FINAL Study Guide
FINAL Study Guide MUSI 2730
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MUSI 2730 - 010
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caspian Roberts on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUSI 2730 at Auburn University taught by David Ballam in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Appreciation of Music in Fine arts at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Terms: 7 liberal arts: Quadrivium ( Math, Geometry, Music, Astronomy) and Trivium (Logic, Grammar, Rhetoric) absolute music: : is music that is not explicitly "about" anything; in contrast to program music, it is non-representational aria: any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. basso continuo: a form of musical accompaniment used in the Baroque period. It means "continuous bass". Basso continuo, sometimes just called "continuo", was played by a keyboard instrument and another bass instrument such as cello, violone (an old form of double bass) or bassoon. Beethoven: 1770-1827 a. Began to lose hearing in 20’s b. Moonlight Piano Sonata i. Singing melody, slow moving ii. Continuous triplet pattering in accompaniment iii. Short ideas are passed iv. Minor key harmony Berlioz: 1803-1869 o Reputation for creative ad imaginative orchestras o Symphonie Fantastique New and unusual instruments added to orchestra Idee fixe Thematic transformation Unfolds as a 5 piece movement Dreams and Passions A Ball Scene in the Fields March to the Scaffold Dream of Witches at the Sabbath binary form: musical form in two related sections, both of which are usually repeated. Binary is also a structure used to choreograph dance. In music this is usually performed as A-A-B-B. Binary form was popular during the Baroque period, often used to structure movements of keyboard sonatas. Boethius: “De institutione Musica” created the Principles of Music around 500 AD Cadenza: a virtuoso solo passage inserted into a movement in a concerto or other work, typically near the end. Cantata: a medium-length narrative piece of music for voices with instrumental accompaniment, typically with solos, chorus, and orchestra. Chopin: “Poet of the Piano” a. Polish composer and Pianist b. 1810-1849 c. Composed short lyric pieces for piano d. His works use rubato = speeding up and slowing down for expression e. A Mazurka v. Entire creative life revolved around piano vi. Expressive depth and rubato Chorale: a musical composition (or part of one) consisting of or resembling a harmonized version of a simple, stately hymn tune. Chord: three or more notes that combine harmoniously. Coda: the concluding passage of a piece or movement, typically forming an addition to the basic structure. Concerto: a musical composition for a solo instrument or instruments accompanied by an orchestra, especially one conceived on a relatively large scale. Consonance: having harmony among musical notes Development: a process by which a musical idea is communicated in the course of a composition. It refers to the transformation and restatement of initial material Dissonance: lack of harmony among musical notes dynamics: loudness and softness of a pitch exposition: the initial presentation of the thematic material of a musical composition, movement, or section. The use of the term generally implies that the material will be developed or varied. idée fixe: a recurring theme or character trait that serves as the structural foundation of a work interval: the difference between two pitches. An interval may be described as horizontal, linear, or melodic if it refers to successively sounding tones, such as two adjacent pitches in a melody, and vertical or harmonic if it pertains to simultaneously sounding tones, such as in a chord. latin motet: Typically, it is a Latin religious choral composition, yet it can be a secular composition or a work for soloist(s) and instrumental accompaniment, in any language, with or without a choir. The motet began in the early 13th century as an application of a new text (i.e., “word”) to older music. leitmotif: a recurrent theme throughout a musical or literary composition, associated with a particular person, idea, or situation. Libretto: the text of an opera or other long vocal work. madrigal: a part-song for several voices, especially one of the Renaissance period, typically arranged in elaborate counterpoint and without instrumental accompaniment. Originally used of a genre of 14th-century Italian songs, the term now usually refers to English or Italian songs of the late 16th and early 17th c., in a free style strongly influenced by the text. mass ordinary: texts that remain the same for every mass. mass proper: he variable portions of a mass which are spoken or sung by the choir or the people. meter: recurring pattern of stresses or accents that provide the pulse or beat of music. monophonic: consisting of a single musical line, without accompaniment. motive: a short musical idea, a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition: "The motive is the smallest structural unit possessing thematic identity". movement: a self-contained part of a musical composition or musical form Mozart: Music is elegant songful melodies, and is Contrasting mood from lively and playful to solemn and tragic Notre Dame School: School that taught and focused Octave: a series of eight notes occupying the interval between (and including) two notes, one having twice or half the frequency of vibration of the other. opera: a dramatic work in one or more acts, set to music for singers and instrumentalists organum: (in medieval music) a form of early polyphony based on an existing plainsong. Palestrina: Epitome of 16 century polyphony. Pitch: the number of vibrations per second polyphonic: the style of simultaneously combining a number of parts, each forming an individual melody and harmonizing with each other. “Poet of the Piano”: Chopin’s nick name Pope Marcellus Mass: 6 voice setting; Palestrina’s hallmark style program music: music that is intended to evoke images or convey the impression of events. recapitulation: one of the sections of a movement written in sonata form. The recapitulation occurs after the movement's development section, and typically presents once more the musical themes from the movement's exposition. recitative: a rhythmically free vocal style that imitates the natural inflections of speech and that is used for dialogue and narrative in operas and oratorios rubato: musical term referring to expressive and rhythmic freedom by a slight speeding up and then slowing down of the tempo of a piece at the discretion of the soloist or the conductor. scale: any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch. A scale ordered by increasing pitch is an ascending scale, and a scale ordered by decreasing pitch is a descending scale. sequence: the restatement of a motif or longer melodic (or harmonic) passage at a higher or lower pitch in the same voice. It is one of the most common and simple methods of elaborating a melody in eighteenth and nineteenth century classical music (Classical period and Romantic music). sonata: literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung. Stravinsky: (See below) string quartet: a chamber music ensemble consisting of first and second violins, viola, and cello. strophic: term applied to songs in which all verses or stanzas of the text are sung to the same music. The opposite of strophic form, with new music written for every stanza, is called through-composed. suite: a set of instrumental compositions, originally in dance style, to be played in succession symphony: an elaborate musical composition for full orchestra, typically in four movements, at least one of which is traditionally in sonata form. symphony orchestra: a large classical orchestra, including string, wind, brass, and percussion instruments. tempo: the speed at which a passage of music is or should be played. ternary form: a three-part musical form where the first section (A) is repeated after the second section (B) ends. texture: how the melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition, thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece. theme: a subject is the material, usually a recognizable melody, upon which part or all of a composition is based. through-composed: he music is relatively continuous, non-sectional, and/or non- repetitive. A song is said to be through-composed if it has different music for each stanza of the lyrics. timbre: how bright/dark or happy/sad a note is triad: a set of three notes that can be stacked in thirds. virtuoso: a person highly skilled in music or another artistic pursuit. Vivaldi: Recent Material: 12-bar blues: one of the most prominent chord progressions in popular music. The blues progression has a distinctive form in lyrics, phrase, chord structure, and duration. In its basic form, it is predominantly based on the I-IV-V chords of a key. Aerophones: a wind instrument. bebop: a type of jazz originating in the 1940s and characterized by complex harmony and rhythms. It is associated particularly with Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, and Dizzy Gillespie. blue note: a minor interval where a major would be expected, used especially in jazz. blues text (poetic form): AAB song form chordophones: a musical instrument that makes sound by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification. consonance: having harmony among musical notes cool jazz: style of modern jazz music that arose in the United States after World War II. It is characterized by relaxed tempos and lighter tone, in contrast to the tense and complex bebop style. dissonance: lack of harmony among musical notes early twentieth century style (see p. 291): ethnomusicology: the study of music in its cultural context. er-hu: is a two-stringed bowed musical instrument, more specifically a spike fiddle, which may also be called a Southern Fiddle, and sometimes known in the Western world as the Chinese violin or a Chinese two-stringed fiddle. film music - what it does and how it is used: gamelan: the traditional ensemble music of Java and Bali in Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments. The most common instruments used are metallophones played by mallets and a set of hand-played drums called kendhang which register the beat. general characteristics of world music: idiophones: an instrument the whole of which vibrates to produce a sound when struck, shaken, or scraped, such as a bell, gong, or rattle. koto: a Japanese zither about six feet long, with thirteen silk strings passed over small movable bridges. leitmotif (see p. 257 & 402): mbira: any of various musical instruments, mainly of African origin, made from strips of metal fastened to a resonator and played by plucking with the fingers and thumbs membranophones: any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification. minimalism: a reductive style or school of modern music utilizing only simple sonorities, rhythms, and patterns, with minimal embellishment or orchestrational complexity, and characterized by protracted repetition of figurations, obsessive structural rigor, and often a pulsing, hypnotic effect new orleans jazz: a style of music. Almost any song can be "jazzed up" with a New Orleans beat. Jazz was originally music for dancing, not listening, even though that is what modern jazz became in the 1950s and beyond. New Orleans jazz has a swinging, stomping, syncopated beat that makes you want to dance! oral tradition: nformation passed down through the generations by word of mouth that is not written down. p’i-p’a (or “pipa”): a shallow-bodied, four-stringed Chinese lute. post-minimalism (see p. 414): raga: (in Indian music) a pattern of notes having characteristic intervals, rhythms, and embellishments, used as a basis for improvisation. ragtime: music characterized by a syncopated melodic line and regularly accented accompaniment, evolved by black American musicians in the 1890s and played especially on the piano. shamisen: a traditional Japanese three-stringed lute with a square body, played with a large plectrum. sitar: a large, long-necked Indian lute with movable frets, played with a wire pick source music: music in a drama (e.g., film or video game) that is part of the fictional setting and so, presumably, is heard by the characters. It can be background music (e.g., from a radio or TV) or be produced by characters themselves as part of the plot. swing music (or big band style): A kind of jazz generally played by a “Big Band” and characterized by a lively rhythm suitable for dancing. The bands of Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, and Glenn Miller played swing. syncopation: a temporary displacement of the regular metrical accent in music caused typically by stressing the weak beat table: tala: a traditional rhythmic pattern in classical Indian music talking drum: one of a set of West African drums, each having a different pitch, that are beaten to transmit a tonal language. taiko: a Japanese barrel-shaped drum. underscoring: the playing of music quietly under dialogue or a visual scene. It is usually done to establish a mood or theme. In a play, sometimes incidental music is used for this purpose. Finally, from the list of important individuals below… you should know biographical information, their famous composition(s), representative performance styles/genres, and their collaborators (if applicable): John Adams: Post minimalist; accessible melodies and harmonies; new romanticism Louis Armstrong: (trumpet) known for his improv and “scat” singing style Aaron Copland: Born in Brooklyn, NY He’s able to create musical images of the American West Known for his truly “American orchestral sound” Major works o Billy the Kid o Rodeo o Fanfare for the Common Man Miles Davis: Cool Jazz; Plays the Trumpet; Billie Holiday: Big band and Swing Singer (Take the A Train) Igor Stravinsky: 1882-1971 Russian composer that embodied the most significant impulses of his time Famous for his early ballet works o Esp the “Rite of Spring” Leader in revitalization of rhythm Music reflects nationalism John Williams: Star wars and Harry Potter music composer
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