Bulldozing - Embedded Rocks o Striations o Polishing o Dust Erosional Landforms - Arête (Knife) o Ridge caused by 2 glaciers - Horn (Matterhorn) o Peak shaped by three glaciers - U- Shaped Valley o Scooped out by glaciers - Hanging valley o Cuts then stops o End abruptly - Fjords o Costal valleys filled with water o Sea level change Global Consequences of Glaciers - Ice loading and glacial rebound o Isostacy - Sea level change History of Glaciation event - Till deposits - Small frequency events - Most resent o Pleistocene Ice age - Ended o 11,000 years ago - How? o Till deposits o Pollen o Fossils Why is New Orleans below sea level/ sinking? - Human activity o Wetland removal No where for water to go o Artificial Levees No new sediment o Extracting Groundwater Comparing sediment - Isostacy o Lithosphere maintaining equilibrium
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