MGT304 Study guide final exam
MGT304 Study guide final exam MGT304
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by odette antabi on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGT304 at University of Miami taught by Gergana Todorova in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business, management at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
OB13 1. The stages of group development. The Five-stage model Forming: Uncertainty about purpose, structure, and leadership Storming: Intragroup conflict as members resist constraints Norming: 1. Group is cohesive with strong group identity Performing: 1. Group fully functional and working toward goals Adjourning: 1. For temporary groups: breaking up An alternative model for temporary groups with deadlines: The punctuated equilibrium model Summary Team effectiveness depends on both team design and team dynamics: Need to learn how to manage them Norms control behavior by establishing standards of right and wrong. The norms of a given group can help explain members’ behaviors for managers. When norms support high output, managers can expect markedly higher individual performance than when they aim to restrict output. Norms that support antisocial behavior increase the likelihood that individuals will engage in deviant workplace activities. Status inequities create frustration and can adversely influence productivity and willingness to remain with an organization. Because lower-status people tend to participate less in group discussions, groups with high status differences are likely to inhibit input from lower-status members and reduce their potential. The impact of size on a group’s performance depends on the type of task. Larger groups are more effective at fact-finding activities, smaller groups at action-taking tasks OB14 1. Size: How size affects group performance. What is social loafing? How does it affect group performance? The size of a group affects the group’s overall behavior. Social loafing- the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than alone Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks than larger ones. Large groups in problem solving do better. Large groups are good at gaining input. Smaller groups are better doing something with input. 2. Cohesion: What is cohesion? Is it good or bad for group performance? Cohesion The degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group Cohesion influences group productivity Groups differ in their cohesiveness which is “the degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.” Cohesiveness is important because it is related to the group’s productivity. The relationship of cohesiveness and productivity depends on the performance-related norms established by the group. If performance-related norms are high, a cohesive group will be more productive. If cohesiveness is high and performance norms are low, productivity will be low. Encourage group cohesiveness by making the group smaller, encourage agreement with group goals, increase the time members spend together, increase the status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group. Stimulate competition with other groups, give rewards to the group rather than to individual members, or physically isolate the group. 3. Diversity (Group composition): Diversity and group effectiveness Diversity in the group’s membership The degree to which members of the group are similar to, or different from, one another. Research finds More difference in values and option, the greater its conflict Diversity can be bad for groups, unless managed effectively OB15 1. Group decision making: The strengths and weaknesses of group decision-making. Groupthink Decision making methods Groupthink It describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views. Group members take informational signals from what others say, even when the information is wrong or misleading, while reputational pressures can cause them to silence themselves or change their views in order to fit in. As a result, groups often amplify individual errors, stampede toward bad decisions, foment polarization and extremism, and ignore information that isn’t already widely held. THE SOLUTION Leaders can structure group deliberations to make them more likely to succeed. One very simple way is to let others speak first. Another is to assign specific roles or areas of expertise to members of the group. The key is encouraging individuals to share their diverse knowledge rather than suppress it. 2. What are Team Mental Models? Team members’ shared, organized understanding and mental representation of knowledge about key elements of the team’s relevant environment 3. Group creativity: The effectiveness of brainstorming groups? Barriers to effective brainstorming Brainstorming Used in teams to actively generate as many ideas and alternatives as possible. 1. Quantity is wanted 2. Building on others’ ideas or “piggy-backing” is encouraged Brainstorming The process: 1. The group leader states the problem clearly. 2. Members then “free-wheel” as many alternatives as they can. 3. No criticism is allowed. 4. One idea stimulates others, and group members are encouraged to “think the unusual.” Inhibitors of Group Brainstorming Social loafing: Free-riding Likely when people not individually accountable Conformity People bring their behavior in line with what they feel will win them acceptance into the group Overtime, members of group grow more similar to one another (homogeneity effect) Production blocking Illusion of productivity Summary • Group decision making: • Both advantages and disadvantages • Groupthink • Group shift • The importance of developing shared and accurate Team Mental Models • Group creativity: • Brainstorming: Rules, Inhibitors, Improving brainstorming OB16 Compare and contrast four types of teams: Problem- solving teams, Self-managed teams, Cross-functional teams, Virtual teams Problem solving teams Groups of 5-12 employees from the same department who meet a few times a week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self- managed teams Groups of 10-15 people who take on responsibilities of their former supervisors. o Challenges: Managing conflict? Cross-functional teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. Functional silos problem Occurs when members of functional units stay focused on matters internal to their function and minimize their interactions with members dealing with other functions Virtual teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members and to achieve a common goal. o Challenges: o TRUST—down 83% o INNOVATION—down 93% o SATISFACTION—down 80% o PERFORMANCE—down 50% Managing virtual teams The challenges Leadership practices for virtual team leaders Leadership How do Virtual Team Leaders do it? Practices of Virtual Team Leaders 1. Establish and • Focusing the norms on how information is Maintain Trust communicated Through the Use • Revisiting and adjusting the communication of norms as the team evolves (“virtual get- Communication togethers”) Technology • Making progress explicit through use of team virtual workspace • Equal “suffering” in the geographically distributed world 2. Ensure • Prominent team expertise directory and skills Diversity in the matrix in the virtual workspace Team is • Virtual sub-teaming to pair diverse members Understood, and rotate sub-team members Appreciated, and • Allowing diverse opinions to be expressed Leveraged through use of asynchronous electronic means (e g. electronic discussion threads) 3 Manage Virtual • All idea divergence between meetings Work-Cycle and (asynchronous idea generation) and idea Meetings convergence and conflict resolution during virtual meetings (synchronous idea convergence) • Use the start of virtual meeting (each time) for social relationship building • During meeting—ensure through “check-ins” that everyone is engaged and heard from • End of meeting—ensure that the minutes and future work plan is posted to team repository 4 Monitor Team • Closely scrutinize asynchronous (electronic Progress Through threaded discussion and document postings in the Use of the knowledge repository) and synchronous Technology (virtual meeting participation and instant messaging) communications patterns • Make progress explicit through balanced scorecard measurements posted in the team’s virtual workspace 5. Enhance • Frequent report-outs to a virtual steering External Visibility committee (comprised of local bosses of team of the Team and members) its Members 6. Ensure • Virtual reward ceremonies Individuals • Individual recognition at the start of each virtual Benefit from meeting Participating in • Making each team member’s “real location” Virtual Teams boss aware of the member’s contribution Summary Distinguish between different team types Use different managerial tools Tools for managing virtual teams When to use teams versus individuals Effective teams have common characteristics. Managing team design and team processes OB1. Differentiate between Conflict types: Task conflict, process conflict and relationship conflict; Conflict transformations and conflict escalation A Definition of Conflict: A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. The parties to it must perceive conflict. Commonalties in the definitions are opposition or incompatibility and some form of interaction Types: Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships. Process conflict relates to how the work gets done. Task conflicts relate positively to creativity and innovation, but are not related to routine task performance. Task conflict is related to positive outcomes WHEN members share goals and have high levels of trust Conflict transformations : Task conflicts sometimes escalate into relationship conflicts Relationship Conflict There are some very specific cases in which conflict can be beneficial but Relationship conflicts are not productive. Relationship conflicts produce stress. The Managed conflict view: Researchers have started to focus more on managing the whole context in which conflicts occur, both before and after the behavioral stage of conflict occurs. Manage the conflict process Select appropriate conflict management style Conflict escalation: 2. Which are the 5 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES: When is each of the conflict management strategies most effective? Avoidance? Trivial issue; or another important issue is pressing; or time to cool down temporarily Accommodation? Issues are more important to others than to yourself; or you want to build “credit” for future conflict Compromise? Temporarily settlement to complex issue or when time is limited Dominate? When decisive actions are vital or when unpopular actions must be taken Integrate? – gain true conflict resolution (when time and cost permit) 3. Conflict-stimulation techniques: Bringing in outsiders; Restructuring the organization; Appointing a devil’s advocate Summary: Distinguish between conflict types Understand and apply the conflict management styles: Don’t assume one conflict-handling strategy will always be best! Manage the whole conflict process Manage conflict over time: Conflict transformations and conflict escalation OB18 Compare and contrast DISTRIBUTIVE (get as much of the pie as possible) and INTEGRATIVE (expand the pie) negotiation strategies. Distributive negotiation “How can I get a larger part of the resource?” or “How do I get a larger piece of the pie?” Win-lose outcome When engaged in distributive bargaining, research consistently shows one of the best things you can do is make the first offer, and make it an aggressive one. Another distributive bargaining tactic is revealing a deadline. Integrative negotiation “How can the resource best be used?” or “How can we make the pie larger?” Allows a broader range of alternative solutions to be considered. A win-win solution is possible. Explore all possible common interests! In contrast to distributive bargaining, integrative bargaining assumes one or more of the possible settlements can create a win–win solution. Both parties must be engaged for it to work. Integrative bargaining, in general, is preferable to distributive bargaining. Distributive bargaining leaves one party a loser. Why do we not see more integrative bargaining in organizations? The answer lies in the conditions necessary for this type of negotiation to succeed. Parties who are open with information and candid about their concerns A sensitivity by both parties to the other’s needs The ability to trust one another A willingness by both parties to maintain flexibility Common negotiation pitfalls: The fixed pie myth, Escalating commitment, Overconfidence, Little active listening • The pie can be expanded “Fixed Pie” myth • Taking a stand forces sticking to Escalating it. Commitment • Self-discipline is needed. • Always try to understand the merits of the other party’s Overconfidence position as well. Too much telling and • Seek to be understood, but also, to understand. not enough active listening Strategic essentials: BATNA, reservation price (= resistance point), target point, first offer & anchoring bias, bargaining zone BATNA: best alternative to negotiation agreement - what the party will get (give up) if negotiation reach an impasse. Reservation price/ Resistance point- the most the party is willing to give or the least it is willing to take in an agreement. Target point – what the party wants to achieve First offers- Anchoring Bias!!! Bargaining zone Range between one party’s minimum reservation point and the other party’s maximum reservation point. A range of settlements that are better for both parties than what they would achieve if an impasse occurred Summary • Distributive versus integrative negotiation strategy Prepare, prepare, prepare! Know yourself: BATNA, Interests, Priorities Know your opponent: BATNA, Interests, Priorities Managing the negotiation process Individual differences and negotiations: The role of emotions; Culture matters! Negotiation pitfalls How to overcome the negotiation pitfalls that lead to distributive strategy? The walk from No to Yes in negotiations The role of third-parties in negotiations. OB19 1. The communication process: The phases of the process The process by which individuals stimulate meaning in the minds of other individuals by means of verbal or nonverbal messages in the context of a formal organization 2. The communication structure: 5 types of communication networks Advantages and disadvantages Chain gives best accuracy Wheel facilitates leadership development All-channel provides member satisfaction 3. Common barriers to effective communication: Filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension, lying; cultural barriers; Filtering: A sender’s purposely manipulating information so it will be seen as more favorable by the receiver; Selective Perception: Perception bias Information Overload: When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity Emotions: Extreme emotions are likely to hinder effective communication Language: Words mean different things to different people Silence: Withholding communication is both common and problematic Communication Apprehension: Undue tension or anxiety in oral and/or written communication Lying: Outright misrepresentation of information Cultural Barriers: Caused by semantics. Words mean different things to different people. Some words do not translate between cultures. Caused by word connotations. Words imply different things in different languages. Caused by tone differences. Caused by differences in tolerance for conflict and methods for resolving conflicts. Summary Remember Communication increases job satisfaction: Communication reduces uncertainty; Communication is never perfect: Distortion Ambiguity Incongruities Learn to manage the communication process Barriers to Communication Leaders influence followers through effective communication that helps them make sense of organizational events. They also use effective communication to give followers a sense of meaning in their work which motivates them. They use framing as a tool. OB20 1. Stress management: Types of stress: Challenge-related stress vs Hindrance-related stress Consequences of stress Coping strategies Challenge-related stress may be positive, or what is known as eustress, or “good stress” Hindrance-related stress Results from constraining job experiences Lessens loyalty, increases job search and intentions to quit, and negatively affects learning Consequences of Stress-Psychological Symptoms Job dissatisfaction is “the simplest and most obvious psychological effect” of stress. Consequences of Stress-Behavioral Symptoms Reductions in productivity, absence, and turnover Coping Changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage external and/or internal demands taxing or exceeding the resources of the person Behavioral methods (problem-solving) Cognitive methods (managing thoughts and emotions) 2. Sources of resistance to change 3. The four main approaches to managing organizational change: Lewin’s Three-Step Model Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan for Implementing Change Elaborates on Lewin’s model of change and provides specific guidelines for changing organizations Each step builds on the previous one. Action Research Action research is “a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate.” The process consists of five steps: diagnosis, analysis, feedback, action, and evaluation. Action research provides at least two specific benefits for an organization: Problem focus Reduction to resistance to change Organizational Development Organizational development (OD) is a collection of change methods that try to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being. The OD methods value human and organizational growth, collaborative and participative processes, and a spirit of inquiry. Summary Sources, types, and consequence of stress: Stress management matters! The need for change has been discussed throughout this course. Understand and manage resistance to change The 4 models of change management Creating a culture for change: Innovation Culture and Learning Organization OB21 1. What is organizational culture? The three layers of cultural analysis (The Iceberg Model): Level 1 – Observable: Shared Behaviors & Artefacts; Level 2 & Invisible: Shared values; Level 3 Invisible: Shared assumptions Organizational culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations Pattern of assumptions developed to cope with problems of external adaptation and internal integration The group has invented, discovered, or learned these assumptions. The assumptions have worked well enough to be considered valid. Taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to problems Layers of cultural analysis Artifacts and creations: Observable culture: Behaviors and artifacts Stories (sagas), ceremonies and rituals; cultural symbols (artifacts, events); Shared values: What is important and unimportant: What is right and what is wrong Shared assumptions: Taken-for-granted, shared beliefs Hidden, must be inferred 2. The characteristics of the essence of organizational culture: the 7 primary characteristics Research identifies seven primary characteristics that capture the essence of an organization’s culture: Innovation and risk taking. Attention to detail. Outcome orientation. People orientation. Team orientation. Aggressiveness. Stability. 3. The functional and dysfunctional effects of organizational culture Culture’s Functions: Boundary-defining role Conveys a sense of identity for members Facilitates the generation of commitment: Motivation!!! Enhances the stability of the social system Serves as a sense-making and control mechanism Guides and shapes attitudes and behavior of employees Trend toward decentralized organizations: Makes culture more important than ever, but ironically it also makes establishing a strong culture more difficult. Individual-organization “fit”—strongly influences who gets a job offer, a favorable performance review, or a promotion. The DYSFUNCTIONAL effects of organizational culture Culture as a Liability: Institutionalization: It is valued even when it is not functional any more Barriers to Change: Behaviors become self-evident and taken for granted Barriers to Diversity: People attempt to fit in and reduce diversity Barriers to Acquisitions and Mergers: Case OB22 1. Identify the factors that create and sustain an organization’s culture: The role of the founder; Employee selection; Socialization process; The role of top management: Rewards and leadership style; Culture creation occurs in three ways: Founders hire employees who feel the way they do. Employees are indoctrinated and socialized into the founders’ way of thinking. Founders’ behaviors act as role models 2. Managing the socialization process: The stages of the socialization process Socialization : The process an organization uses so new members acquire necessary attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and skills to become productive organizational members 3. How culture is transmitted to employees Stories, Rituals, Material symbols, and Language. 4. Stories Ray Kroc McDonald’s story 5. Rituals Wal-Mart cheer 6. Symbols Papa John’s Camaro 7. Language Disney: Guests vs. customers 2 ways to learn about how to manage people: Gaining evidence-based knowledge about concepts and models - Learning from textbook, videos, class discussions & lectures; Gaining experience in applying these concepts and models: Experiential learning Case notes Class exercises: Group activities, Cases; Group project
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