Midterm Exam Study Guide
Midterm Exam Study Guide REL1300
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leah Burkett on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to REL1300 at Florida State University taught by Amanda Furiasse in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Religion Midterm 1 Study Guide: Terms, Ideas, Groups/Sects- Anatman: “eternal soul” (Buddhism) Atman: Hunan Soul (Hindism) Brahman: a supreme being; pervades and yet transcends not only human thought but the universe itself. (Hinduism) Brahmins: The priestly class of Hindu society and are authorized to teach the Vedas. Caste System: System of social stratification historically separated communities into thousands of groups. Dharma: Hindu word which means righteousness, justice, faith, duty, a religious and social obligation. Harappan Culture: an ancient Indian civilization where at one point thousands of people lived. No one has been able to decipher the ancient script of the people but we known from art that women had a high status. Igbo: ethnic group from mostly Nigeria. Egwugwu is one of the main gods that shows up at Funerals and Rituals by possessing someone. Karma: A system of rewards and punishments attached to various actions, system may require several lifetimes to work out. Koan: Chinese story, dialogue, question, or statement, which is used in Zen practice to provoke the great doubt and test students progress in Zen practice. Monotheism: the worship of one god Pluralism: granting of equal support, acceptance, or influence in decision- making to more than one religious group. Samsara: the concept a continuing cycle of death and rebirth or reincarnation. Secularism: the exclusion in principle of all religious groups, institutions, and identities from public support and participation in public decision-making. Syncretism: the combination of other religions or the influencing of other religions on another. Polytheism: the worship of many gods. Nirvana: enlightenment Yoruba: has 20 million practitioners across 4 continents. Gender binaries play a big role in the Yoruba religions. Their supreme being is Olodumare. Genetic fallacy: part of the evolutionary model where people believe that a religion originated out of myths and cults based upon an original personification of natural phenomena. Five K’s: also known as the Khalsa Kes- uncut hairand beard (spirituality/saintliness) Kangha- comb in hair (order?displine in life) Kirpan- stell dagger (Divine grace/ dignity/courage) Kara- steel bracelet on right wrist (responsibility and allegiance) Kachh- shorts (moral restraint) Eshu: indigenous traditions, messenger god who summons the other orishas to attend all major rituals In Yoruba religion. Dependent Origination: describes the chain of causes which result in rebirth. People and Gods- Krishna: one of the most widely revered and most popular Indian divinities; worshiped as the eight incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu and also as a supreme in his own right. Vishnu: Sustainer God; the “all-preserver”; comes to earth in times of crisis to establish dharma; 10 incarnations in his cycle Devi/Parvati: the divine mother of the Hindu culture. Mother of the elephant god Ganesha. Buddha: “the awakened one”, originally named Siddhartha Gautama before reaching enlightenment. Boddhistattva: an enlightened being, referred to Siddhartha as this before father chose name Siddhartha for him. Brahma: god of creation Dali Lama: a spiritual leader in exile in India, title menaing “Ocean of Wisdom”. Guru Nanak: Founder of Skhism and the first of the Sikh gurus Siddhartha: was born of royal descent but became enlightened by seeing the four noble truths. a sick man a suffering old man dead man monk whose aura of tranquil detachment from the world suggest that there is a way to overcome the suffering of life after all Ganesha: Rama: the young hero of Ramayana; saves his wife Sita from Demon King after being exiled to the forest. After saving Sita, he returns to the capital and is crowned king. Shiva: the destroyer god Texts- The Vedas: earliest surviving Indo-European compositions; these works collectively known as Shruti four consists of hymns, direction for the performance of sacred rituals, and philosophical works. Ramayana: Story of Rama; one of two epics that Hindus refer to as “sacred books” Vedic Hymns: a collection of hymns from the Vedas Rig Veda: the oldest Hindu religious text Bhagavad Gita: 700 verse hindu scripture that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. Puranas: Ancient stories in classical Hindusim; stories about deities that become important after the Vedic Period. Upanishads: Philosophical texts in form of reported conversations n the theory of the Verdic ritual and the nature of knowledge. Mahabharata: a very long epic poem; it is the story of the struggle among the descendants of a king named Bharata. Tibetan Book of the Dead: Guides the deceased through the intermediate state between death and rebirth. Theory- 1) Describe the difference between “pluralism” and “secularism”. Secularism- the principle that no religious groups or institution should receive public support or play any role in public decision-making. Pluralism- the principle that all religions are equally valuable should be treated with equal respect and should have an equal opportunity to play a role in public decision-making. 2) be ale to name and briefly explain each of Bruce Lincoln’s four domains of religion. This is found in the Bruce Lincoln PDF (from Holy Terrors). 1. Discourse- concerns that transcend the human, temporal and contingent, and that claims for itself a similarly transcendent status. 2. Practice- goal is to produce a proper would and or proper human subjects, as defined by a religious discourse to which these practices are connected. 3. Community- members construct their identity with reference to a religious discourse and tis attendant practices 4. Institution- regulates religious discourse, practices, and community, reducing them over time and modifying them as necessary, while asserting their eternal validity and transcendent value. 3) Be able to explain the evolutionary model of religion and the problems that it poses in the study of religion. The evolutionary model of religion is a false concept that religions originate from ancient practices and myths. The problems with this theory is that it is based off of false concepts and predictions about how such religions formed. 4) Do you think Hinduism is nest described as a “polytheistic” religion or monotheistic” religion? Why are these categories difficult to apply to Hinduism? There is flexibility to think of the God in any form. Depends of school of Hindu philosophy where some may believe in many gods in a hierarchy while others believe in a single supreme being. 5) Be able to explain the impact of colonialism on the study of Hinduism, Sikhism, and Buddhism. The main impact of colonialism on such religions is that the controlling party ruled over the people by dividing them in a hierarchy in order to make it easier for them to control the people. The controlling party also placed the minority religion in charge over the majority and therefore making it more desirable to convert to that religion. 6) What is the difference between doing an academic study of religion and doing a theological study of religion? Academic is concerned with studying people, their beliefs, and social systems. While the theological study of religion studies gods and their impact on people. 7) Why have scholars of religion stopped describing indigenous religions as “primitive” or “primal”? what are some of the negative connotations associated with terms like “primitive” and “primal”? Primitive conjures up images of savagery, superstition, and childish simplicity even though such traditions typically involved extensive instruction and complex rituals. On the other hand, “primal” suggests either infancy and raw emotion or the earliest stage in an evolutionary model of development leading towards some preconceived notion of what religion ought to be. 8) Andre Beteille’s article “The idea of indigenous people”: What is the author’s criticisms if using the word “indigenous” to describe groups of people, their culture, and their religion? What other words or phrases have been used to describe and categorize the same groups of people? What are some of the problems with these terms? Some words that could be used to groups people together is “native”, “tribe”, and “primitive”. The problems with these words is that each one makes that group of people seem backwards or not as sophisticated as “the more developed people”. 9)F.K Ekechi’s article “Colonialism and Christianity in West Africa”” What role does the author argue religion played in British colonial expansion in west Africa? What role does the author argue education played in missionary work in west Africa? With the extension of British political authority and Igbo acceptance of Christianity as the lesser of two evils, Christian mission intensified their campaign for territorial influence. The British were able to control the people by having the minority rule over the majority, allowing the people that did not follow the minority either be more encouraged to change religions or become resentful towards the minority. An education would provide the weapon with which to fight colonialism, for the missionaries formal education was a means to end, sustained education program both religions proselytization and social transformation might be realized. 10) Lopez’s introduction to Curators of the Buddha: How did western scholars create a kind of “classical” or “standard” Buddhism that didn’t really reflect the way in which most Buddhists were living their Buddhism? Buddhism had a complete philosophical and psychological system based on reason, restraint, opposed to ritual, superstition, and sacerdotalism, thus could serve as a substitute for Victorian Britain- since it was created in Europe it could also be controlled by it, modern Buddhism was judged by this, Tibet was seen as the most degenerate and inauthentic shouldn’t even be called Buddhism but Lamaism. 11) Lopez’s introduction to prisoners of shanri-la: how does Lopez say that Tibetan Buddhism has been portrayed in the West? Pristine or polluted? Authentic or derivative? Traditional Tibetan Buddhism will come to mean something from which strength and identity are to be derived. Lamaism is the most authentic and most degenerate form of Buddhism in west, monks portrayed as saintly and rapacious.
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