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HIST 1020 - Final Exam Study Guide

by: Samantha Allison

HIST 1020 - Final Exam Study Guide HIST 1020-002

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020-002 > HIST 1020 Final Exam Study Guide
Samantha Allison
GPA 3.54

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Here's a complete study guide for the FINAL exam. Good luck!
World History II
Dr. Christopher J. Ferguson
Study Guide
world, history, final
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Allison on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Christopher J. Ferguson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/30/16
HIST 1020 ­ FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE 1. Review how to apply Robert Strayer’s “3Cs” of world history to the history of the world,  circa 1945­2000. Comparison: comparing fascism, communism, and social democracy.  Connection: chain affect that events have on the world. Change: everything has changed after WWII. 2. What are the differences between Fascism, Communism, and Social Democracy? (Also,  know the primary examples of countries representing each political system in the 1930s  and during World War II.) Fascism: Nazi Germany, hated communism, one party gov.  pro­unity and pro­military. Communism: U.S.S.R., one party system, defined by fear of  the rest of the world. Social democracy: U.S., multiple party system, mixed economy,  welfare state. 3. Fascism and Nazi Germany:  What types of ideas and goals informed Fascist ideologies? Anti­democratic, anti­ Marxist, anti­parliamentary, anti­Semitic, Pro­ middle class, small business, small amount of property, small farmers, Nationalistic­ single party dictatorship,  terrorism, police surveillance, no human or spiritual values can exist outside of  the state.  What countries developed Fascist governments? Germany, Italy, Austria,  Hungary, Rumania, Greece, Spain and Portugal.  What were the distinctive ideas and goals of the Nazi party? They believed that  human beings could be classified collectively as “races” and they adopted the  social Darwinist take on Darwinian evolutionary theory regarding the “survival of the fittest.”   Why were the Nazis able to take power in Germany? Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor, he came to power by legitimate means. Used mass politics and  propaganda and secret police. Popular support from issues: security against  communists and socialists, effective government in place of petty politics,  nationalistic vision of a strong, restored Germany.  Why did the Nazi seizure of power increase the likelihood of another war? Gained full legal authority, crush opposition parties, purge rivals within the Nazi party  itself. Reichstag Fire: used by Hitler to arrest communists and control Parliament.  Gave him unlimited legal powers. (Nazis 43.9% of vote). Seized government  offices, banks, newspapers, arrested leaders. Outlawed all other German political  parties. Ordered murder of rival Nazi leaders. Hindenburg died. Hitler became  sole ruler of Germany and Nazi Party. 4. World War II:   What caused the war? It was a continuation of WWI (fought to right the wrongs  of the Treaty of Versailles), it was a solution to Great Depression (rearmament),  and war was seen as a national "necessity", pacifism, appeasement, and war.  How was the war conducted? “Have not” nations against established empires,  total war. 5. Explain the significance of the Jozefow massacre according to historian Christopher  Browning. What lessons does it teach us about the origins of the Holocaust? Volunteer  police are given a choice to kill Jews and they do out of fear, precaution, and  unemployment. 6. Compare/Contrast World War I and World War II:   Why/how did each war begin? WWII: continuation of WWI, solution to Great  Depression, war as a national necessity, pacifism, appeasement, and war. WWI:  assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.  What made the wars different from previous conflicts in world history? It was  seen as a single “30 years” war and they were global/total wars between empires.  What made the two wars different from each other? Total war: exploitation of  "captive" populations, conscript and slave labor, extensive targeting of civilian  populations. WWII was more destructive to the physical environment and overall  had more civilian deaths. Both had different origins, weapons, and tactics.  What was the role of technology in each conflict? WWI: application of mass  production of weapons and technology warfare, industrialization, poison gas,  tanks, air and naval warfare (submarines), railways. WWII: infantry, tanks for  large tracks of Germany Blitzkrieg had mechanized warfare and airpower,  propaganda, industrialization, telegraphs.  How did the “lessons” of World War I inform the conduct of World War II?  Lesson of WWI: History does not always repeat itself. War became a solution to  the Great Depression instead of causing one. If you break the will to support the  war, then you can eliminate them from war, as a result enormous plots of land are  bombed like in Tokyo. Different origins, weapons, and tactics. Infantry helps  large tracks of land change hands quickly instead of going into a stalemate like  WWI. 7. What were the consequences of World War II? How did it change the world?  Consequences: mass murder, mass death, and mass destruction. More civilian deaths and more destruction to the physical environment. Blitzkrieg ("A lightning war"): mechanized warfare and airpower, speed vs. supplies. Enhanced importance of supplies and logistics.  Mass destruction of buildings industries and resources. Extensive occupation of civilian  populations. Changes: the unconditional surrender of the axis and the allied occupation  of Germany and Japan. The Nuremberg trials, the creation of the United Nations, the end  of the era of European dominance, emergence of the new "superpowers" (U.S and Soviet  Union). 8. Why did communism become a popular political model following World War II? Why  was almost one­third of the world population living in communist countries by 1960?  The appeal of communism: people look at Soviet Union and see society that promotes  equality and industrialized rapidly. The spread of Communism after 1945: attraction of the soviet (Stalinist) model of government, communism as a "program for  modernization", by 1960 communism in: Eastern Europe, North Korea, China, North  Vietnam, and Cuba.  9. What characteristics defined communist nation­states during the Cold War? Rivalry,  hostility, and military conflict. 10. Communist China:   Compare/contrast communist China under the rule of Mao and after Mao’s death  in 1976. Under the rule of Mao: 1950s collectivization of agriculture, 1958 was  the Great Leap Forward, 1960s was the Cultural Revolution (replicates what  Stalin had), cost: 20­30 million Chinese die in order to create this system and  repeat of consequences. After Mao's death in 1976: Deng Xiaoping creates an  economic restructuring system called the "Socialist Market economy"  Compare/contrast communist rule in China with that in Russia from 1917­1991.  Mao copied a lot of the Russian communist government. Mao replicates what  Stalin had. Communist rule does not fall in China because Deng Xiaoping and the "Socialist market economy" economic restructuring. Communist rule falls in  Russia. 11. The Cold War:   What were its origins? Hiroshima; redefinition of U.S. and Japanese national  identity, creates global culture of fear; can now imagine that large populations of  the world can become extinct quickly and changes way of looking at warfare.  Emergence of the new superpowers U.S. and Soviet Union. WWII, ideological  conflict, ideological export.  What was the nature of the Cold War conflict between the United States and the  Soviet Union, and how it was waged? The nature of the cold war conflict was that most countries pick one or the other between communism and Social Democracy.  Nations must choose between the two which means the competition is on to see  who is going to emerge as the bigger ideology, this increases tension. Nuclear  Arms­race. How it was waged: "Mutually Assured Destruction" and "Massive  Retaliation". Fear and pessimism, noninterference, and containment.  How did the Cold War change global politics? Political polarization (world),  political unity (nation). In Europe: Warsaw pact and North Atlantic Treaty  Organization. First world: Capitalist social democracies. Second world:  communists. Third world: un­aligned or non­aligned countries.  How did the Cold War contribute to popular culture? Bert the Turtle says: "Duck  and Cover" educates children to duck when they see something coming from the  sky. The backyard bomb shelter. Spy movies: James Bond. Literature and TV.  Skepticism: question motives of everyone.   What was the relationship between the Cold War and Decolonization? Two  separate but intersecting histories, both large scale political events, reorganized  the political framework of the globe after 1945. Decolonization creates new  nation states in which are needed to pick between Communism and Social  Democracy or become un­aligned or nonaligned. The rising power of  internationalism (new superpowers, UN, IMF) is part of decolonization which  leads to the Cold War. 12. Decolonization:   What were its origins? (What was the “equilateral triangle” of decolonization?)  "The equilateral triangle of decolonization" was national politics, international  developments, and colonial protests. Changes in the policies of European nations.  Rising power of internationalism (new superpowers, UN, IMF). Local mass  protest and independence movements in Asia and Africa.  How was decolonization carried out? End of political imperialism.  Business/economic imperialism continues. WWI: colonial contributions left  unrewarded, idea of "self­determination.” In India Gandhi suggests "Non­violent  non­cooperation" to go against British government on taxes on salt. This shifts to  "Independence.” Great Depression: "Marxist" interpretation of colonialism  appeals to the "world Court" and this increases violent insurrections. WWII: end  of respect for European leaders, colonies change hands, wartime power vacuums,  the removal of European government makes it difficult to reinstall it after war.  Emergence of new super powers opposed to European powers. WWII aftermath:  postwar power vacuums in Asia and Africa, intellectual and social crisis in  Europe, global political polarization, creation of the UN and IMF, rise of "Air  power" end of sea­borne empires.  What was the relationship between decolonization, violence, and previous forms  of colonial rule? Violence lead to decolonization, widespread unfair colonial rule  lead to decolonization, and colonial rule often involved violence.  How did decolonization change Asia and Africa? Pan­Africanism: unite Africans  all over the world, started by the president of Ghana, followed by Malcolm X.  Pan­Arabism: unify Muslims against first and second world influence (failed  quickly though).  How did decolonization change world history? Creation of the United Nations:  greatest realization is the creation of the soudern nation state which created a  major shift in world history. Created new nations in the political world. Western  Europe lost their foothold as a world power. Years of instability and  disappointment in newly independent countries. Distrust in the west. Intensified  religious and ethnic conflicts.  What types of problems did decolonization leave behind? Poverty, racism, and  conservatism. Post­ colonial nations were left to fend for themselves.  What was the relationship between decolonization and the Cold War? Two  separate but intersecting histories, both large scale political events, and  reorganized the political framework of the globe after 1945. 13. The role of the United Nations after 1945:   Why was it important? It was important because the UN was created to ensure  peace and prevent future global and total wars. It was supposed to provide an  even playing field for countries to peacefully decide their differences through  discussion and negotiation instead of through war and violence.  How did its existence change world history? No more world wars. 14. The “three” worlds of the Cold War era: Be able to compare/contrast the “first,”  “second,” and “third” worlds, and explain what types of similarities defined countries in  each category (i.e. what did all “first” world countries share in common, etc.). First  World: capitalist social democracies. Second World: communists. Third World: un­ aligned or non­aligned countries. Unaligned countries haven't made up their mind what  kind of government they want. Non­ aligned means they don't want any of those type of  governments at all. Non­aligned: demanded reduction in tensions between the U.S. and  Soviet Union, reduction of nuclear arsenals, peaceful coexistence between nations, and  respect for the integrity and independence of all nation states. Problems: "non­aligned"  nations still participate in the cold war. Wars between "non­aligned" nations. 15. The Third/Postcolonial world:   What characteristics defined a Third world nation? Un­aligned or non­aligned  countries. Non­ Alignment: demanded: reduction in tensions between the U.S.  and Soviet Union, reduction of nuclear arsenals, peaceful coexistence between  nations, and respect for the integrity and independence of all nation­states.  Problems: "non­ aligned" nations participate in the cold war, wars between "non­ aligned" nations.  What characteristics defined a postcolonial nation?  Shared legacies of European  Imperialism. Convert regions of world to be dependent on European trade.  Persistence of Economic Dependency. Limited infrastructures. Intensified  religious and ethnic conflicts. Invented nations. European social and political  frameworks of government. Most colonies were created by Europeans, Nigeria  built by British and it’s hard to unify so many different languages so the new  independent governments are forced to depend on what Europeans left behind.  Persistence of military rule and European language. Weird European cemetery  that Gov. can’t get rid of because of foreign interests. Distrust in west.   What types of problems did postcolonial nations face?  Limited infrastructure,  intensified religious conflicts, ethnic tension, invented nations (that didn't include  people that spoke the same language hard to govern), untrained leaders, and no  shared national identity.  Why did many decolonized countries in Asia and Africa continue using European  languages and styles of government, and why was this controversial? There were  so many languages spoken. European languages were the only ones the people all  knew. Further questioned the national identity as a decolonized nation. 16. Compare/contrast the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and the Prague Spring.  Prague Spring and Proletarian Cultural revolution are similar in which they both involved the younger generation rioting. Prague Spring: students rioting against government.  Proletarian Cultural Revolution was a government ordered riot for youths to overthrow  ancestors and throw them from power. 17. The Fall of Communism, 1989­1991:   Was it expected? Unexpected because of how thriving the Soviet Union was.   What caused the collapse of communism in Russia and Eastern Europe (be able to identify both long and short­term factors)? Short term: The failure to deliver the  Marxist utopia, inferior standards of living, the party and the "Apprenticeship" of  the people, the persistence of class inequality (nomenclature), the persistence of  gender inequality, the persistence of state terror, repression, and censorship, the  inhibition of the imagination, afghan war, the acceleration of the arms race,  Mikhail Gorbachev becomes general secretary of the communist party. Long  terms: Glasnost "openness", perestroika, result: soviet government authority  undermined and soviet economy, destabilized "economic anarchy", return of  nationalist politics, free elections (1989).  What kinds of problems did the collapse of communism leave behind (both in  individual, former communist countries and in the world as a whole)? Political  instability, economic instability, McDonalds in Moscow case study, cultural and  psychological transitions, Russian decolonization, the resurgence of ethnic,  religious, and national conflicts (ethnic cleansing).  Why did communism continue in China? Deng Xiaoping and the "Socialist  Market economy" helped economic restructuring. Tiananmen Square (June 1989): hundreds killed but they were able to transform economy by solving problems  unlike the Soviet Union. 18. Explain why Robert Strayer believes it is dangerous for historians to look to the past for  lessons to apply to the present day. Unexpected consequences, we are really bad at  predicting the future using the past. The historical record allows many people to draw  very different lessons from it. 19. Explain why Robert Strayer thinks it is: (1) Useful for historians to consider questions of morality when studying the past.  Because we all stand somewhere and hold certain values and outlooks on the world­ it is  better to recognize this than to pretend we can be completely unbiased. Making  judgements is a way of caring about the past. (2) What the inherent value(s) (or uses) of historical study might be. It provides us with a  panorama of human achievement and tragedy, and gives perspective to our limited  experience.


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