HIST 1020 - Final Exam Study Guide
HIST 1020 - Final Exam Study Guide HIST 1020-002
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Allison on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Christopher J. Ferguson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
HIST 1020 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE 1. Review how to apply Robert Strayer’s “3Cs” of world history to the history of the world, circa 19452000. Comparison: comparing fascism, communism, and social democracy. Connection: chain affect that events have on the world. Change: everything has changed after WWII. 2. What are the differences between Fascism, Communism, and Social Democracy? (Also, know the primary examples of countries representing each political system in the 1930s and during World War II.) Fascism: Nazi Germany, hated communism, one party gov. prounity and promilitary. Communism: U.S.S.R., one party system, defined by fear of the rest of the world. Social democracy: U.S., multiple party system, mixed economy, welfare state. 3. Fascism and Nazi Germany: What types of ideas and goals informed Fascist ideologies? Antidemocratic, anti Marxist, antiparliamentary, antiSemitic, Pro middle class, small business, small amount of property, small farmers, Nationalistic single party dictatorship, terrorism, police surveillance, no human or spiritual values can exist outside of the state. What countries developed Fascist governments? Germany, Italy, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Greece, Spain and Portugal. What were the distinctive ideas and goals of the Nazi party? They believed that human beings could be classified collectively as “races” and they adopted the social Darwinist take on Darwinian evolutionary theory regarding the “survival of the fittest.” Why were the Nazis able to take power in Germany? Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor, he came to power by legitimate means. Used mass politics and propaganda and secret police. Popular support from issues: security against communists and socialists, effective government in place of petty politics, nationalistic vision of a strong, restored Germany. Why did the Nazi seizure of power increase the likelihood of another war? Gained full legal authority, crush opposition parties, purge rivals within the Nazi party itself. Reichstag Fire: used by Hitler to arrest communists and control Parliament. Gave him unlimited legal powers. (Nazis 43.9% of vote). Seized government offices, banks, newspapers, arrested leaders. Outlawed all other German political parties. Ordered murder of rival Nazi leaders. Hindenburg died. Hitler became sole ruler of Germany and Nazi Party. 4. World War II: What caused the war? It was a continuation of WWI (fought to right the wrongs of the Treaty of Versailles), it was a solution to Great Depression (rearmament), and war was seen as a national "necessity", pacifism, appeasement, and war. How was the war conducted? “Have not” nations against established empires, total war. 5. Explain the significance of the Jozefow massacre according to historian Christopher Browning. What lessons does it teach us about the origins of the Holocaust? Volunteer police are given a choice to kill Jews and they do out of fear, precaution, and unemployment. 6. Compare/Contrast World War I and World War II: Why/how did each war begin? WWII: continuation of WWI, solution to Great Depression, war as a national necessity, pacifism, appeasement, and war. WWI: assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. What made the wars different from previous conflicts in world history? It was seen as a single “30 years” war and they were global/total wars between empires. What made the two wars different from each other? Total war: exploitation of "captive" populations, conscript and slave labor, extensive targeting of civilian populations. WWII was more destructive to the physical environment and overall had more civilian deaths. Both had different origins, weapons, and tactics. What was the role of technology in each conflict? WWI: application of mass production of weapons and technology warfare, industrialization, poison gas, tanks, air and naval warfare (submarines), railways. WWII: infantry, tanks for large tracks of land.in Germany Blitzkrieg had mechanized warfare and airpower, propaganda, industrialization, telegraphs. How did the “lessons” of World War I inform the conduct of World War II? Lesson of WWI: History does not always repeat itself. War became a solution to the Great Depression instead of causing one. If you break the will to support the war, then you can eliminate them from war, as a result enormous plots of land are bombed like in Tokyo. Different origins, weapons, and tactics. Infantry helps large tracks of land change hands quickly instead of going into a stalemate like WWI. 7. What were the consequences of World War II? How did it change the world? Consequences: mass murder, mass death, and mass destruction. More civilian deaths and more destruction to the physical environment. Blitzkrieg ("A lightning war"): mechanized warfare and airpower, speed vs. supplies. Enhanced importance of supplies and logistics. Mass destruction of buildings industries and resources. Extensive occupation of civilian populations. Changes: the unconditional surrender of the axis and the allied occupation of Germany and Japan. The Nuremberg trials, the creation of the United Nations, the end of the era of European dominance, emergence of the new "superpowers" (U.S and Soviet Union). 8. Why did communism become a popular political model following World War II? Why was almost onethird of the world population living in communist countries by 1960? The appeal of communism: people look at Soviet Union and see society that promotes equality and industrialized rapidly. The spread of Communism after 1945: attraction of the soviet (Stalinist) model of government, communism as a "program for modernization", by 1960 communism in: Eastern Europe, North Korea, China, North Vietnam, and Cuba. 9. What characteristics defined communist nationstates during the Cold War? Rivalry, hostility, and military conflict. 10. Communist China: Compare/contrast communist China under the rule of Mao and after Mao’s death in 1976. Under the rule of Mao: 1950s collectivization of agriculture, 1958 was the Great Leap Forward, 1960s was the Cultural Revolution (replicates what Stalin had), cost: 2030 million Chinese die in order to create this system and repeat of consequences. After Mao's death in 1976: Deng Xiaoping creates an economic restructuring system called the "Socialist Market economy" Compare/contrast communist rule in China with that in Russia from 19171991. Mao copied a lot of the Russian communist government. Mao replicates what Stalin had. Communist rule does not fall in China because Deng Xiaoping and the "Socialist market economy" economic restructuring. Communist rule falls in Russia. 11. The Cold War: What were its origins? Hiroshima; redefinition of U.S. and Japanese national identity, creates global culture of fear; can now imagine that large populations of the world can become extinct quickly and changes way of looking at warfare. Emergence of the new superpowers U.S. and Soviet Union. WWII, ideological conflict, ideological export. What was the nature of the Cold War conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, and how it was waged? The nature of the cold war conflict was that most countries pick one or the other between communism and Social Democracy. Nations must choose between the two which means the competition is on to see who is going to emerge as the bigger ideology, this increases tension. Nuclear Armsrace. How it was waged: "Mutually Assured Destruction" and "Massive Retaliation". Fear and pessimism, noninterference, and containment. How did the Cold War change global politics? Political polarization (world), political unity (nation). In Europe: Warsaw pact and North Atlantic Treaty Organization. First world: Capitalist social democracies. Second world: communists. Third world: unaligned or nonaligned countries. How did the Cold War contribute to popular culture? Bert the Turtle says: "Duck and Cover" educates children to duck when they see something coming from the sky. The backyard bomb shelter. Spy movies: James Bond. Literature and TV. Skepticism: question motives of everyone. What was the relationship between the Cold War and Decolonization? Two separate but intersecting histories, both large scale political events, reorganized the political framework of the globe after 1945. Decolonization creates new nation states in which are needed to pick between Communism and Social Democracy or become unaligned or nonaligned. The rising power of internationalism (new superpowers, UN, IMF) is part of decolonization which leads to the Cold War. 12. Decolonization: What were its origins? (What was the “equilateral triangle” of decolonization?) "The equilateral triangle of decolonization" was national politics, international developments, and colonial protests. Changes in the policies of European nations. Rising power of internationalism (new superpowers, UN, IMF). Local mass protest and independence movements in Asia and Africa. How was decolonization carried out? End of political imperialism. Business/economic imperialism continues. WWI: colonial contributions left unrewarded, idea of "selfdetermination.” In India Gandhi suggests "Nonviolent noncooperation" to go against British government on taxes on salt. This shifts to "Independence.” Great Depression: "Marxist" interpretation of colonialism appeals to the "world Court" and this increases violent insurrections. WWII: end of respect for European leaders, colonies change hands, wartime power vacuums, the removal of European government makes it difficult to reinstall it after war. Emergence of new super powers opposed to European powers. WWII aftermath: postwar power vacuums in Asia and Africa, intellectual and social crisis in Europe, global political polarization, creation of the UN and IMF, rise of "Air power" end of seaborne empires. What was the relationship between decolonization, violence, and previous forms of colonial rule? Violence lead to decolonization, widespread unfair colonial rule lead to decolonization, and colonial rule often involved violence. How did decolonization change Asia and Africa? PanAfricanism: unite Africans all over the world, started by the president of Ghana, followed by Malcolm X. PanArabism: unify Muslims against first and second world influence (failed quickly though). How did decolonization change world history? Creation of the United Nations: greatest realization is the creation of the soudern nation state which created a major shift in world history. Created new nations in the political world. Western Europe lost their foothold as a world power. Years of instability and disappointment in newly independent countries. Distrust in the west. Intensified religious and ethnic conflicts. What types of problems did decolonization leave behind? Poverty, racism, and conservatism. Post colonial nations were left to fend for themselves. What was the relationship between decolonization and the Cold War? Two separate but intersecting histories, both large scale political events, and reorganized the political framework of the globe after 1945. 13. The role of the United Nations after 1945: Why was it important? It was important because the UN was created to ensure peace and prevent future global and total wars. It was supposed to provide an even playing field for countries to peacefully decide their differences through discussion and negotiation instead of through war and violence. How did its existence change world history? No more world wars. 14. The “three” worlds of the Cold War era: Be able to compare/contrast the “first,” “second,” and “third” worlds, and explain what types of similarities defined countries in each category (i.e. what did all “first” world countries share in common, etc.). First World: capitalist social democracies. Second World: communists. Third World: un aligned or nonaligned countries. Unaligned countries haven't made up their mind what kind of government they want. Non aligned means they don't want any of those type of governments at all. Nonaligned: demanded reduction in tensions between the U.S. and Soviet Union, reduction of nuclear arsenals, peaceful coexistence between nations, and respect for the integrity and independence of all nation states. Problems: "nonaligned" nations still participate in the cold war. Wars between "nonaligned" nations. 15. The Third/Postcolonial world: What characteristics defined a Third world nation? Unaligned or nonaligned countries. Non Alignment: demanded: reduction in tensions between the U.S. and Soviet Union, reduction of nuclear arsenals, peaceful coexistence between nations, and respect for the integrity and independence of all nationstates. Problems: "non aligned" nations participate in the cold war, wars between "non aligned" nations. What characteristics defined a postcolonial nation? Shared legacies of European Imperialism. Convert regions of world to be dependent on European trade. Persistence of Economic Dependency. Limited infrastructures. Intensified religious and ethnic conflicts. Invented nations. European social and political frameworks of government. Most colonies were created by Europeans, Nigeria built by British and it’s hard to unify so many different languages so the new independent governments are forced to depend on what Europeans left behind. Persistence of military rule and European language. Weird European cemetery that Gov. can’t get rid of because of foreign interests. Distrust in west. What types of problems did postcolonial nations face? Limited infrastructure, intensified religious conflicts, ethnic tension, invented nations (that didn't include people that spoke the same language hard to govern), untrained leaders, and no shared national identity. Why did many decolonized countries in Asia and Africa continue using European languages and styles of government, and why was this controversial? There were so many languages spoken. European languages were the only ones the people all knew. Further questioned the national identity as a decolonized nation. 16. Compare/contrast the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and the Prague Spring. Prague Spring and Proletarian Cultural revolution are similar in which they both involved the younger generation rioting. Prague Spring: students rioting against government. Proletarian Cultural Revolution was a government ordered riot for youths to overthrow ancestors and throw them from power. 17. The Fall of Communism, 19891991: Was it expected? Unexpected because of how thriving the Soviet Union was. What caused the collapse of communism in Russia and Eastern Europe (be able to identify both long and shortterm factors)? Short term: The failure to deliver the Marxist utopia, inferior standards of living, the party and the "Apprenticeship" of the people, the persistence of class inequality (nomenclature), the persistence of gender inequality, the persistence of state terror, repression, and censorship, the inhibition of the imagination, afghan war, the acceleration of the arms race, Mikhail Gorbachev becomes general secretary of the communist party. Long terms: Glasnost "openness", perestroika, result: soviet government authority undermined and soviet economy, destabilized "economic anarchy", return of nationalist politics, free elections (1989). What kinds of problems did the collapse of communism leave behind (both in individual, former communist countries and in the world as a whole)? Political instability, economic instability, McDonalds in Moscow case study, cultural and psychological transitions, Russian decolonization, the resurgence of ethnic, religious, and national conflicts (ethnic cleansing). Why did communism continue in China? Deng Xiaoping and the "Socialist Market economy" helped economic restructuring. Tiananmen Square (June 1989): hundreds killed but they were able to transform economy by solving problems unlike the Soviet Union. 18. Explain why Robert Strayer believes it is dangerous for historians to look to the past for lessons to apply to the present day. Unexpected consequences, we are really bad at predicting the future using the past. The historical record allows many people to draw very different lessons from it. 19. Explain why Robert Strayer thinks it is: (1) Useful for historians to consider questions of morality when studying the past. Because we all stand somewhere and hold certain values and outlooks on the world it is better to recognize this than to pretend we can be completely unbiased. Making judgements is a way of caring about the past. (2) What the inherent value(s) (or uses) of historical study might be. It provides us with a panorama of human achievement and tragedy, and gives perspective to our limited experience.
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