psych 100 final study guide
psych 100 final study guide PSYCH 100
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Lii on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 100 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Psych review session Sensation- up until transduction. After transduction- sensation and perception Bottom up- stimulus driven Top down- experiences driven Nether cube- top down Transduction- conversion of energy to nerve stimulus. Photoreceptors- cones, rods Greater concentration of rods in periphery, cones in center Info from senses (audition, vision) go through thalamus before going to brain Perception of world is electrical signal similar to shape or color Origin of sensation isn’t important. Only where it is processed is important Webers law- Just noticeable difference -actual and perception not always linear Signal detection theory-make decisions about whether or not you notice something. We always have bias. SDT removes the bias yes no present hit miss absent False alarm Correct rejection Retina-where light is transduced to signal or code for brain to interpret. Thin layer of photoreceptors in back of eye sensitive to light Pupil- makes sure an appropriate amount of eye enters Cornea-where light passes through 1. Exam myopia and hyperopia- nearsighted-eyeball is too long so light focus before hits retina. Farsightedness- eyeball is too short so light hit back of retina before chance to focus 2. But in real life, not the only way. More common that there are changes in shape or flexibility of lens or cornea Opponent process theory- explain after images • Ganglion cells are opponent processors. You Trichromatic theory of color vision • Primary colors- red, blue, green • If see red then the color red is being processed so the light will activate red and green cones, but will activate the red more Shape constancy- object stays the same across different viewing angles (top down) Size constancy- objects stay the same size wheter they are near or far, farther objects project a smaller image on the retina Color constancy- colors appear the same under different lighting conditions. Brain automatically accounts for context when determining colors Change blindness- failure to notice a visual change • Comparision to memory Psych review session • Reasons: Inattentional blindness- you literally do not see an unexpected stimulus if your attention is focused on something else Transduction in auditory system happens in cochlea What part is for high or low pitch Why as we grow older have difficulty hearing high pitches? Basilar membrane used to be flexible to vibrate, but getting more rigid Sound has 3 properties- • Pitch- wave freq • Loudness- amplitude of the sound waves • Timbre- complexity of sound, make sounds unique (tell difference between sounds, ec. Clarinet vs. trombone) Gustation- taste Olfactory-smell Vestibular-balance Algorithms and mental sets • Algorithms: step by step learned procedure used to solve a problem • Mental sets: becoming stuck in a particular problem solving strategy • Functional fixedness- difficulty using object for a purpose it wasn’t originally intended Representative heuristic- like goes with like, judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype or exemplar Base rate fallacy- we tend to ignore how common behaviors actually are in a population Bandwagon fallacy- don’t do stuff just because everyone else does Hindsight bias- overestimate how well we could have successfully forecasted some outcome Post hoc fallacy- since b came after a, a caused b Cohort- people of the same age/ experience 3 stages of prenatal dev 1. Germinal 2. Embryonic 3. Fetal Teratogens-drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, xrays, anxiety, and depression Critical period- a time where certain kinds of growth must occur if the infant’s development Vgotsky- learning is general Piaget- learning is occurring in stages Zone of proximal development Psych review session High warmth Low warmth High control Authoritative Authoritarian Low control permissive uninvolved Baby temperament- • Easy babies (40% Caucasian babies) • Only 65% belong in one of the groups Know strange situation • Secure- infant quickly warms up to parent • Insecure-avoidant- ignore parent • Insecure ambivilant-alrernate between rejecting and clinging • Disorganized-inconsistent and disturbed Sensorimotor- here and now. Lack object permanence Preoperational- can’t understand conservation, uses symbols, pass object permanence Operational- what if, logical concepts, abstract questions Kohlberg 1. Preconventional- consequences 2. Conventional-followlules and please people 3. Postconventional- morals All about how you process the info Theories of emotion and mot 1. James lange theory- have physiological response, then emotion, then emotion 2. Cannon bard- physiological and emotional response occur at same time 3. Two factor- all emotions are a result of undifferentiated arousal response- Gestures 1. Emblems- only ones without words. Convey conventional meanings recognized by members of a culture 2. Illustrators- highlight or accentuate speech. Illustrate spoken word (uncle sam) 3. Manipulator- body part..(ex hurry up! –use hads to rush. ) Drive reduction theory- homeostasis, equilibrium. Motivation to balance biological needs Incentive theory-both can happen at same time! NOT EXCLUSIVE Psych review session 1. Intrinsic motivation-motivated by internal goals 2. Extrinsic motivation-“ “ external “ a. Undermines intrinsic motivation Optimal arousal theory • Yerkes Dodson law • Arousal: general level of activation • Everyone has a peak performance level of arousal • Different tasks require diff levels of arousal o Difficult or intellectually demanding- lower level o Easy-higher level Maslow • Physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self actualization Sternbergs theory of love • Intimacy and passion- romantic love • Intimacy and commitment- companion • Commitment and passion-fatuous Unconscious influences on emotion • Mere exposure effect • Habituation Locus of control • The extent to which we believe that reinforcers and punishers lie either inside or outside our control • Internal locus of control: believe life events are largely due to their own efforts of personal characteristics o Defensive pessimism- anticipating and mentally over preparing for negative outcomes • External locus of control- expect others to change Attributions • Fundamental attribution error vs. ultimate attribution error • Overestimate impact of dispositional (internal) influences • Underestimate impact of situatioinal (external) influences • We always think externally for our faults Group think- emphasis on group uanaimity at the expense of critical thinking • Group focused on agreement • Group iq are lower than individual Deindividuation • We tend to behave unusually when stripped on our usual identities Conformity • Check our own behaviors to others and conform to it accordingly • Don’t want to stand out • Solomon asch • Consciously or unconsciously • If groups are unequal then more likely to conform to majority Psych review session • If equal then groups most likely to polarize- become more extreme • Factors that influence conformity- as group size increases, conformity increases until reach peak then becomes stable o Unanimity o Size of group o Culture o Deindividualization • Obedience- adherence to orders from those of higher authority o Milgram o The greater the psychological distance between teacher and learner, the more the obedience o Variants § Original study § Learner in same room as teacher-40% Prejudice and discrimination • Prejudging • Drawing negative conclusions about a person or group without evaluating the evidence • Stereotype- generally applying a belief- can be positive or negative • Scapegoating- blaming others for our problems • Out group homogeneity o Tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar • Social loafing- slack off in groups • Nonintervention o Pluralistic ignorance § The belief that no one else sees things the way we do Persuasion techniques • Foot in the door- start small then add more things- membership then add things • Door in the face- asking people for overly large commitments, and then asking for smaller requests • Low ball- quoting a falsely low price, getting a commitment, and raising the price Advertising: Implicating egotism • People gravitate toward people, places, and things that resemble the self Freuds model of personality • Id- gratification of desires, pleasure principle • Ego- mediator between id and superego, reality principle, negotiate, rational, in the conscious • Superego- moral center-should, should not Defense mechanism • Displacement- use aggression on something not harmful • Projection- take out frustration on someone else • Reaction formation- grief, form exact opposite opinion (ex) homophobia, not supposed to be, say “gay people are bad” Psych review session OCEAN: Big 5-test retest is reliable • Openness to experience • Conscientiousness • Extraversion • Agreeableness • neuroticism CPI Minnesota multiphasic inventory Personality: humanist approach (carl rogers) • personality as a product of the self actualization process • accepting both yourself and those around you • being a real human being 3 approaches to personality • psychoanalytic • behavioristic-person. Shaped by environment, behaviors shaped by rewards/ consequences • humanistic- perspective reciprocal determinism- tendency for people to mutually influence each other’s behavior. Not all genetic a potential personality pitful • pt barnum effect- people are likely to believe general feedback • makes assessing validity of personality tests tricky mental illness • statistical rarity • subjective distress • impairment • societal disapproval • biological dysfunction agoraphobia • fear of having a panic attack in a place difficult to escape from KNOW ALL THERAPIES AND APPLY behavioral therapy- systematic desensitization-mere exposure effect, flooding-safe massive exposure to feared stimulus-response prevention humanistic- carlg rogers and fritz perls. • Gestalt=whole • Symptoms occur when clients lose themselves • Growth occurs only when aware of feelings • TWO CHAIR TECHNIQUE • Therapists points out inconsistencies Psych review session • roleplay psychodynamic CONTRAST CLASSIC (FREUD) –BEHAVIOR IS ROOTED IN UNCONSCIOUS CONFLICTS CONTEMP-EMPHASIS IS MORE ON CONSCIOUS ASPECTS. INDIVIDUATION. EMPHASIZE IMPACT OF CULTURAL AND INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCES ACROSS A LIFESPAN, overcoming problems after childhood Classic-go to therapy for rest of life. Contemporary- go once or twice freud- fix problem. Think people as patients or clients
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