Date of Exam: May 4, 2016 at 10:20am12:20pm
Final Exam Study Guide:
● The final exam will consist of three questions:
1. Write two speeches by Pope Francis and President Vladimir Putin of Russia when they meet in Moscow.
2. Write a speech for Sheik Ahmad Al Tayeb when he speaks at the Lisner Auditorium at GW.
3. Write an essay on the “Clash of Civilizations” thesis by professor Samuel Huntington? What are the main premises of his treatise? Evaluate his points and proposals.
● First question on Pope Francis and Vladimir Putin:
○ Professor said that we need to mention how they will address the foreign policies of their two states, how will they talk about the crisis in Ukraine and the crisis in Syria, and how they will explain their views on world politics?
○ Pope Francis and Putin’s behaviour during meeting can be explained by realism: ■ Both are leaders of nations with sovereignty (both trying to expand the reach of their sovereignty over other nations)
■ Both are elites that are aware of the historic and geographic context ■ Both want to reach their national interest (shape events in world politics) a. Pope Francis is doing this by making sure that Catholic Church is Don't forget about the age old question of Who was chosen by roosevelt as supreme commander of d-day?
an influential player
b. Putin is trying to make Russia a strong nation again
■ Both nurture the power of their nation because they know that power is a fact of life
○ They want to avoid a general crisis, preserve unity with West, question how America exercise power, are carefully with how they deal with Islamic World and are aware of the rise of China, Asia, Japan and India
○ Pope Francis thinks of himself as an intellect and as a diplomat to try to cease tensions between the East and the West and between the rich North and the poor South
○ Pope Francis and Putin’s behaviour during meeting can be explained by liberalism:
■ Both are members of several treaties and conventions and see war as last resort
○ Pope Francis and Putin’s behaviour during meeting can be explained by constructivism:
■ Both are conservative on social issues
a. Example is that they oppose gay marriage
■ Both are aware of moral crisis in Western societies Don't forget about the age old question of What happens when there is radioactive decay?
■ Putin may see the Pope as someone who opposes isolating and
a. Unlike America, Catholic Church does not want to antagonize Russia
■ Pope will try to:
a. Mediate talks between Russia and Ukraine because of fear of war b. Be against containment policy of Russia and Europe splitting between those that support Russia and those that don’t
■ Putin sees Ukraine as important geographical entity
■ Putin will try to:
a. Diminish NATO and Western presence in Ukraine
b. Encourage the dismembering of Ukraine by supporting
■ Both trying to diminish Iran’s international isolation and define statesmanship as the ability to meet and overcome more than one challenge at same time
○ Putin and Pope Francis fear that Syria could turn into an Islamic state ○ Need to mention how protocol will be exercised in the speeches ○ What will Putin say?
■ Accuse America of being an imperialist nation who is trying to undermine Eurasia
■ Enounce any territorial claims over Ukraine and he would say he respects Ukraine's sovereignty. If you want to learn more check out What are the six types of hypothesis-testing?
■ Challenge the West and America particularly in Ukraine
a. Wants to score points against Washington
b. Wants to tarnish America’s international reputation and undermine its global authority.
■ Emphasize the SlavicOrthodox bonds between Russian and Ukraine. ■ Point out to a spiritual crisis in the west
a. Pope will agree with him on this
■ May refer to Gorbachev's old thesis about a common European home ■ Will refer to Russia as Third Rome
a. Pope may say he is happy to arrive in third Rome
■ Will say Russia has a clear national interest in Ukraine
■ Will describe NATO as a pact of aggression
■ Iran: there is a right for nations to acquire technology
○ What will Pope say?
■ Will ask Putin and Russia to play a big role in world development especially the immigration crisis from Africa to Europe
■ May warn against militias being used in conflicts (Ukraine and Syria) and the disorder they create. We also discuss several other topics like Why are skeletal collections important?
■ May agree with Putin not to change regimes unilaterally (criticism of America.)
■ Syria: Pope would say to stop the violence and not to support dictatorship a. This could be a weak point for Putin
■ Iran: Use technology not to endanger other nations' existence. We also discuss several other topics like What were the highlight during the jim crow era?
○ Putin and Francis would put emphasis on the evolving nation of the international system after the end of the Cold War and warn against unilateralism in action ○ Pope will condemn the enslavement of the human by totalitarian dictatorships and by consumerism We also discuss several other topics like Why do seasons occur?
● Second question on Sheik Ahmad Al Taye:
○ Start by saying that he did not go to Brazil to attend the first match at the FIFAs World Cup
○ Professor said that in this speech you have to express his views on the role of Islam in world politics, reconciliation between Sunnis and Shiites and why he opposes Islamists and their efforts to control the governments of many Islamic countries.
○ What will he talk about?
■ His meetings with the former president of Iran in an attempt to end sectarian division between the Sunnis and the Shiites
■ Why he was opposed to those Islamists and why he supported their removal from power in Egypt in July 2013
■ Why Al Azhar will resume dialogue with the Vatican after the relations between the two religious institutions stopped following Pope Benedict XVI speech in Germany in 2006
■ Talk about the role of Islam in World Politics
■ Endorse the modernization effort undergoing on in the Islamic World in our contemporary world
■ NO CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS BUT COEXISTENCE AMONG
■ Muslims are immigrating to the West. So, they accept its political rules ■ ISLAM CONDEMNS VIOLENCE
■ Muslims and Christians live in many countries in the Middle East.
○ Will begin speech in GWU by saying:
■ “I declined the invitation to attend the World Cup opening in Brazil. But, I have a heavy agenda of global engagement,…”
● Last question on Samuel Huntington's “Clash of Civilizations”
○ Started as an essay and later turned into a book
○ Said that political and economic ideologies will not be the source of conflict in the postCold War World, instead, conflict will center over religious affiliations ○ Divided the world into many civilization areas:
■ The West
■ The Orthodox
■ Latin America
■ Sinic or Chinese
○ Written during the civil war in Algeria, the civil war in BosniaHercegovina, and the civil war in Sudan, and the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan ○ Questions to ask:
■ How will clash of civilization remake world order?
a. Answer might be anarchy
■ When will the clash of civilizations happen? For how long will it last? ■ Who will be fighting?
■ Will all states or groups (the Kurds) members of a civilization fight, or remain neutral?
■ Is the West unified?
■ Is the West being weakened?
■ What is the role of the nation state? Why conflict happens and when will conflict happen.
■ Is it an oversimplication of international relations? Can culture redeem religious differences?
■ Is the idea of clash in human contacts inevitable?
■ Is Huntington’s optimistic or pessimistic?
■ Does Huntington depart of how Americans view international relations? ■ What can America do about the inevitable clash of civilizations? ■ Is there an alternative to the "clash of civilizations?"
○ “Bloody border” or flash points where the likelihood of conflict could arise ■ An example of this is the former Yugoslavia where the Orthodox Serbs, the Catholic Croats, and the Bosnian Muslims fought in the 1990s ○ Huntington is a realist:
■ Perceived conflict as the source of interactions among nations ■ Appreciated power as a factor in how nations deal with each other ○ He predicted the conflict between Islam and the West
■ But did not talk about the Sunni Shiites split and what about Boko Haram in Nigeria that is killing Muslims.
○ Things to consider:
■ Thesis not policy
■ The presentation of international politics as a perennial process of conflict and animosity.
■ Religion makes a civilization
a. Civilization: comprehensive record of human existence at a certain part of history.
■ Extreme realism perception of relations among nations.
a. Based on cultural and ethnic (constructivist) traits of peoples b. There are hopes to restructure world politics toward a new order (Idealism.)
○ Huntington stated that both Christianity and Islam as missionary and universal religions
○ Talks about the role of religion in world politics but he does not tell us how will this role be performed
■ Does not talk about the role of religious institutions in playing a role in world politics
● Might be helpful to look at the different articles that the professor ported on blackboard to get more background information on what is mentioned above
○ FOR FINAL LOOK UNDER ELECTRONIC RESERVES AND ILLUSTRATIONS FIVE