Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide HD 205-001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katelynn Jones on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HD 205-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Blanche C. Komara in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
HD 205 Final Study Guide Chapter 11 1. Physical growth continues at a slow regular pace in middle childhood. After age 6 add about 2-3 inches in height and 5 pounds in weight each year. Girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys until about age 9, when this trend reverses. Skeletal growth: lower portion of body is growing the fastest, bones lengthen, and muscles very flexible. After age 8, girls accumulate fat at a faster rate. In middle childhood ligaments are not yet firmly attached to bones, resulting in unusual flexibility. Nighttime growing pains become common. By age 12, all primary teeth have been replaced by permanent teeth. Malocclusion occurs in one third of school age children, a condition in which the upper and lower teeth do not meet properly. 2. Worldwide a 9-inch gap exists between the smallest and the largest 8 year olds. The shortest children are found in South America, Asia, Pacific Islands, and parts of Africa. The tallest children are found in Australia, northern and central Europe, Canada, and the United States. Factors accounting for physical size differences are heredity and environment. Heredity is the evolutionary adaptations to particular climates. Cold climates are short and stocky while hot tropical climates are long and lean. Environment is the availability or scarcity of food and the control of infectious diseases. In industrialized nations a trend in secular gain in height and weight. It appears early in life, increases over childhood and early adolescence, and declines as mature body size is reached. Gain is largely due to improved health and nutrition. Children living in poverty are smaller in height because of poor nutrition. Gains in height have stabilized, but weight gain continues. 3. In middle childhood the weight of the brain increases by 10%. White matter (myelinated nerve fibers) rises steadily, especially in prefrontal cortex, parietal lobes, and corpus callosum. Gray matter (neurons and supportive material) peaks in middle childhood and then declines as a result of synaptic pruning. Synaptic pruning and reorganization and selection of brain circuits lead to more effective information processing. Neurotransmitters and hormones (androgens) may affect brain development and functioning. 4. Common health problems in middle childhood include, nutrition, overweight and obesity, vision and hearing, bedwetting, illnesses, and unintentional injuries. Causes of poor nutrition include: more focus on new friends and activities and less on eating, drop in percentage of children eating meals with family, poor quality diets high in soft drinks and fast foods, and malnutrition resulting from poverty. Children report feeling better and focusing better after eating healthy foods. Prolonged malnutrition can result in permanent physical and mental impairments. About 32% of U.S. children and adolescents are overweight, 17% obese, based on body mass index (BMI). BMI is a ratio of weight to heigth associated with body fat. Overweight has a BMI above the 85 percentile while obese has a BMI above the 95 percentile. There is a dramatic rise in overweight and obesity in many western nations. Obesity rates have risen in developing countries as a result of urbanization and dietary shifts. Cultural beliefs may be a contributor. Obese children are at risk for physical, emotional, and social problems. Causes of obesity include: heredity, socioeconomic status, early growth pattern of rapid weight gain, family eating habits, responsiveness to food cues vs. hunger, lack of physical activity, television viewing, and early malnutrition and growth stunting. Stressful daily life prompts overeating through various routes: elevated stress hormones signal brain to boost caloric intake, chronic stress triggers insulin resistance, and effort required to manage persistent stress strains self-regulatory capacity interfering with ability to limit excessive eating. Consequences of obesity include: social isolation which leads to emotional, social, and school difficulties, unhappiness and overeating contribute to each other, overweight girls are likely to reach puberty early, and life changes are reduced by psychological consequences combined with discrimination. Family based interventions focus is on changing behaviors, both diet and exercise. Rewards for giving up inactivity can be helpful. School interventions can serve healthier lunches and ensure regular physical activity. Other measures include weight related school screenings and improved school nutrition standards. Myopia (nearsightedness): most common vision problem in middle childhood, affected by heredity, early biological trauma, increased by eyestrain, and increase with SES. Otitis media (middle ear infection): common in early childhood and may cause hearing loss after repeated infections. Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting during the night): occurs in 1 in 10 children, affects more boys than girls at all ages, usually has biological roots like failure of muscular response, hormonal imbalance that permits too much urine to accumulate, do not awaken to the sensation of a full bladder. Can be treated with medication or more effectively by using a urine alarm. Rates of illness rise during the first two years of school because of exposure to sick children and an immune system that is still developing. About 20-25% of U.S. children living at home have chronic illnesses such as asthma, which is the most common and severe illnesses like sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, and AIDS all affect about 2% of U.S. children. Most common types of injuries include: motor vehicle accidents involving children as passengers or pedestrians and bicycle accidents. Prevention of these injuries include: modeling and rehearsing safety practices, targeting specific injury risks such as traffic safety, emphasizing helmet use while bicycling and things along those lines, and taking steps to alter high risk factors in families of highly active, impulsive children. 5. School age period is especially important for fostering healthy lifestyles. A gap remains between knowledge of health information and children’s behavior. Adults should work to reduce environmental health risks. Parents and teachers must model and reinforce good health practices. Fostering healthy lifestyles include: increase in health related knowledge to encourage healthy behavior, involve parents in supporting health education, provide healthy environments in schools, provide voluntary screening for risk factors, promote pleasurable physical activity, teach children to be critical of media advertising, and work for safer, healthier community environments. 6. Gains in basic gross motor capacities in middle childhood include: flexibility, balance, agility, and force. Running speed increases from 12 feet per second at age 6 to over 18 feet per second at age 12. Skipping improves. Sideways stepping appears around age 6 and becomes more continuous and fluid with age. Height jumped increases from 4 inches at age 6 to 12 inches at age 12. Distance jumped increases from 3 feet at age 6 to over 5 feet at age 12. By age 7 children can accurately jump and hop from square to square. Throwing speed, distance, and accuracy increase for both sexes, but more for boys than girls. Ability to catch small balls thrown over greater distances. Kicking speed and accuracy improve, with boys considerably ahead of girls. Batting motions become more effective with age, increasing in speed and accuracy and involving the entire body. Hand dribbling changes from awkward slapping to more continuous, relaxed, even stroking. 7. Advances in fine motor skills include: writing, drawing and musical instruments. Writing in middle childhood: mastery of uppercase letters, then lowercase and increase legibility. Drawing in middle childhood: dramatic gains in organization, detail, representation of depth, ability to copy two dimensional shapes, and ability to relate objects to one another as part of an organized whole. 8. Individual differences in motor skills reflect both heredity and environment. Body build: taller, more muscular children excel at many motor tasks. Family income and parental encouragement affect access to lessons in athletics and other motor skills. Sex differences extend and, in some instances, become more pronounced: girls have advantage in fine motor skills as well as balance and agility and boys outperform girls on throwing, kicking, and other gross motor skills. Educating parents about minimal differences between boys and girls physical capacities can help increase girls self-confidence and participation. 9. Gains in perspective taking permit transition to games with rules. These experiences contribute to emotional and social development. Informal play is declining in industrialized countries as a result of parental concern about neighborhood safety, competition from TV, video games, Internet, and rise in adult organized sports. Child organized games express distinct cultural values. About half of U.S. children aged 5 to 18 participate in organized sports outside of school. Participation is generally associated with increased self-esteem and social skills. Valid criticisms of organized sports include: overemphasis on competition and adult control and potential for social ostracism of weaker performers especially for boys. Providing developmentally appropriate organized sports include: building on a child’s interests, teach age appropriate skills, emphasize enjoyment, limit frequency and length of practices, focus on personal and team improvement, discourage unhealthy competition, and let children contribute to rules and strategies. 10. In U.S. school districts 80% no longer mandate recess for students and fewer than half mandate at least 20 minutes of recess per day. Recess periods boost classroom learning by distributing cognitively demanding task over longer time, and enhancing attention and performance at all ages. Children may be more active at recess than in gym class. Recess fosters children’s health and physical, academic, and social competence. Physical activity supports children’s health, sense of self worth as physically active/ capable beings, and cognitive and social skills necessary for getting along with others. Among U.S. students nearly half have no physical education classes in a typical week. Fewer than one third engage in moderate intensity activity for 60 minutes per day. Physical education should emphasize enjoyable, informal games and individual exercise, and focus on each child’s personal progress and team contribution. 11. Rough and tumble play is friendly chasing and play fighting. It emerges in preschool years and peaks in middle childhood. Common in many mammals and across cultures. More common among boys. Helpful in establishing a dominance hierarchy. Chapter 12 1. Piaget’s Theory: the concrete operational stage. Conservation: decentration and reversibility. Decentration- focusing on several aspects of a problem and relating them, rather than centering on just one. Reversibility- the capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point. Classification: can focus on relations between a general category and two specific categories at the same time, that is, on three relations at once. Seriation: transitive inference- ability to seriate mentally. Spatial reasoning: cognitive maps- mental representations of spaces. Seriation- the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension. Limitations: children’s mental operations are most effective when dealing with concrete information. Work poorly with abstract ideas. Can seriate objects, but have trouble mentally with transitive inference. Continuum of acquisition: children master concrete operational tasks step by step, gradual mastery of logical concepts indicates limitations of concrete operational thinking. Impact of culture and schooling: experience of attending school promotes mastery of Piagetian tasks; certain informal non-school experiences can also foster operational thought. Central conceptual structures (networks of concepts and relations) enable children to think effectively in wide range of situations. 2. Executive function of information processing: improves supporting gains in planning, strategic thinking, and self- monitoring. Increase in working memory capacity and gains in inhibition (the ability to control internal and external distracting stimuli. Is influenced by both heredity and environmental factors. Working memory capacity: benefits from increased efficiency of thinking, is often deficient in children with persistent learning difficulties in reading and math, and can be increased through direct training. 3. Attention becomes more: selective (increased ability to attend only to relevant aspects of a task), flexible (ability to flexibly adapt attention to situational requirements), and planful (increased ability to evaluate a sequence of steps in advance). 4. Symptoms of children with ADHD: unable to stay focused on task requiring mental effort for more than a few minutes, impulsive, excessive motor activity, and often ignore social rules and lash out when frustrated. Origins of ADHD: highly heritable, but also related to environmental factors (prenatal teratogens- tobacco, drugs), and associated with a stressful home life. Treatment: stimulant medication reduces symptoms in 70% of children, but drugs have risks. Best approach is medication combined with interventions that model and reinforce appropriate behavior. 5. Memory strategies: rehearsal (repeating items to oneself), organization (grouping related items together), and elaboration (creating relationship between pieces of information from different categories). Combining several strategies is most effective approach. Organization and elaboration combine items into meaningful chucks, further expanding working memory. People in village cultures see no practical reason to use memory strategies. Strategy use is motivated by tasks that require isolated re call, as in classrooms. Children in developed nations do not use other memory cues. Societal modernization predicts: extent of schooling and children’s scores on cognitive measures including memory. 6. Theory of mind- school age children view the mind as an active, constructive agent that selects and transforms information. Children understand more about sources of knowledge, including mental inferences and second order beliefs. Children appreciate second order false belief- incorrect beliefs about other people’s beliefs- which requires recursive though- the ability to view a situation from at least two perspectives. ERP and fMRI evidence reveals increasing selectivity in brain regions recruited when thinking about another’s mental states. 7. Cognitive self-regulation involves: continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts. Parents and teachers can foster self- regulation by pointing out important features of a task, and suggesting strategies and explaining their effectiveness. Acquiring effective self-regulatory skills promotes a sense of academic self-efficacy. 8. Reading whole language: children are exposed to text in complete form from the beginning, and promotes appreciation of communicative function of written language. Phonics: children are first coached on phonics (rules for translating written symbols into sounds), and complex reading material is introduced only after mastering these skills. Children learn best with a mixture of whole language and phonics approaches. 2-5 years children pretend to read and write and print their own name and other words. 5-6 years children recognize familiar written words, decode simple one-syllable words and retell stories main events in sequence. 6-7 years children decode regularly spelled one syllable words and recognize some irregularly spelled words. 7-8 years children read grade level stories more fluently while also comprehending, and decode multisyllable words and more irregularly spelled words. 9-15 years children read to acquire new knowledge and understand different types of texts. 15-18 years children read more widely, exploring diverse viewpoints. 9. Math teaching in elementary school builds on informal knowledge of number concepts and counting. Mix of drill in computing and number sense is the most effective approach: notation systems and formal computational techniques. Understanding effective strategies is essential for solid mastery of basic mathematics. 10. Around age 6, IQ becomes more stable and predicts school performance and educational attainment. Current IQ tests provide an overall score representing general intelligence and separate scores measuring specific mental abilities, and do not measure all aspects of intelligence. Factor analysis is used to identify abilities measured by intelligence tests. Group administered tests allow testing of large groups, require little training to administer, are useful for instructional planning, and identify students who need further evaluation. Individually administered tests demand considerable training and experience to give well, provide insight into whether test score accurately reflects child’s abilities, and are often used to identify highly intelligent children and those with learning problems. Componential analyses look for relationships between aspects of information processing and test scores. Processing speed is moderately correlated with IQ. Other equally important factors are flexible attention, memory, and reasoning strategies. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of successful intelligence is in a triangular shape. The top box is analytical intelligence, which includes applying strategies, acquire task relevant and metacognitive knowledge, and engage in self-regulation. The bottom two boxes are creative intelligence and practical intelligence. Creative intelligence involves solving novel problems; make processing skills automatic to free working memory for complex thinking. Practical intelligence includes adapting to.., shape and select environments to meet both personal goals and the demands of one’s everyday world. Howard Gardner proposed eight independent intelligences: linguistic, logico-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily- kinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. 11. Differences in IQ. Heredity accounts for about half of individual differences in IQ. It does not explain the complex processes through which genes and experience influence intelligence. Adoption research confirms that heredity and environment jointly contribute to IQ. Evidence suggests tat poverty (environment) severely depresses intelligence of ethnic minority children. Generational gains in IQ (Flynn effect) challenge assumption that ethnic group variations are genetic. Flynn effect: IQs have increased steadily from one generation to the next. Cultural influences on IQ- use of African American dialect (home vs. school) a complex, rule governed dialect, often inaccurately viewed as a deficient form of standard American English, and by third grade most children learn to flexibly shift between the two dialects. Collaborative style is fluid, coordinated, and everyone involved is focused on the same aspect of the problem. Hierarchical style is adult directed and children work independently, like a classroom. Knowledge: specific information acquired through majority culture upbringing. Lower SES- people oriented homes, better at story telling. Higher SES- object oriented homes, and better at objective questions. Knowledge effects ability to reason effectively. Knowledge can also be determined by amount of time spent in school. 12. Stereotype threat is the fear of being judged on basis of negative stereotype and can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance. 13. Dynamic assessment is a form of testing in which adult introduces purposeful teaching into testing situation. It is consistent with Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development. Dynamic assessment also reveals what a child can attain with social support. 14. Language development in middle childhood. Metalinguistic awareness develops. The ability to think about language as a system. Vocabulary increases fourfold: reading contributes enormously to vocabulary growth, and children grasp double meanings, appreciate riddles and puns. Mastery of grammar increases: children use passive voice more frequently, and understanding of infinitive phrases advances. Dramatic gains occur in pragmatics: children can adapt to needs of listeners in challenging communicative situations, ability to evaluate clarity of others’ messages improves, and narratives advance in organization, detail, and expressiveness. 15. Children can become bilingual by learning two languages at once and learning a first language then a second. Bilingual children engage in code switching- producing an utterance in one language containing “guest” words from the other. A sensitive period for second language development exists. Children who become fluent in two languages develop more efficient executive function skills. Advantages of bilingualism provide strong justification for bilingual education. In the United States, bilingual education is controversial. 16. Small class size from kindergarten through third grade predicts greater likelihood of graduating from high school and is associated with better academic progress. Teachers in small classes spend less time disciplining and spend more time teaching and giving individual attention. Children who learn in smaller groups show better concentration, higher quality class participation, and more favorable attitudes toward school. Social constructivist classrooms- reciprocal teaching (teacher and students take turns) and communities of learners (teacher and students both contribute). Teacher student interaction- strong impact on academic self esteem, achievement, and social behavior of at risk children. Educational self-fulfilling prophesies- children may adopt teacher’s positive or negative views and start to live up to them. Grouping practices- homogenous vs. heterogeneous learning contexts. Homogenous: similar ability levels are taught together, can be a potent source for academic self-fulfilling prophecies. Heterogeneous: different ability levels are taught together; often engage in poorer quality interactions and less accurate explanations and answers. Cooperative learning- small groups of classmates work towards a common goal. Consider one another’s ideas, appropriately challenge one another, correct misunderstandings, and resolve differences. Magnet schools offer usual curriculum plus specific area of interest, such as performing arts. Research suggests higher achievement in reading and math for low SES, ethnic minority students attending magnet schools. Computers and Internet access are integrated into schools in industrialized nations. Computer use is associated with academic progress: word processing, problem solving, and metacognition. Nonviolent video game play has cognitive benefits- gains in eye and hand coordination, visual processing speed, attention, strategic thinking, and spatial reasoning. Boys spend more time with screen media than girls. Girls and low SES students need opportunities to benefit from positive aspects of screen-media technology. Inclusive classrooms include children with learning difficulties that learn alongside typical students for part or all of a school day. Students with mild intellectual disability may be included. Some students may experience full inclusion. If steps are taken to promote positive peer relationships, inclusion can foster prosocial behavior. Students with learning disabilities have great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, usually reading. Some benefit academically from inclusion, but many do not. Achievement gains depend on severity of disability and support services available. Gifted children have exceptional intellectual strength, usually measured by high IQ. Creativity is measured by divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is multiple and unusual possibilities. Convergent thinking is arriving at a single correct answer. Talented children have outstanding performance in a specific field and must be nurtured. 17. Factors that affect educational quality are societal values, school resources, quality of teaching, and parental support. Performance of U.S. students in international comparisons are typically at or below international averages.
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