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Psych 101 exam 2 study guide

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by: Alyssa Spiteri

Psych 101 exam 2 study guide Psychology 101

Marketplace > Psychlogy > Psychology 101 > Psych 101 exam 2 study guide
Alyssa Spiteri

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About this Document

review of all the terms included on the second exam
Professor Henderson
Study Guide
Psychology, psych, 101, exam, 2, Study Guide
50 ?




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"Why didn't I know about this earlier? This notetaker is awesome, notes were really good and really detailed. Next time I really need help, I know where to turn!"

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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Spiteri on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 101 at a university taught by Professor Henderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
Perception in Context    Constancies and Contrast effects  Perceptual Set  Top­Down Processing vs. Bottom­Up Processing  Bottom­up:  Receptive Fields, Feature Detectors, and the Binding Problem    Top­Down:  Perceptual Set and Contextual Interpretation     Empiricism and Associationism      Pavlovian Conditioning    Basic Methods and Results    Acquisition  ● The CR slowly grows as the animal experiences more and more pairings of the CS  and US     Extinction  ● Undoing of a previously learned response so that the response is no longer produced    Spontaneous Recovery  ● The CS elicits the CR even though someone went through extinction and had a rest  period    Inhibition  ●     Theories    Pavlov's Account    Expectations, Blocking, & Surprise    The Garcia Effect    Biases    Familiarity    The Conditioning Model of Anxiety Disorders    Biases in Fear Conditioning    Social Transmission of Phobias    Drug Conditioning     Instrumental (Operant) Learning    Instrumental Learning    James and Willful Action  ● Golfer knows what swing should look like  ●  Magic writing: unconsciously write on paper while blindfolded      Comparative Psychology      Thorndike  ● Law of effect  ● Cat in a puzzle box and hits lever and escapes for food    Comparing Pavlovian and Instrumental Learning    Skinner  ● Sharp distinction between classical and instrumental conditioning  ○ Instrumental responses are operants: operate on environment bringing about a  change that leads to consequence   ●  Studied pigeons to aid in war effort    Shaping  ●  You can shape & create target behavior with successive approximations    Secondary Reinforcer  ● Conditioned; money, grades, and tokens    Immediate Reinforcement  ● Occurs immediately after the desired or undesired behavior     Successive Approximations  ● Series of rewards that act as positive reinforcement towards final behavior    Some Applications    Clinical:  Behavior Modification  ● Patient can be rewarded for getting out of bed or moving around the room    Creativity  ● Dolphins or other entertainment animals    Computer Assisted Instruction  ● Used in mental institutions  ● Dicky and his glasses    Avoidance Learning  ● Learn a behavior to avoid a stressful situation    Basics  ● Rat doesn’t wait for heat lamp(bad thing); automatically jumps on ledge    Persistence  ● Dog will jump over a barrier hundreds of times to avoid bad thing; never come in  contact with the bad thing  Punishment  ● Learns to avoid by not doing something; kid avoids punishment by not running into  the street  Mnemonic Strategies    Introduction:  Working Memory and  Long­Term Memory    Mnemonics    Brute Force Rehearsal  ●  Repeating ​doesn’t get things into memory  ●  Can only remeber 7 +­ 2 items with rehearsal(short term memory)      Maintenance Rehearsal  ● 7 +­ 2; short term memory; simply repeat list      Elaborative Rehearsal  ● Add meaning or rhythm to a set of info  ● Professors phone number    Interactive Imagery  ● Create image that makes the objects interact; eagle and locomotive    Method of Loci  ●  Find someplace you have well established in your head and place items there                   ​ asic Method                       "S" and Synesthesia  ●  “Human memories are remarkably alike. They just use them differently.”  ●  Gave digit span test: “S” repeated back 30 digits; filled in a 10x10 digits sheet   forward, backward, and diagonally  ●  Synesthesia: experience info in every sense     Rhythm and Rhyme  ● Giving a rhythm or rhyme makes it easier to memorize    Prospective Memory  ● Know there is something in particular that you need to remember but don't always  think about it; tie to retrieval cues that will be present at the time you need it    Peg Words  ● Peg words to number to create interactive images  ● 1 bun, 2 shoe, 3 tree, 4 door, 5 hive    Meaningful Surrogates  ● Add personal meaning to words or phrases    Substitution  ● Substituting a word to help remember another word/number    Chunking  ● Think in terms of chunks rather than individual pieces of information     Links  ● Put in in personal environment to link it to your life    Generation  ● learned through generations     Discovering Organization  ● Discover the existing organization of the material    Imposing Organization  ● Create your own organization that works best for you                        Precise Elaboration  ● Elaborating in a way that is more closely tied to the meaning of the words                        Intentional versus Unintentional Learning  ● Learn more when you don’t mean to learn the material         The Stage Model of Memory Processing     Iconic Memory  ● Remembering for a brief time after you can’t see anymore    Working Memory Compared to Long­Term Store  ● Working memory contains short term memory & systems that can operate on short term  memory­> can get to long term memory through consolidation; Has a capacity of 7 +­ 2 at any  time  ● Long term memory information can be pulled back into short term memory  Introspective Differences  ○ How we perceive our own memories              Capacity  ● Working memory has a smaller capacity than long term memory              Confusion Errors  ● Short term confusion is sound, long term confusion is meaning              Serial Position in Free Recall  ● Remember better at the beginning and end of a data set than the middle              Amnesia  ● Often caused by alcoholism or damage to the brain; Alcohol causes decreased thiamine                                  Anterograde(Korsakoff’s Syndrome)  ● Person looks and acts normal but will have problems with certain topics;  short term memory is normal but loses consolidation; cannot get new  information into long term memory; memory does NOT recover; wipes out  consolidation permanently    Retrograde (Consolidation)  ● Affects what’s happened in the past; may not remember before amnesia  happened; electroconvulsive therapy wipes out short term memory and  beginning stages of consolidation; greatest memory lost is the events right  before the cause of the amnesia, can go back an entire day; temporarily  wipes out consolidation  The Memory Process    Encoding  ● Processing events and information in your brain    Retrieval    Retrieval Cues  ● Cue that’s going to trigger a memory    Hierarchical Search  ● Search for something in memory but start further up the hierarchy    State­Dependent Memory  ● The state that you’re in becomes part of the retrieval cue    Reconstruction  ● Fill in memory with information that seems plausible     Testing (Practicing Retrieval)  ●     Forgetting    Loss of Retrieval Cues  ● Lose cues when you move away    Interference  ● Learn something and subsequently  learn something else             Thinking, Problem­Solving, and Judgment    Thinking as Covert Action     Problem Solving    Algorithms versus Heuristics  ● Algorithm is strictly analytical; heuristics is an estimate based off previous knowledge;  heuristic= rule of thumb    Expertise    Chunking  ● above    Heuristics  ● Rule of thumb    Depth of Processing    Set  ● A particular set of information that one relies on    Rigidity      Functional Fixedness  ● When you think of things in terms of their normal function        Heuristic­Based Errors in Reasoning       Representativeness  ● You decide a category that something belongs to by how representative that thing is  by our notion of things that belong in said category      Anchoring  ● The first information you hear anchors your judgement and you adjust it based on the  proceeding information      Availability  ● Estimate how frequently something is by how readily we can pull it up in our memory           Language    Syntax  ● Arrangement of words to create a coherent sentence    Semantics    The "Dictionary" Model (Collins & Quillian)  ● A good dictionary is carefully edited so people don’t get lost; words have a  hierarchical organization    Typicality  ● Faster at categorizing things that are closer to the image; hear bird, think ro in        Cognitive Development    Approaches to Development: Nature vs Nurture      Maturational  ● You mature and grow; happens automatically      Experiential  ● People are products of their experiences       Interactional  ● Development involves both experience and maturation    Piaget's Approach       Basic Concepts       Schemas  ● Any organized action pattern  ● Certain order for ordering food at a restaurant      Assimilation and Accommodation  ● Assimilation: Adding new information to a schema  ● Accommodation: Change schema to fit new information      Piegots 4 Major Periods      Sensorimotor  ● Lasts about 1 ½ years       Sucking  ● Newborn develop this skill within hours of birth  ● Can get better at extracting milk      Object permanence  ● Knowing an object exists even though you can’t see it      Pre­Operational  ● Last until the child is 1­5 years old      Failure to conserve  ● Knowing there is the same amount of something, it’s just in a  different container      Egocentrism  ● The child is unable to understand that people have different  perspectives      Concrete Operations  ● 5­8 years old  ● Learns conservation      Formal Operations  ●   Social support  ● Speeds up development  Egocentric speech or thought development  ● Children just think aloud rather than actually talking to each other      Another approach:  Child as Novice      Meta­Memory  ● Children have terrible short term memory  ● Can only remember 3 +­ 1  ● Teaching rehearsal increased their short term memory for a period of time      Counting      One­on­One  ● Assign a number name to an object at a rate of 1 per object      Stable Order  ● The certain order in which we count (1,2,3,4,5)      Cardinality  ● The last number is the last number assigned and the number of object in the  whole group    Order Irrelevance  ● You get the same number of objects regardless of which order you count  them      Abstraction (applies to any set)  ● Use counting cue to count other things such as people or animals     Language Acquisition  ➔ Glue words together around 1 year old   First Language  ● 2­22 year old people acquire 5­15 words a day  ● Language must be acquired while young, often before puberty  ● Children have a greater plasticity    Telegraphic utterances  ● Just enough words to carry the meaning of a message    Overgeneralization  ● Over applies a word; goed, went    Critical Period  ● Period in which information is most easily aquired    Second Language  ● An adult can learn a second language more easily than first language   Animal Language/studies   Early Attempts             Clever Hans  ● Horse could read arithmetic problems and correctly answer by stomping foot  ● Would stop stomping when the crowd gasped  ● Didn’t actually know arithmetic, but rather displayed sensitivity to social cues             Trained Chimpanzees  ● Raised chimps as best as possible to be human children  ● The whole point was to see if chimps could develop human language    Washoe and others  ● Chimp raised in compound where people all used sign language  ● Washoe could use 100+ signed words  ● Chimps use words to stand for other things, but have no clear human language    Birds  ● Song birds pick up songs from their parents while they are young        Emotional Development    Attachment     Freud:  “Cupboard Love”  ● Whoever provides food will become the center of the child's attachment    Animal Models      Imprinting (Lorenz)  ● Experimented with birds  ● animals form a strong attachment and will follow for a long time the first  moving object that they encounter  ● Got birds attached to objects such as a tractor    Contact Comfort (Harlow)  ● Harlow’s monkeys  ● Orphan monkey would cling to artificial mothers  ● Monkeys would cling to terry cloth mother and only feed from the wire mother  ● Motherless monkeys were terrible mothers themselves    Childhood Attachment      Loss (Bowlby)  ● Studied children who were separated from their parents  ● Children form intense bonds around 6 months of age                                              Protest  ● Child who has been attached and separate is very unhappy; cries,  kicks, hits; lasts days to weeks                                              Despair  ● Child becomes inactive; whimpers quietly rather than kicking  ● Subject to certain kinds of infections and suffer higher rates of  mortality                                              Detachment  ● Children form attachment tonew​ primary care takers    The Uses of Attachment    Sexuality Development  ● Rearing can affect sexual development    Strange Situations     Social/Emotional Learning of Fears  ● Anxieties and fears can be learned  ● Visual cliff: babies learn to not crawl off the “cliff”  ○ Babies got cues that it was dangerous by watching their mothers       Cohort Effects:  Reasons to be Skeptical  Agoraphobia: fear of going into public places  John B. Watson argued there is no such thing as conscious though  Children love their mothers bc they have working breasts   


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