Cultural Psychology Final Study Guide
Cultural Psychology Final Study Guide PSY3301
U of M
Popular in Introduction to Cultural Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
verified elite notetaker
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY3301 at University of Minnesota taught by Lauren Mitchell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
Reviews for Cultural Psychology Final Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/01/16
PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide OVERVIEW OF EXAMS General Information This and subsequent exams will begin at 4PM. This final exam will be 40 questions, each worth 1.5 points, and it will be in a multiple choice (scantron) format. You will have until 5:15PM to complete the exam unless other arrangements have been made. Important Notes You will be tested on material from lecture, required readings, and students’ presentations. You should be able to recall the main points and/or finding(s) of the readings but not small details. You will NOT be tested on the optional articles. All the others are fair game. Students’ class discussions are also fair game! I have asked students to post their materials on Moodle. Be sure to review those materials as well. STUDY GUIDE BY TOPIC Disability & Culture What is the “tragedy” model of disability? What are the effects of this type of reaction? (Early models for understanding the family’s reaction to learning they have a child with a disability) ‘Tragedy’ model: parents expected to grieve the loss of the ‘perfect child’ Led counselors to push families toward particular mode of grieving, saw families who didn’t follow that path as denying reality Effects: 1990’s, researches began to question the university of such a grief reaction Parents may experience shock, but with better info, visible role models, parent support groups, etc.. Don’t necessary have to go through severe despair and fear What is the social model of disability? Where does it locate the problem of disability? The social model of disability has emerged from research conducted largely by people who have disabilities. This model contends that even though a person with a disability may function differently from others, the problems the person encounters do not result entirely from the nature of the disability. Problems of disability: Expectations of deviance, incompetence, and poor health may limit social, vocational, and recreational participation Feelings of depression passivity, or hopelessness can be the result of these barriers and these can be interpreted as a failure to adjust The problem is located within society. Rather tam trying to fix the person, the focus should be on the removal of social & environmental barriers to full participation th th What was special about Martha’s Vineyard in the 17 20 century? What does this have to do with disability culture? PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide th th Martha’s Vineyard in the 17 20 century: Island population contained a large number of people with hereditary deafness. About 40x more common than on the mainland (almost anyone might have both deaf and hearing siblings) The culture adapted, and hearing people became bilingual in isgn and verbal language to be able to communicate. Neither group was regarded as handicapped Hearing people found use for signs—communicating when speaking was inappropriate (in church, in school) or not useful (across long fields) Worked with the culture—jobs were farming and fishing Acculturation & Enculturation What is enculturation? What are examples of the different kinds of transmission? Enculturation: Gradual acquisition of the characteristics and norms of a culture or group by a person Examples of different kinds of transmission: Vertical transmission: Parents—kids. Parents only to their own offspring Horizontal transmission: Sibling—Sibling Oblique transmission: Teacher—student What is acculturation? Be able to distinguish between group and individual levels, and classify examples of group and individual level acculturation. Acculturation: Process by which people adopt a different cultural system (Individual or grouplevel change that occurs as a result of first handcontact with another culture) Individuallevel acculturation: changes as individual experiences as a result of being in contact with other cultures Behavior (languages, food, emotional expression) Values (independence, interdependence, power distance, etc) (More stable than behaviors) Adaptation strategies (withdraw, interact) Identity (ethnic/racial identity) Acculturative stress (e.g: nostalgia, identity confusion, culture shock) Grouplevel acculturation: change resulting from contact between two autonomous and independent cultural groups Physical (e.g: infrastructure, environment changes) Biological (types of food, plants being planted) Political (antidiscrimination laws) Economic (new types of jobs) Cultural (parenting styles, relationships) Social (new ethnic identification, pidgin languages) What are examples of psychological and sociocultural adaptation? PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide Psychological Adaptation: A set of internal psychological outcomes including a clear sense of personal and cultural identity, good mental health, and the achievement of personal satisfaction in the new cultural context . Considered to be a matter of learning a new behavioral repertoire that is appropriate for the new cultural context Sociocultural Adaptation: ‘External psychological outcomes that link individuals to their new context, including their ability to deal with daily problems, particularly in the areas of family life, work and school’ What is the difference between the unidimensional and the bidimensional models? What are the main critiques of each model? Which is generally accepted as a closer approximation of reality? Heritage culture: Immigrants are burdened with things from the heritage (The idea is to move from heritage culture to host culture) Unidimensional models: Going from Old (heritage culture) to New/Better (Host culture) A line going to the acculturated direction Bidimensional models: Can be high/low on both heritage and host culture—two axes If I give you an example of integration, assimilation, separation, or marginalization, be able to place it in the correct category. PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide Integration: ‘While living in Canada we can retain our Chinese cultural heritage and life style and yet participate fully in various aspects of Canadian society Assimilation: ‘We’re living in Canada, and that means giving up our traditional way of life and adopting a Canadian lifestyle, thinking and acting like Canadians.’ Separation: ‘Because we live in Canada, we are always pressured to assimilate to Canadian lifestyle. Thus we must emphasize our distinct Chinese identity and restrict our association with Canadian society.’ Marginalization: ‘While living in Canada, I do not feel like I am either Chinese or Canadian’ How do each of these acculturation statuses relate to psychological and sociocultural outcomes? (Participants in a large international study) Psychological adaptation: was measured with lifesatisfaction, selfesteem, and psychological problems Sociological problems: assessed using scales for school adjustment and behavior problems Cluster analysis to get distinct acculturation profiles: Bicultural/Integrated – good psychological, good sociocultural Assimilated (heritage no, host yes) – okay psychological, not good sociocultural Separated (heritage yes, host no) – good psychological, not good sociocultural Marginalized (heritage no, host no) – not good psychological, not good sociocultural Social Class Class is multidimensional: A combination of income, family wealth, education, perceived job status What are ways in which social class is measured as discussed in lecture? Hollingshead—one system of measuring SES, but there are many 4 factors: marital status, employment, education, occupational prestige (Can see effects of time: changing landscape of the economy) What happened in the Rondo neighborhood of St. Paul? Largest, wealthiest African American neighborhood of St Paul in the 1930’s That wealth did not translate into equal political power as the White neighborhoods to the north had Demolished in the 1960’s to make room for I94—could have gone north instead Never recovered to previous level of entrepreneurship Decreased political power What are human, social, and cultural capital? (Getting to college, succeeding in college, requires resources) Capital: Economic—money, property Human: Skills and qualifications, often acquired through education Social: social connections, ‘who you know’ PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide Cultural Capital: knowledge of cultural norms, institutions, narratives, and products Based on the Thomas & Azmitia article discussed in lecture, what themes tend to come up in students’ narratives about social class? (Qualitative study, interviewing a diverse group of college sophomores) Encounters with peers prompt college student’s awareness of their social class status Social class was seen as more important across the board Themes: . Upper class guilt and luck . Working class anger and pride (Class tensions are still at play in college, even though everyone is in higher education) From Mantsios (2007): Generally be familiar with the myths about social class that Mantsios discusses. (Important of education) Odds of getting into college have improved for bottom quarter, but odds of dropping out have increased Going to college, succeeding in college, requires resources From Conley (2007): How can race and social class intersect? Difference between income and assets matters. Wealth gap between White and African American families Being able to invest in a house vs. having to rent . Equity . Living conditions Intercultural Relations (The Readings) We ran out of time to discuss this in class, but a few major points from BonillaSilva & Dietrich (2011): Why is colorblind racism a “sweet enchantment”? What role do the authors see Obama playing? What does his presidency mean for whites who endorse colorblind racist views? Morality, Religion, and Justice What are the three stages of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development? How was the theory developed? 1) Preconventional: obedience and punishment. What is right & wrong based on what is punished or not punished. Eye for an eye, will do a favor to get a favor. Expects to be rewarded for every nonselfish deed he/she does. Age 410 2) Conventional: Social expectations & roles. Emphasis on conformity, being ‘nice’ consideration of how choices influence relationships. Peer approval is very important. Begin to consider the impacts on society when making judgments. Focus on maintaining law & order by PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide following rules, doing one’s duty, respecting authority. Rules are there for a reason. Things work out better when everyone follows the rules. Adolescents & adults 3) Postconventional: What’s the right thing to do? Has own ethical principles. Rules are useful, but can be questioned. Realizing that individuals may disobey rules that are inconsistent with their own principles. Ideally, rules maintain social order and protect human rights, but are not absolute dictates that must be obeyed without question. 16+ years, though not everyone gets here How was the theory developed: Presented white middle class boys with vignettes of moral dilemmas to see how they respond. Based on this interview data developed his theory What are some criticisms of this theory? A theory of universal moral development. All individuals use same moral principles and go through same stages What are the different codes of ethics in moral judgment? Ethics of autonomy: Individual freedom and rights, emphasis on personal choice, immoral acts hurt another person or infringe on another’s rights. Corresponds with Kohlberg Ethics of justice: What is fair for one should be fair for all. Rights of the people, legal system. Actions are immoral if they have violate laws or fairness. Ethnics of divinity: Obligation to preserve standards and sanctity of God or transcendent authorities. Actions are immoral if they cause impurity or degradation to oneself or others , or show disrespect to God Ethics of community: Duty to follow community roles or social hierarchy. Actions are wrong when individuals fail to perform their duties and obligations What were the main findings of Miller & Bersoff (1992) around culture and moral judgment? 1) Ben should not take the ticket from the man’s coat pocket—even though it means nto getting to San Francisco in time to deliver the wedding rings to his best friend (justice) 2) Ben should go to San Francisco to deliver the wedding rings to his best friend—even though it means taking the train ticket from the other man’s coat pocket (interpersonal obligation/ community) What is happening to religiosity over time? Pew report—declining religiosity over time Behaviors vs. belief vs. importance: one way of diving up ‘religiosity’ Less interested in specific affiliation—more interested in this stuff Extrinsic vs. intrinsic religiousness: PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide Extrinsic (not intrinsic) religiosity is correlated with greater fear of death, and greater prejustice What are the differences between spirituality, religiosity, and fundamentalism? Spirituality: A broader concept than religion (dynamic, personal, experiential process) Quest for meaning and purpose, transcendence, connectedness, values Personal quest for answers to ultimate questions about life, meaning Give one a sense of peace/joy Religiosity: Excessively religious Fundamentalism: Positive associations between religiousness and C, A, negative with N. Fundamentalism negatively associated with O. I believe there is a Devil and a Hell in afterlife. I feel sure there is only one true religion. I believe in the second coming of Christ. Transracial Migrations Know the definitions of transnational and transracial, in regards to adoption. Transnational: Child from country A—Parents in country B Child’s race ≠ Parent’s race What countries have been most prominent in international adoptions in recent decades? China What is reculturation, and how is it related to adoption? Reclaiming a culture separate from the host and the adoptive parent’s culture What are racial and ethnic socialization? Be able to identify examples of each. Ethnic Socializatin: Racial/ethnic heritage and history . ‘I have talked to my child about important Korean people or historical events’ Cultural customs and traditions . ‘I have celebrated Korean holidays with my child’ Cultural, racial and ethnic pride . ‘I have told my child that being Korean is an important part of him/herself’ Racial Socialization: Promote awareness of discrimination and prepare skills to cope . ‘I have talked to my child about unfair treatment that occurs due to race’ PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide Practices that emphasize distrust in interracial interactions ‘I have done or said things to my child to keep him/her from trusting kids of other races/ethnicities’ What is adoptive identity? One’s sense of ‘coming to terms’ with being an adopted person Involves exploration and finding coherence in what it means to be adopted Less well defined thn ethnic identity . No ‘go to’ measure Positively related to psychological adjustment Culture & Psychotherapy What do we mean by cultural competence, when it comes to counseling? Multicultural Counseling Competencies: A set of practices that enable people to work effectively and sensitively, honoring and respecting the cultural worldviews and behaviors in the context of persons receiving services One of the most crucial skills for a culturally competent counselor is the ability to engage a culturally different client’s reality in an accepting and genuine manner What are the three parts of Sue’s (2006) tripartite model? 1) Knowledge: About the client’s reference groups ‘Unique dimensions of client’s worldviews, historical background of diverse cultural groups, and current sociopolitical influences on diverse groups’ 2) Awareness Of your own biases, values, limitations, privileges examination of yourself 3) Skills Psychologist’s ability to devise and implement prevention and intervention strategies that are relevant to client’s cultural values, beliefs, and expectations Culture adapted interventions Culturally appropriate microskills What are culturallyadapted interventions? Cultures may affect Mental by: Influencing the salience of the event Influencing how it is responded to Influencing the symptom expression Influencing the protective & risk factors and dynamic interplay of those factors Influencing accessibility of mental healthcare PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide Culture, Resilience & Psychopathology (aka Culture & Mental Health) What are culturebound and culturegeneral mental illnesses? Know the examples we discussed for each of these. Culturalbound mental illness: Specific to one or more societies E.g: Hikikomori, Arctic hysteria, Ataque de nervios, Brain fog & Latah Culturegeneral mental illness: Occur crossculturally, though symptom expression may very E.g: Schizophrenia Know the general pattern of disparities in mental health diagnosis and treatment between different racial/ethnic groups, and the factors we discussed that could account for those disparities. Service Disparities: Poverty moderates access to services—health insurance Even after controlling for poverty, people of color are less likely to use services Factors: Access & availability of services Resources: insurance, transportation, etc . In general, larger percent’s of AA inpatients access mental health services through emergency room reference than Whites . African Americans more likely to seek help in general medical sector due to experiencing mental health concerns somatically . Lack of insurance, stigma, wait till it gets really bad . Minorities experience more acute mental illness Stigma . Source of shame or ‘loss of face’ . African Americans reported more mental health stigma than Whites, suggesting that they may perceive seeking treatment as a sign of weakness . Social support as protective, moderating factor Mistrust . Mistrust captures wariness of mental health services and allows the individual to assess how safe the environment feels Stress From Snowden (2003): Attraction & Relationships PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide What were the main findings of Swami and Tovee (2007), about attractiveness ratings and BMI? (Participants viewed pictures and rated their attractiveness based on BMI) Optimal BMI may vary depending on your environment/culture What did the Buss studies reveal about partner preferences across 37 cultures? (Factors in choosing a mate and preferences concerning potential mates) In 36 of 37 cultures, females rated financial prospects as more important than did males In all 37, males preferred younger mates and females preferred older mates In 34, males rated good looks as more important In 23, males rated chastity as more important What did Gupta & Singh (1982) find about arranged and love marriages? LM (love) and AM (arranged) couples differed significantly on the love scale: LM couples’ scores decreased with longer duration of marriage, while AM couples’ increased with longer marriages On the liking scale, significant differences were found between sex only, as females had higher mean scores Be familiar with marriage trends in the current generation of young adults. What has been happening to the average age of marriage? Which groups are more likely to marry in their early twenties? Marriage is increasingly being postponed Current average age of marriage in US: 29 for men, 27 for women More likely to marry in their early twenties: By age 23, 35% of women and 16% of men marry (More common among: White, rural, Southern, workingclass, lower education levels Intersectionality What is intersectionality? (see Warner & Shields, 2013) A framework for understanding how individuals experience multiple marginalized social identities The idea that social identities (race, gender, sexuality, social class, etc.) are meaningful, and that your particular combination of social identities come together to create unique oppressions and opportunities for that individual How has race/ethnicity played a role in feminist movements for abortion rights and rights to work? Bell hooks argued that both the black and feminist assume that, ‘that all women are White and all Blacks are men.’ PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide She challenged the notion that one can fight for gender or racial equality if you try to clump groups together. You inaccurately assume that people have the same dreams, struggles or experiences. Reproductive rights to abortion and contraception fought for as “choice” yet forced sterilization of Black women, indigenous women, women with disabilities, and other “unfit mothers” was ignored. The people who were seen as “unfit” were more often people of color, lower SES, immigrants. Know the difference between additive and intersectional models. Additive: If I understand your experience as a woman, and your experience as an ethnic minority, i know what it means for you to be a woman of color Berdahl and Moore (2006) found that women of color reported more frequent and severe overall harassment compared to White men, men of color, and White women. Intersectional: You simply cannot say that one identity stands alone, but it is always influenced to some degree by other identities that are present. Intersections create both oppression and opportunity Being on the advantaged side offers more than avoidance of disadvantage – it opens up access to rewards, status, and opportunities unavailable to other intersections. An intersectional position may be disadvantaged relative to one group, but advantaged relative to another. The White lesbian may be disadvantaged because of divergence from the heterosexual norm and standard, but relative to other lesbians she enjoys racial privilege. What were Bowleg’s (2013) main findings about Black gay and bisexual men? What advantages and disadvantages did they report? Advantage: Introspection & growth Freedom from societal norms/expetations Freedom of ‘not being comfortable’ Disadvantages: Negative stereotypes General racism Racism within White LGB community Heterosexism in Black communities Pressure to act masculine Student Presentations Many student presentations focused on personal reactions, or current events, connected to the concepts covered in lecture & readings. As you know, I think this is an extremely important part of the course. Reflecting on these issues and relating them to reallife events brings the psychology to life – it’s just not something I can assess with a multiple choice test. PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide Several students also brought in new information, concepts, and definitions you should be familiar with. Below is a list of questions you should be able to answer, based on what students have presented: What is ableism? Ableism: The discrimination or prejudice against people who have disabilities What is the difference between achieved and ascribed status? Be able to categorize examples of each. Achieved Statues: A position in a social system that is acquired on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen and reflects a person’s skills, abilities, and efforts E.g: Olympic athlete, senator Ascribed Status: The social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life. It is a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned. E.g: Male, African Brother What is biculturalism, and how is it related to acculturation? Biculturalism: Bicultural individuals may be immigrants, refugees, indigenous people, ethnic minorities, those in interethnic relationships, international students, mixedethnic individuals.. children and grandchildren of foreignborn migrants, as well as individuals who have lived extensively abroad Acculturation: Process by which people adopt a different cultural system Individual or grouplevel change that occurs as a result of firsthand contact with another culture What are examples of pronouns that a person who identifies outside the gender binary might use? What purposes do gender neutral pronouns serve? Kathoey (Thai term refers to either a transgender woman or an effeminate gay male in Thailand) Third gender What is cosmopolitanism? The ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality. What are the four types of crowds we discussed in class? Aggressive . Violent and outwardly focused Escapist PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide . Large number of panicked people trying to get away from a dangerous situation Acquisitive . Large number of people are fighting for limited resources Expressive . Any other large group of people gathering for an active purpose What are some ways in which culture and media influence each other? Provide constructive information Give sense of what is happening around us Be more open and understanding towards other cultures Media is influenced by culture Culture provides media with sources for content (entertainment, news and advertisement) What are some examples of how culture might shape emotional expression? Individualism: Selfexpression and individual goals Collectivism: Group’s goals and harmony are the emphasis Mindful of others when expressing ourselves What is gentrification? What are some examples of what gentrification looks like? The buying and renovation of houses and stores in deteriorated urban neighborhoods by upper or middleincome families or individuals, thus improving property values but often displacing lowincome families and small business What is the American Dream? How might it be related to systems of power and oppression? ‘The dream of a land in which life should be better, richer, and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a dream of social order in which each person shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable of, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position in life.’ Certain people or groups less likely to attain the American dream: Minorities Economic classes Geographical regions What are some critiques of the individualism/collectivism dichotomy? What is hegemony? Leadership or dominance, especially by one country or social group PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide What is the model minority myth? Is it a positive thing? A minority group (whether based on ethnicity , race or religion) whose members are perceived to achieve a higher degree of socioeconomic success than the population average. This success is typically measured in income, education, low crime rates and high family stability What is colorism? What are some examples of how it plays out in real life? Colorism/Skin Color bias is a form of prejudice or discrimination in which human beings are treated differently based on the social meanings attached to skin color What is the IAT? Generally, how does it work? What is the difference between implicit and explicit attitudes? IAT (Implicit Association Test) : Test that measures attitudes and beliefs that a person might be unwilling or unable to report IAT assesses associations between concepts by measuring how quickly a person can categorize, for example: GOOD words with White faces compared to GOOD words with Black faces The idea is that the more strongly related the two concepts are in memory, the more quickly you will be able to categorized words into paired categories. Your score is reported as an implicit preference for White people compared to Black people if you were faster at categorizing GOOD words with White faces compared to Black faces What is scapegoating? What factors make a group more vulnerable to being scapegoats? Process in which the mechanisms of projection or displacement are utilized in focusing feelings of aggression, hostility, frustration etc. upon anther individual or group; the amount of blame being unwarranted Factors: Relatively low power . Minorities Recognizable and distinct . Ethnically different Pose a potentially real threat . Black Lynchings and Cotton Prices . Immigrants What are the differences between most yoga practiced in the East vs. the West? PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide What are some examples of subtle sexism? In Saudi Arabia women must be accompanied by a male guardian such as a father, husband, brother, or uncle when going out (lived for a year in the Middle East) th US: In the 19 century in Michigan a woman was not allowed to cut her own hair because her hair belonged to her husband What are some examples of how LGBTQ individuals interact with different cultures? How might race/ethnicity or nationality intersect with LGBTQ identity to create different experiences? USA, Brazil, Jamaica: Religion seems to play a big role in why people oppress the LGBTQ community More crime, homicide Japan: (Collectivism+ most of the population has no religion) Characteristics of the culture matter (Collectivism) Religion does not play a big role since more than 70% of people are mot religious Difference – Deviation LGBTQ people are not able to disclose sexual orientation—more psychological problems— greater risk of suicide Know the basic history and values of the Black Lives Matter movement that were presented in class. Started on Twitter with #BlackLivesMatter BLM stands for: We affirm that all black lives matter Black lives are no longer systematically and intentionally targeted for demise What is psychotherapy? The treatment of a medical disorder through psychological rather than medial means . Talks through problems rather than using medicine or drugs to treat . Know as ‘talking cure’ PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide What is sex trafficking? How is it related to systems of oppression? Sex trafficking occurs when some uses forces, fraud or coercion to cause a commercial sex act with an adult, or causes a minor to commit a commercial sex act What are the three types of microaggressions? Be able to identify examples of each. 1) Microassault: An explicit racial putdown characterized primarily by a verbal or nonverbal attack meant to hurt the intended victim. People are likely to hold notions of minority inferiority privately and will only display them publicly when they (a) lose control or (b) feel relatively safe to engage in a microassault E.g: Deliberately serving a white person before a person of color, discouraging interracial actions, displaying a swastika 2) Microinsult: Communications that convery rudeness and insensitivity and demean a person’s racial heritage or identity. Often subtle snubs, frequently unknown to the perpetrator, but clearly convey a hidden insulting message to the recipient of color E.g: Asking how did you get your job?; White teacher not calling on students of color or avoiding eye contact with them 3) Microinvalidation: Exclude, negate, or nullify the psychological thoughts, feelings or experiences of a person of color E.g: Saying I don’t see color; asking someone where they are born assuming it is not American What is cultural appropriation? Taking intellectual property, cultural expression, traditional knowledge from another culture without permission Especially controversial when elements of a minority culture are utilized by a majority culture What is posttraumatic growth? Refers to the positive change experienced as a result of the struggle with a major life criaia or a traumatic event . Relating to others . New possibilities . Personal strength What is unconscious bias, and what are some examples? The attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions and decisions in an unconscious manner E.g: Connection between criminal sentencing and Afrocentric features bias (‘typical’ featurces such as dark skin, a wide nose, and full lips) PSYCHOLOGY 3301 • Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide Be familiar with racial disparities in the criminal justice system, and some potential explanations for them. What are the three components of colorblind racism? Be able to identify examples of each. 1) Abstract Liberalism: taking race out of racial issues 2) Cultural Racism—Balming the victim 3) Minimization of Racism—Discrimination no longer exists
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'