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Psych 110 Final Study Guide

by: Jasmine Burns

Psych 110 Final Study Guide PSYC 110 (General Psychology)

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Jasmine Burns

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Here is the final Psych 110 study guide completely filled out filled out!
General Psychology -110
Alex Khaddouma
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Burns on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 110 (General Psychology) at UTK taught by Alex Khaddouma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Psychology -110 in Psychlogy at UTK.

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Date Created: 05/01/16
Study Guide Spring 2016  Social Psychology ­ The study of how people influence each other's' behavior, beliefs, and  attitudes. Evidence for humans being social animals ­  1. Increased size and activity level of frontal cortex in humans compared to other animals  2. Negative effects of isolation: social rejection registered in brain as pain in experiments 3. Positive effects of interaction  ­ increased physiological health ­ Social facilitation (enhanced performance on tasks in presence of others) Attributions ­ Process of assigning causes to behavior. Fundamental attribution error and ultimate attribution error ­  Fundamental attribution error ­ The tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional  influences on other people's behavior. (We attribute a person's behavior to who that person  is rather than what the person has gone through/may be going through at that time) Ultimate attribution error ­  The ultimate attribution error is when a person attributes negative   behaviors by members of another "group" (  nation  ,   race  ,   religion , etc.) to their inherent character, while   explaining away any positive behavior  on their part as being merely circumstantial. This is a way in   which the   cognitive bias   of prejudice is retained, despite   evidence  against it being presented. E.g. A car next to you speeds past you and cuts you off. You attribute this to him being a complete and  uneducated idiot in driving, who probably doesn’t care about anyone else. In reality, he may have just  broken up with his girlfriend, or may be rushing to Effects of attitudes on behavior (e.g. how much of people’s behavior is explained by their  attitudes? When are attitudes a stronger vs. weaker predictor of behavior than other factors?)   Asch’s conformity study ­ Study where a group of people sat around a table, showed the  group a set of lines a,b.c., and asked which line was the same height as the line in the box,  one of the people say b and everyone else says b through peer pressure. ­ Found that people tend to conform (i.e. agree with group answer even when incorrect)  about 40% of the time ­ Found that it was less likely to conform if at least one other person gives different answer  than majority ­Associated with activity in amygdala, indicating anxiety might increase conformity Stanford prison experiment ­ Deindividualization ­ some people guards and some prisoners,  randomly assigned, but started acting like their roles. Violence. By Zimbardo and colleagues Milgram’s obedience study ­ Experiment to measure obedience using the Milgram Paradigm. Participants asked to deliver "shocks" in increasing intensity to another person based on  performance of a memory task. Experimenters manipulated style of authority figure (e.g.  changed race, gender). Study found that 62% of participants delivered all the way up to  maximum shock! Effects of groups on individual behavior (e.g. deindividuation, groupthink, bystander effect,  social facilitation, social loafing, etc.)   Social loafing: The tendency to exert less effort when trying to achieve a goal when  working in a group as opposed to working alone.  Deindividuation: The tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are part of a larger group.  Groupthink: The tendency to not promote new ideas or opinions as a result of  common agreeability on already basic knowledge. People would rather agree and  keep the harmony than suggest new opinions and ideas while possibly being  disagreed with. Assign a devil's advocate who will always throw in new ideas and  opinions to avoid groupthink.  Bystander effect: The more people there are, the less of a chance that someone  will take action or intervene in an emergency or situation. Everyone waits to react  based on each others reactions and everyone shifts the responsibility onto someone  else.  Social facilitation: The tendency for people to perform differently when in the  presence of others than when alone. People get more done when put in a group and assigned to do basic tasks, however when it comes to complex/new tasks people get more done alone. Types of prejudice (implicit vs. explicit) and how implicit prejudice can be measured   Implicit prejudice ­ Not being outwardly aware of being prejudice. almost everyone is  subconsciously prejudiced when measured by flickering photos of different races and  measuring skin conductivity and brain response. Implicit Association Test (IAT).   Explicit prejudice ­ we are consciously aware of this Methods to counteract prejudice (e.g. jigsaw classrooms) and what criteria are necessary for it  to work   Get people to work toward a shared higher purpose  Jigsaw classrooms ­ give people groups different tasks that add up to 1 common goal  Shared goals, enjoyable contact, roughly equal status, disconfirm negative stereotypes,  and have potential to become friends, NO LEADERS. In­group vs. out­group and the minimal intergroup paradigm to create in­groups and out­groups   In group ­ tendency for people to think favorably of people in our group  Out group homogeneity ­ tendency to see people not in your group as all similar  Prejudice is attitude, discrimination is behavior  Minimal intergroup paradigm ­ create groups on arbitrary differences Adaptive conservatism ­ evolutionary principle that creates a predisposition toward  distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different Cognitive dissonance ­ the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially  as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change. Festinger’s study of bored people  getting $1 reporting being less bored than people given $20 Methods of persuasion (e.g. foot­in­the­door, door­in­the­face, etc.)   Foot in door ­ ask for small favor before asking for more and bigger later  Door in face ­ ask for big favor and then make it more reasonable  Low ball ­ ask for a really small favor and then reveal that it’s bigger than you made it  sound “Watch my dog for a sec please?” ‘Ok’ “I’ll be gone for 30 minutes!” ‘Alright that’s  fine’  Difference between foot in the door and low ball: foot in the door is completed tasks.  (e.g. first ask to stop and get gas, once thats done then ask to stop and get food, once  thats done, then ask for money for food) whereas low ball is commitment to certain  things (ok the car is 25,000 (person already commits to buying) then the dealer adds on  the insurance fee (person then commits to paying the insurance fee) then the dealer  adds on the dealership fee (person then commits to paying the dealership fee) and as a  result the total cost is way higher than 25,000, but the person has already committed to  paying for all of these things. Blackboard readings:  The Experimental Generation of Interpersonal Closeness – Parts I and II  Psychological Disorders Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ­ 17 different classes of disorders. List of  diagnostic criteria for each and rules for thinking. Think “organic” or physical Categorical vs. dimensional models of psychological disorders ­ categorical ­ either you have it  or you don’t. Dimensional ­ it’s a spectrum / there are multiple degrees of disorder Symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g. hallucinations, delusions, etc.) ­ Severe disorder of thought  and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality. Delusions (strongly held fixed beliefs  with no basis of reality), hallucinations (sensory perception that occurs in the absence of an  external stimulus), and disorganized speech (e.g. salad house love) Symptoms of autism (e.g. mirror neuron deficits) ­ Disorder marked by severe deficits in  language, social bonding, and imagination. Often accompanied by intellectual deficits. Mirror  neurons do not fire the same way that normal people’s do when observing and doing an action. Categories and main symptoms of broad classes of psychological disorders (e.g. anxiety  disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, pediatric disorders, etc.)  Anxiety disorders ­ psychological disorder in which sympathetic nervous system is activated in  the absence of significant external stimuli. There are generalized anxiety disorders (constant  worry and tension over a variety of settings), Panic disorder (panic attacks where you have brief intense episodes of extreme fear with dizziness, light­headedness, chest pain, and feeling  deathly), Phobias (intense fear of specific objects and places that cause a change in behavior),  PTSD (lasting significant emotional disturbance following a traumatizing event), and OCD  (repetitive behaviors that decrease stress as a result of obsessive thoughts) Mood disorders:  Depression (recurrent state of lingering depressed mood, diminished interest in doing  pleasurable things and being around people, there are chronic ­ long term, and intermittent in  and out episodes) Bipolar ­ intense states of dramatically elevated mood and energy (either extremely happy or  even extremely angry or extremely fearsome) with depressive episodes following each. Highly  genetically influenced. Suicide ­ double the rate of homicide Phobias Dissociation  Know which disorders have a strong genetic component and a higher likelihood of being  inherited ­ bipolar disorder is very much inherited. Diathesis­stress theory of mental disorders ­ both the environment and your genetic makeup  influences a person’s psychological disorder. An event in your environment can trigger a  chromosome that carries a susceptibility to a particular psychological disease. However, if it is  never triggered then you may never get that disease. Blackboard readings:  Mindful M&Ms  Psychological and Biomedical Treatments Cognitive­behavioral vs. insight­oriented therapy  Insight Oriented Therapy ­ Focus on using therapeutic relationship to expand awareness of  insight into a person’s  psychological functioning. Indicates that insight itself can be healing,  Focus on childhood trauma and its correlation with present day behaviors, focused more on  patient’s responses and low interference of therapist.  Insight Oriented Therapy is composed of two parts ­ Psychodynamic therapy proposed by Freud and humanistic therapy which is based on the idea that humans are fundamentally positive so  the therapist will point out what the patient is doing right and helps to expand on those  behaviors. Cognitive­behavioral therapy ­ Focus on specific behavioral patterns that maintain problematic  thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The method is based on principles of learning (e.g. cause  and effect, role playing with therapist and finding new ways to react, reward­cost system which  is especially effective with children, ABC's of behavioral patterns ­ antecedents, behavior,  consequences) Systematic desensitization ­ Used to treat phobias, very effective and easiest to treat, 80%  effective rate. Continually exposing feared stimuli to someone in small steps and gradually.  Soon people get over their phobia and they are desensitized to the stimuli. Resistance hypothesis ­ The tendency of people to be aware of their harmful psychological  patterns however subconsciously working to maintain these patterns. The therapist’s role is to  point out the resistance so that it can be overcome.  Failure analysis approach to mental disorders 


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