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Module 4 Study Guide

by: Liliana Calderon

Module 4 Study Guide MUS 139

Marketplace > University of New Mexico > Music > MUS 139 > Module 4 Study Guide
Liliana Calderon
GPA 4.33

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Here we have all of module 4 and all of its components. Remember that we have 2 tries for the quiz and will be due at midnight. Covers the important parts of each section including the development...
Music Appreciation
Paula Corbin Swalin
Study Guide
Music Appreciation
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Liliana Calderon on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUS 139 at University of New Mexico taught by Paula Corbin Swalin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Music Appreciation in Music at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 05/01/16
MODULE 4 STUDY Off the beaten path, jazz,ragtime,blues and jazz,film music OFF THE BEATEN PATH • ATONAL MUSIC: Music that lacks a tonal center or key.Atonal music is not diatonic,modal or in any way related to traditionalWestern harmony. Expressionism • Backlash against Romanticism • Release of the confines of tonal hierarchy in music • Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951) • Austrian composer,conductor,teacher, artist Expressionism :a reaction to Romanticism and response to French Impressionism – a German style of music featuring hyper expressive musical language with large leaps,dissonant harmony and rhythmic complexity requiring an emphasis on the percussion section of an orchestra Atonality and serialism 12-tone )Also known as 12 tone method.A formula for composing music based on an arrangement of a tone row melody and modification of that tone row.Invented by Arnold Schoenberg.Serialism shuns the concept of tonality and harmonic hierarchy.Though highly organized,Serialism often sounds random and chaotic. Schoenberg’s Pierrot Lunaire(1912) • Song cycle:a group of Lieder (songs) that are unified by a narrative thread or theme • Orchestration:voice,flute,bass clarinet,viola,cello,piano • Pierrot Lunaire sets 21 poems by Albert Giraud to music. • Story:Experiences ofPierrot – the sad clown of the Commedia del Arte • Sprechstimme: • Meaning –spoken voice– .A style of singing invented by Arnold Schoenberg where the vocal melody is spoken on pitches rather than sung.After the performer intones the notated pitch,they are instructed to quickly slide up or down resulting in a speech like sound. • Serialism- Invented by Schoenberg • Also can be 12-Tone or Dodecaphonic • Strict,based on and unified by tone row ; A formula for composing music based on an arrangement of a tone row melody and modification of that tone row.Invented by Arnold Schoenberg.Serialism shuns the concept of tonality and harmonic hierarchy.Though highly organized,Serialism often sounds random and chaotic. • Tone row: Transposed • Inverted • Retrograde • Retrograde inversion • Schoenberg and His Students The Second Viennese School • Alban Berg (1885-1935) •Viennese composer and student of Schoenberg • Saw Schoenberg’s newspaper ad and signed up at 19 • After serving in the army duringWWI started composing his opera Wozzeck • Adopted the 12-tone technique but with a Romantic, Expressionist style • Compositions included songs,opera,chamber music and symphonic works • Anton Webern (1883-1945) • Modernist • Very specific and sparse • 12-Tone • The study of counterpoint had a strong influence on his music.• Took private lessons from Schoenberg. •Webern’s Music • Concentrated and delicate -Webern was a perfectionist • Published compositions included detailed performance instructions • Specific dynamics,articulations, tempos • His pieces are short • Many last less than a minute and some are as short as 20 seconds. • Even the largest works are only 10 minutes long altogether.• His entire catalog of compositions can be played in just over 3 hours • Charles Ives (1874-1954 ) • Berg’sWozzeck Composed between 1914 and 1922 • German language opera based on a play by GeorgBüchner • 15 scenes in 3 acts • Scenes are linked with orchestral interludes • Continuous music from beginning to end of each act • He usedWagner’s technique oflietmotif.• Music is jagged,distorted,and extreme to match the violent story • Singers use Sprechstimme,but they also use spoken words,flowing melody,screams,whispers,and folk tunes. American Modernist composer • Modernism- Turn of the 20th Century- Combination of many styles/genres • Grew up in Connecticut • Father CivilWar band leader and music teacher- unconventional.• Studied music atYale, composed,sold insurance Ives Music: Juxtaposes traditional and experimental • Hymns,folk songs,familiar popular songs • Radical harmony,polyrhythms,polytonality • Compositions misunderstood • Unperformed and unappreciated during his lifetime • Self- published 114 Songs in 1922 • Gained the attention of influential composers • Lauded as a great American composer after his death "Three Places in New England" Musical descriptions of three locations in New England I.The "St.Gaudens" in Boston Common (Col.Shaw and his Colored Regiment) II.Putnam's Camp,Redding,Connecticut III.The Housatonic at Stockbridge “Putnam’s Camp” Elaborate Story • Borrowed melodies • The British Grenadiers;Marching Through Georgia;The Girl I Left Behind;Arkansas Traveler;Massa's in the Cold Ground; The Battle Cry of Freedom;Yankee Doodle;Columbia,Gem of the Ocean;Hail, Columbia;and Tramp,Tramp,Tramp. Soundscape • Dissonance Polytonality:More than one key or tonality played at once Threnody for theVictims of Hiroshima – 1960 Krzysztof Penderecki (b.1933) Homage to victims of atomic bomb 52 String instruments Extended bowing techniques Quarter tone intervals Tone clusters John Cage (1912–1992) Steve Reich (b. • Most influential 20th Century American 1936) Composer • Minimalism • Broadened the definition of“Music” • Studied theology/writing in college but dropped • Steve Reich, out Philip Glass • Tutored by Arnold Schoenberg • Repetition, minimal • Drifted in and out of popularity in the music harmony,slow world harmonic • Discovered Zen Buddhism and Eastern Indian culture changes, • Began to recognize objects as musical lengthy instruments • Phase (phasing) • Household items,metal objects,anything! • Live • Prepared piano instruments Cage’s Sonata III from Sonatas and Interludes for • Tape looping Prepared Piano - 1948 “Come Out”by Steve Reich • A series of 16“sonatas”and 4“interludes”. • Composed in • All between 2 and 5 minutes long. 1966 • Regarded as one of Cage’s greatest works • The“prepared piano”imitates the sound of a • Gamelan Commissioned by Civil Rights •Prepared Piano – a piano that is modified activist Truman by adding materials to the strings (bolts,cotton Nelson nails,nuts) thereby changing the sound of • Written in the instrument honor of “The Harlem Six” Fascination with Silence,Time and Chance • Role of time and“silence”in music • Structured his compositions in lengths of time • The lengths of time are spans of silence in which sound occurs • Aleatory • After 1951,used I Ching to compose • The will of sound,not the will of the composer • Aleatory •Chance music - Aleatoric • From alea” meaning “dice” • Music composed utilizing aleatory • Roll dice to determine a tone row • Composed music which leaves certain musical elements to chance • Performers choose number of repeats • Atmosphere contributes to the composition John Cage – Objects as Instruments Time Instead of Barlines and Meter • Any object could be a musical instrument and any sound could be music • Musical “happenings” • Defined by time •Whatever happens in the present RAGTIME: Origins of Jazz- Scott Joplin (1868–1917) and Ragtime American teacher,composer, performer Known as “The King of Ragtime” Ragtime – Dance music featuring a steady beat in the accompaniment and syncopated rhythms in the melody Ragtime style: • Steady beat in left hand • “Ragged” syncopation in right hand Studied piano as a boy Learned classical music styles with a local music professor Published “Maple Leaf Rag”in 1899 done in a“march tempo” Contracted with a publisher in Sedalia,MO Received $.01 per copy sold  Longed for Ragtime to be considered a serious form of music Composed two operas: 1.A Guest of Honor (1903) Financial disaster Score lost 2. Treemonisha (1910) Posthumous Pulitzer Prize The Blues Influenced by spirituals and work songs Slang term for depression Elements of The Blues Simple forms (12-bar blues) Flat 3rd,5th and 7th notes of the scale Sliding between,up to and off of notes Improvisation Simple harmonic progression Repetitive poetic structure Bessie Smith (1894-1937): “Empress of the Blues Got her start as a busker Moses StokesVaudeville Troup Dancer T.O.B.A. Columbia Records/Vaudeville show Highest paid African-American performer Colorful life Tragic death “Me and My Gin” Written by H.Burke Recorded in 1928 (Columbia Records) JoeWilliams (trombone);Porter Grainger (piano) Form:Standard 12-bar blues Instrumental Intro and 5 Choruses Vocal/instrumental improvisation Call and response between voice and trombone Slides and syncopation over steady harmonic progression and rhythm New Orleans New Orleans was the melting pot that made Jazz possible Convergence of many ethnic groups and styles of music Spirituals - Blues – Classical - Ragtime Popularity of marching bands Instruments left over from the CivilWar “Jim Crow”laws left hundreds of Trained musicians looking for jobs • New Orleans and Buddy Bolden (1877-1931)• “King Bolden” Cornet player and band leader Wildly popular for his loud and soulful playing First jazz band “call his children home” FREDDIE KEPPARD (1890-1933) star cornet player and band leader -guarded his technique and sound; refusedto allow his band to be recorded to avoid people copying him. THE ORIGINAL DIXIELAND JAZZ BAND. touted as“inventors of jazz” formed in New Orleans and traveled to Chicago Blues at a faster tempo for dancing;ragtime with improvisation NEW ORLEANS trumpet played melody clarinet added to trumpet melody. trombone played chord roots,slides, smearsans other gestures (copied vocal style) tuba played bass line banjo and piano provided harmony and rhythm drums kept tome (marching band style) Origin of melodies/songs: new songs. Ragtime. Popular songs. Folk songs. Blues. Patriotic/military tunes. Spirituals. Classical compositions Characteristics everyone plays at the same time lead instruments improvised at same time harmonies are simple and repetitive solos copied popular vocal gestures LOUIS ARMSTRONG AND EARLY JAZZ: American musician (cornet and trumpet player) "Shatmo" Great improviser;unique sound Scat singing [vocables] Armstrong’s “West End Blues” Trumpet introduction by Armstrong Call and response: clarinet solo alternates withArmstrong scat-singing Piano solo by Earl Hines, playing with a trumpet-like attack Armstrong solos: holds a high B-flat for almost four measures Earl Hines' piano enters to join Armstrong for ending "Heebie Jeebies" Popular dance at the time; written by Boyd Atkins --> one of the first recordings to include scat singing [talks and sings, mimicking sounds of trumpet] "Duke" Ellington and Big Band Era Pianist, orchestrator and big band leader Classically trained pianist that included Ragtime, and "swing" • Swing: rhythmic style with a steady beat and variable note values Featured call and response solos; great for dancing • Big Band: 12-20 musicians Featured Trumpets, trombones, saxophone, clarinet, and a rhythm section (piano, bass, guitar, drums Required a conductor Duke Ellington (pianist) led from his piano; Most of his songs have a piano intro • Harlem Renaissance influence: • Used African-American elements in serious classical music • Purged of slavery-related elements • Ellington’s Jazz BENNY Goodman: "king of Swing" Played clarinet and led band Was white Popularized jazz with radio and recordings and live performances First to hire a multiracial band Big Band Jazz Savoy Ballroom in Harlem Predominately African-American clientele Lindy Hopp dancers showed how to dance to Jazz Goodman’s “Stompin’ at the Savoy” Originally written and arranged by • Edgar Sampson for Chick Webb’s • Savoy band. 1934 Credited to Benny Goodman, Sampson, Webb and Razaf Accompanied the “Shim Sham” dance popular with the Lindy Hoppers Bebop (Late 1930s and 1940s) • War debts made big bands too expensive • Musician strikes put a stop to live dance music • New clubs support the Bebop movement • Minton’s Playhouse in Harlem • Birdland • Bebop was a sound and a statement --> Swing had been taken over by the White establishment—Bebop was the reaction • Form Simple: 32-bar or 12-bar harmonies/structures • First Chorus: All instruments play the melody in unison • Soloists take turn improvising over the chord changes • Increased use of dissonance and unusual chord • progressions, modal scales and irregular phrase patterns • Fast tempo and unpredictable rhythm – NOT for dancing! Charlie Parker “The Bird” (1920-1955) Introduced to the Saxophone in “Ko Ko” 1945 public school, then self-taught Fast tempo drums and duet (in unison) by Parker and One of the founders of bebop style Gillespie Parker and Gillespie trade off Unique and innovative solo style solos (Alto Sax and Extremely fast moving notes Trumpet) Drum hit Unpredictable rhythm Parker’s solo starts Phrasing “over the bar” listen for Gillespie playing chords on the piano in the background Massive drum solo Gillespie and Parker play in unison again, then alternate Song ends with a quick “Be Bop” by Parker • Cool Jazz • A subcategory of bebop music featuring • Small combos • Slower tempos and “smoother” solo work • Based on popular tunes, blues patterns, original compositions Longer works (several minutes) • Large variety of instruments such as baritone sax, French horn, and cello--more • mellow sound. Miles Davis (trumpet) Pushed the boundaries of jazz in the 1950s. Formed small,highly creative ensembles. Recorded whole albums in front of big bands in a concerto-like format. 1.Sketches of Spain 2.Porgy and Bess He assembled a sextet that recorded the most popular jazz album of all time—Kind of Blue (1959). Modal Principal sideman was John Coltrane on tenor sax. He played differently--lots of notes vs.Miles’ few. They made a great team


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