Psych 110 Final Study Guide
Psych 110 Final Study Guide PSYC 110 (General Psychology)
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Burns on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 110 (General Psychology) at UTK taught by Alex Khaddouma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Psychology -110 in Psychlogy at UTK.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Study Guide Spring 2016 Social Psychology The study of how people influence each other's' behavior, beliefs, and attitudes. Evidence for humans being social animals 1. Increased size and activity level of frontal cortex in humans compared to other animals 2. Negative effects of isolation: social rejection registered in brain as pain in experiments 3. Positive effects of interaction increased physiological health Social facilitation (enhanced performance on tasks in presence of others) Attributions Process of assigning causes to behavior. Fundamental attribution error and ultimate attribution error Fundamental attribution error The tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people's behavior. (We attribute a person's behavior to who that person is rather than what the person has gone through/may be going through at that time) Ultimate attribution error The ultimate attribution error is when a person attributes negative behaviors by members of another "group" ( nation , race , religion , etc.) to their inherent character, while explaining away any positive behavior on their part as being merely circumstantial. This is a way in which the cognitive bias of prejudice is retained, despite evidence against it being presented. E.g. A car next to you speeds past you and cuts you off. You attribute this to him being a complete and uneducated idiot in driving, who probably doesn’t care about anyone else. In reality, he may have just broken up with his girlfriend, or may be rushing to Effects of attitudes on behavior (e.g. how much of people’s behavior is explained by their attitudes? When are attitudes a stronger vs. weaker predictor of behavior than other factors?) Asch’s conformity study Study where a group of people sat around a table, showed the group a set of lines a,b.c., and asked which line was the same height as the line in the box, one of the people say b and everyone else says b through peer pressure. Found that people tend to conform (i.e. agree with group answer even when incorrect) about 40% of the time Found that it was less likely to conform if at least one other person gives different answer than majority Associated with activity in amygdala, indicating anxiety might increase conformity Stanford prison experiment Deindividualization some people guards and some prisoners, randomly assigned, but started acting like their roles. Violence. By Zimbardo and colleagues Milgram’s obedience study Experiment to measure obedience using the Milgram Paradigm. Participants asked to deliver "shocks" in increasing intensity to another person based on performance of a memory task. Experimenters manipulated style of authority figure (e.g. changed race, gender). Study found that 62% of participants delivered all the way up to maximum shock! Effects of groups on individual behavior (e.g. deindividuation, groupthink, bystander effect, social facilitation, social loafing, etc.) Social loafing: The tendency to exert less effort when trying to achieve a goal when working in a group as opposed to working alone. Deindividuation: The tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are part of a larger group. Groupthink: The tendency to not promote new ideas or opinions as a result of common agreeability on already basic knowledge. People would rather agree and keep the harmony than suggest new opinions and ideas while possibly being disagreed with. Assign a devil's advocate who will always throw in new ideas and opinions to avoid groupthink. Bystander effect: The more people there are, the less of a chance that someone will take action or intervene in an emergency or situation. Everyone waits to react based on each others reactions and everyone shifts the responsibility onto someone else. Social facilitation: The tendency for people to perform differently when in the presence of others than when alone. People get more done when put in a group and assigned to do basic tasks, however when it comes to complex/new tasks people get more done alone. Types of prejudice (implicit vs. explicit) and how implicit prejudice can be measured Implicit prejudice Not being outwardly aware of being prejudice. almost everyone is subconsciously prejudiced when measured by flickering photos of different races and measuring skin conductivity and brain response. Implicit Association Test (IAT). Explicit prejudice we are consciously aware of this Methods to counteract prejudice (e.g. jigsaw classrooms) and what criteria are necessary for it to work Get people to work toward a shared higher purpose Jigsaw classrooms give people groups different tasks that add up to 1 common goal Shared goals, enjoyable contact, roughly equal status, disconfirm negative stereotypes, and have potential to become friends, NO LEADERS. Ingroup vs. outgroup and the minimal intergroup paradigm to create ingroups and outgroups In group tendency for people to think favorably of people in our group Out group homogeneity tendency to see people not in your group as all similar Prejudice is attitude, discrimination is behavior Minimal intergroup paradigm create groups on arbitrary differences Adaptive conservatism evolutionary principle that creates a predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different Cognitive dissonance the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change. Festinger’s study of bored people getting $1 reporting being less bored than people given $20 Methods of persuasion (e.g. footinthedoor, doorintheface, etc.) Foot in door ask for small favor before asking for more and bigger later Door in face ask for big favor and then make it more reasonable Low ball ask for a really small favor and then reveal that it’s bigger than you made it sound “Watch my dog for a sec please?” ‘Ok’ “I’ll be gone for 30 minutes!” ‘Alright that’s fine’ Difference between foot in the door and low ball: foot in the door is completed tasks. (e.g. first ask to stop and get gas, once thats done then ask to stop and get food, once thats done, then ask for money for food) whereas low ball is commitment to certain things (ok the car is 25,000 (person already commits to buying) then the dealer adds on the insurance fee (person then commits to paying the insurance fee) then the dealer adds on the dealership fee (person then commits to paying the dealership fee) and as a result the total cost is way higher than 25,000, but the person has already committed to paying for all of these things. Blackboard readings: The Experimental Generation of Interpersonal Closeness – Parts I and II Psychological Disorders Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 17 different classes of disorders. List of diagnostic criteria for each and rules for thinking. Think “organic” or physical Categorical vs. dimensional models of psychological disorders categorical either you have it or you don’t. Dimensional it’s a spectrum / there are multiple degrees of disorder Symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g. hallucinations, delusions, etc.) Severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality. Delusions (strongly held fixed beliefs with no basis of reality), hallucinations (sensory perception that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus), and disorganized speech (e.g. salad house love) Symptoms of autism (e.g. mirror neuron deficits) Disorder marked by severe deficits in language, social bonding, and imagination. Often accompanied by intellectual deficits. Mirror neurons do not fire the same way that normal people’s do when observing and doing an action. Categories and main symptoms of broad classes of psychological disorders (e.g. anxiety disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, pediatric disorders, etc.) Anxiety disorders psychological disorder in which sympathetic nervous system is activated in the absence of significant external stimuli. There are generalized anxiety disorders (constant worry and tension over a variety of settings), Panic disorder (panic attacks where you have brief intense episodes of extreme fear with dizziness, lightheadedness, chest pain, and feeling deathly), Phobias (intense fear of specific objects and places that cause a change in behavior), PTSD (lasting significant emotional disturbance following a traumatizing event), and OCD (repetitive behaviors that decrease stress as a result of obsessive thoughts) Mood disorders: Depression (recurrent state of lingering depressed mood, diminished interest in doing pleasurable things and being around people, there are chronic long term, and intermittent in and out episodes) Bipolar intense states of dramatically elevated mood and energy (either extremely happy or even extremely angry or extremely fearsome) with depressive episodes following each. Highly genetically influenced. Suicide double the rate of homicide Phobias Dissociation Know which disorders have a strong genetic component and a higher likelihood of being inherited bipolar disorder is very much inherited. Diathesisstress theory of mental disorders both the environment and your genetic makeup influences a person’s psychological disorder. An event in your environment can trigger a chromosome that carries a susceptibility to a particular psychological disease. However, if it is never triggered then you may never get that disease. Blackboard readings: Mindful M&Ms Psychological and Biomedical Treatments Cognitivebehavioral vs. insightoriented therapy Insight Oriented Therapy Focus on using therapeutic relationship to expand awareness of insight into a person’s psychological functioning. Indicates that insight itself can be healing, Focus on childhood trauma and its correlation with present day behaviors, focused more on patient’s responses and low interference of therapist. Insight Oriented Therapy is composed of two parts Psychodynamic therapy proposed by Freud and humanistic therapy which is based on the idea that humans are fundamentally positive so the therapist will point out what the patient is doing right and helps to expand on those behaviors. Cognitivebehavioral therapy Focus on specific behavioral patterns that maintain problematic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The method is based on principles of learning (e.g. cause and effect, role playing with therapist and finding new ways to react, rewardcost system which is especially effective with children, ABC's of behavioral patterns antecedents, behavior, consequences) Systematic desensitization Used to treat phobias, very effective and easiest to treat, 80% effective rate. Continually exposing feared stimuli to someone in small steps and gradually. Soon people get over their phobia and they are desensitized to the stimuli. Resistance hypothesis The tendency of people to be aware of their harmful psychological patterns however subconsciously working to maintain these patterns. The therapist’s role is to point out the resistance so that it can be overcome. Failure analysis approach to mental disorders
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