299X FINAL EXAM WORKSHEET
1. Roles of the endocrine system
a. Regulating metabolism and water and electrolyte balance
b. Adaptive changes to help the body cope with stress
c. Growth and development
d. Controlling reproduction
e. Regulating red blood cell production
f. Digestion and absorption
2. Classifications of hormones
a. Protein or Peptide hormones
i. Made from two or more amino acids
ii. Majority of all hormones
iii. Dissolved in and carried by the plasma
b. Steroid Hormones
i. Made from cholesterol
ii. Transported in the plasma bound to plasma proteins
c. Amine Hormones
i. Derived from tyrosine
ii. Can be, in the case of catecholamines, both dissolved in plasma and bound to plasma proteins
3. Hypersecretion verses hyposecretion of hormones (eg. thyroid hormone, GH) a. Hyposecretion decreased release or loss of a particular hormone i. Treated by replacement therapy
b. Hypersecretion oversecretion of a given hormone If you want to learn more check out How does h. erectus evolve?
i. Can be caused by tumors or over stimulation
ii. Treated by
1. Surgical removal of the tumor or radiation or chemotherapy
2. Or in the case of over stimulation by drugs that block
synthesis or inhibit secretion
4. Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus
a. TRH thyrotropin releasing hormone
i. Stimulates release of TSH and prolactin
b. CRH corticotropin releasing hormone
i. Stimulates release of ACTH
c. GnRHgonadotropin releasing hormone If you want to learn more check out What bond is weak and easy to make?
i. Stimulates release of FSH and LH Don't forget about the age old question of How long does emotion last?
d. GHRHgrowth hormone releasing hormone
i. Stimulates release of growth hormone We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of anomia?
e. GHIHgrowth hormone inhibiting hormone
i. Inhibits the release of growth hormone
f. PRH prolactin releasing hormone
i. Stimulates release of prolactin
g. PIHprolactin inhibiting hormone
i. Inhibits the release of prolactin
5. Hormones secreted by the pituitary (anterior and posterior)
i. Made up of the axon terminals of the hypothalamic neurons
ii. Stores 2 hormones produced by the hypothalamus
1. Oxytocin contraction of the uterus during childbirth and
ejection of milk from the mammary glands
2. Vasopressin (again!) aka ADH, enhances retention of
water by incorporation of water channels in the distal
tubules and collecting ducts and causes contraction of
arteriole smooth muscle
i. Hypothalamic hormones enter the hypothalamic capillaries
ii. The hypothalamic capillaries rejoin the hypophyseal portal system iii. In the anterior pituitary the hypophyseal portal branches into anterior pituitary capillaries
iv. The hormones leave the blood stream and enter the anterior
v. The hormones interacts with targets and alter the release of
hormones stored in the anterior pituitary
vi. If the hypothalamic hormone is stimulatory for a given anterior pituitary hormone(s), that hormone(s) is released and travels We also discuss several other topics like What are roof types?
through the anterior pituitary capillaries that rejoin to form a vein vii. Folliclestimulating hormone (FSH)
1. Females stimulates growth and development of the ovarian
follicles and promotes secretion of estrogen by the ovaries
2. Males sperm production
viii. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
1. Females ovulation and luteinization (we will discuss this
in the next chapter) and regulates secretion of estrogen and If you want to learn more check out What is the description for the relative ages of this cross-section?
2. Males secretion of testosterone from the Leydig cells of
ix. Prolactin (PRL)
1. Females production of milk and development of the
6. Growth hormone
a. Growth Hormone (GH)
i. Responsible for body growth and involved in metabolism
b. Thyroidstimulating Hormone (TSH)
i. Stimulates release of thyroid hormone and thyroid growth
c. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
i. Stimulates cortisol secretion and promotes growth of the adrenal cortex
d. Actions of GH
e. Direct effect binds it’s receptor at the target cell
i. GH receptors on adipose tissue promoting the breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids
f. Indirect effect binds a receptor on the liver or other tissue which generally releases IGF1 (insulin growth factor 1) which acts at the target tissue g. GH and Growth
h. The major role of growth hormone in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF1.
i. IGF1 stimulates proliferation of chondrocytes (cartilage cells), resulting in bone growth.
ii. Growth hormone does seem to have a direct effect on bone growth in stimulating differentiation of chondrocytes.
i. IGF1 also appears to be the key player in muscle growth.
i. stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts. ii. stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues.
7. Growth periods
a. Fetal growth is dependent on placental hormones
b. GH acts only after birth
c. Postnatal growth spurt first 2 years of life
d. Pubertal growth spurt during adolescence
i. Increased release of GH
ii. Lengthening of the long bones
iii. Increase in androgen release (testosterone)
1. Promotion of protein synthesis
iv. Testosterone and estrogen halt bone growth by the end of puberty
8. Bone growth
a. Bones grow in length at the epiphyseal plate
b. Cartilage in the region of the epiphyseal plate next to the epiphysis continues to grow by mitosis.
c. The chondrocytes, in the region next to the diaphysis, age and degenerate. d. Osteoblasts move in and ossify the matrix to form bone.
e. The process continues throughout childhood and the adolescent years until the cartilage growth slows and finally stops.
9. The thyroid gland
a. The thyroid gland has a "butterfly" or “bowtie” shape, with two lateral lobes that are connected by a narrow section called the isthmus.
b. Parathyroid glands light colored nodules on or protruding from the thyroid gland surface
a. During hypothyroidism the pituitary secretes additional thyroid stimulatinghormone (TSH) to increase thyroid hormone.
b. The thyroid gland becomes enlarged and forms a goiter (termed a "compensatory goiter").
c. A lack of iodine may also cause a goiter
11. Effect of thyroid hormone levels on metabolism
a. Low and/or normal levels of Thyroid Hormone Anabolic (constructive metabolism)
i. Protein synthesis
ii. Lipid synthesis
iii. Glycogen synthesis
iv. Gluconeogenesis (making glucose from its breakdown products) b. High Thyroid Hormone Catabolic (destructive metabolism)
i. Protein degradation
ii. Lipid degradation
iii. Glycogenolysis (breakdown of polysaccharides into glucose)
12. Graves disease
a. antibodies that the patient's immune system makes attach to the thyroid gland causing the thyroid to make more hormone, presence of a goiter that produces too much thyroid hormone
b. overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism)
c. inflammation of the tissues around the eyes causing swelling d. thickening of the skin over the lower legs (pretibial myxedema)
13. Adrenal cortex hormones
a. Produces three types of steroid hormones:
i. MINERALOCORTICOIDS aldosterone
1. regulate fluid and electrolyte balance
2. excretion and absorption of sodium, chlorine, potassium,
ii. GLUCOCORTICOIDS cortisol
1. essential to metabolism
2. increase certain liver functions and have an anti
3. used to suppress inflammatory reactions, to promote
healing, and to treat rheumatoid arthritis
b. ANDROGENS AND ESTROGENS
i. produces sex hormones
ii. Male characteristics (androgens)
iii. female characteristics (estrogens)
iv. These hormones appear in different concentrations in both men and women
14. Roles of Epinephrine
a. Epinephrine (adrenalin) released; (in adrenal medulla)
i. in the presence of emotional stress
ii. hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
iii. low blood pressure
1. causes vasoconstriction of arterioles (especially in the skin,
mucous membranes, and kidneys),
2. dilates other arterioles (the coronary system, skeletal
muscles and lungs)
3. Increases heart rate, respiration rate and depth of breath,
blood pressure, blood sugar levels, and metabolism
iv. It also stimulates the production of other adrenal cortical
15. Cortisol actions and stress
a. Stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver
b. Inhibits glucose uptake
c. Stimulates protein degradation
d. Facilitates lipolysis (breakdown of lipids)
e. Adaptation to stress
g. Stress causes the release of CRH from the hypothalamus
16. Effects of stress on the body
a. During Stress
i. Glucocorticoids and catecholamines act to increase levels of glucose within the bloodstream:
1. glucose uptake is inhibited and synthesis of proteins, fatty
acids and glycogen is halted
2. lipolysis: triglycerides (fatty acids) are broken down
3. glycogenolysis: glycogen is degraded and glucose is freed
4. proteolysis: proteins are degraded into amino acids
5. gluconeogenesis: fatty acids and amino acids are converted
into glucose within the liver
ii. E/NE release and act at receptors to
1. rapidly increase blood glucose levels via lipolysis,
glycogenolysis, proteolysis, gluconeogenesis;
2. inhibit secretion of insulin while increasing secretion of
3. Increase blood glucose
iii. Glucocorticoids act at intracellular receptors to increase the synthesis of enzymes that subsequently act to increase the process of gluconeogenesis; this effect is slower but can last for a longer period of time
b. Acute Stress Response and Insulin
i. Store of energy substrates
1. excess fats are stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides,
2. amino acids are stored throughout the body as proteins,
3. glucose is stored throughout the body as glycogen
ii. two hormones secreted by the pancreas play an important role in controlling the levels of blood sugar:
1. βcells in the pancreas secrete insulin storage of glucose
and the synthesis of proteins and fatty acids,
2. αcells in the pancreas secrete glucagon release of
glucose into the bloodstream
iii. secretion of insulin and glucagon maintain glucose homeostasis under low stress conditions
iv. Ex. After a meal, glucose levels are high and βcells secrete insulin allowing for the transport of glucose from blood into cells for
storage; several hours after the meal, glucose levels drop and α
cells secrete glucagon which then acts to increase the release of
glucose from stores until the next meal.
a. One hormone must be present in adequate amounts in order for another hormone to function
i. Thyroid hormone increases the number of epinephrine receptors ii. Cortisol is required for catecholamine induced vasoconstriction
18. Enzymes (release site and function)
i. Enzymes are proteins that do the everyday work within a cell. Their basic function is to speed up the process and efficiency of a reaction without themselves being consumed in the process.
Enzymes are responsible for moving large parts of a cell’s internal structure, such as pulling chromosomes apart when a cell divides. Enzymes make the energy molecules that are constantly needed for the cell to survive. And they break down molecules, recycle the old parts and make new molecules that allow the cell to grow
ii. Release site: where the substrate binds
19. Blood sugar regulation
a. βcells in the pancreas secrete insulin storage of glucose and the synthesis of proteins and fatty acids,
b. αcells in the pancreas secrete glucagon release of glucose into the bloodstream
20. Roles of the digestive system
a. Motility muscular contractions that mix and move the contents of the digestive tract
b. Secretion release of digestive juices into the digestive tract
c. Digestion the biological breakdown of complex food substances d. Absorption the movement of substances from the digestive tract into the blood or lymph
21. Heat production
a. Radiation emission of heat energy from the surface of a body as heat waves (EM waves), when the body is in its resting state, the primary method the body utilizes for discharging extra heat is radiation
b. Conduction transfer of heat between objects of different temperatures
22. Heat loss
a. Evaporation loss of water from the skin surface resulting in the loss of heat energy needed to convert water into a gas, major heat loss during activity
b. Sweating evaporative heat loss under sympathetic control
a. Endogenous pyrogen released form neutrophils
b. Release of prostaglandins
c. Reset of hypothalamic temperature
d. Initiation of cold response
e. Heat production
a. Hypothermia too low body temperature, caused by excessive cooling of the body or prolonged exposure to cold
b. Hyperthermia elevation in core temperature, caused by sustained exercise, high levels of thyroid hormone or epinephrine, damage to control centers in the hypothalamus
25. Basil metabolic rate
a. Metabolic activity needed to maintain the body at rest
i. person at rest for at least 30 minutes
ii. mental rest, no stress
iii. comfortable temperature
iv. 12 hours without food
26. Core body temperature
a. Central Core temperature of internal organs, CNS and skeletal muscle is 100oF
b. Core temperature may vary due to exercise, exposure to extreme temperatures, during a woman’s menstrual cycle and naturally due to biological rhythm
c. Body temperature 98.6oF or 37oC
i. Measured in the mouth (oral) or under the armpit (auxiliary) can range from 9699.9oF throughout the day
27. Leptin feeding behavior and metabolism
a. A decrease in leptin stimulates NPY (neuropeptide Y) and AgRP (agouti related peptide) release from the neurons of the arcuate nucleus
b. No leptin = hungry but no hormone release
c. AgRP when leptin is not present
d. So, a rise in leptin, an increase in αMSH and CART,
e. inhibition of feeding, increase in metabolism
f. Adipose tissue (fat cells) release leptin which regulates body mass by acting on neurons of the hypothalamus.
28. CCK and somatostatin
a. Released in the small intestine by chyme that is rich in fat or protein b. Causes satiety, may act by:
i. Activating CCK Atype receptors on neurons
ii. Stimulating enzyme release from the pancreas, facilitating
digestion and absorption
iii. Stimulation of insulin secretion
29. Obesity (causes)
a. Calorie intake exceeds calories burned up
b. Common Psychological Causes Of Obesity:
i. Eating everything on your plate
ii. Feeling pressure to eat what has been prepared
iii. Eating at a certain time, hungry or not
iv. Eating too many tasty foods
c. Physical Causes of Obesity
i. Disturbances in leptin signaling lack of satiety
ii. Lack of exercise
iii. Differences in the “fidget factor” (nonexercise activity
iv. Differences in extracting energy from food leaner people use more food energy for heat
v. Hereditary tendencies differences in energy balance
vi. Development of too many fat cells
vii. Hypothyroidism thyroid hormone deficiency
30. Anorexia nervosa
a. Anorexia nervosa obsessed with being thin
b. An illness that usually occurs in teenage girls, but it can also occur in teenage boys, and adult women and men.
c. Lose a lot of weight and are terrified of gaining weight.
d. Believe they are fat even though they are very thin.
e. Anorexia isn't just a problem with food or weight, but use of food and weight to deal with emotional problems.
f. May starve themselves to death
g. May have altered hormone secretions, absence of menstrual periods, low body temperature
a. Develop of the ova in the ovaries by a form of meiosis called oogenesis b. Early in fetal development, primitive germ cells in the ovaries differentiate into oogonia.
c. These divide rapidly to form thousands of cells, still called oogonia, which have a full complement of 46 (23 pairs) chromosomes.
e. Oogonia then enter a growth phase, enlarging and becoming primary oocytes.
f. Primary oocytes are diploid (46 chromosomes)
i. replicate their DNA and begin the first meiotic division, but the process stops in prophase
ii. The cells remain in this suspended state until puberty.
g. The two ovaries together contain approximately 700,000 oocytes at birth (this is the lifetime supply, and generally no more will develop)
h. Oogenesis and Puberty
i. At puberty, under the influence of FSH, several primary oocytes start to grow again each month.
ii. One of the primary oocytes outgrows the others and it resumes meiosis I
iii. The large cell undergoes an unequal division so that nearly all the cytoplasm, organelles, and half the chromosomes go to one cell, which becomes a secondary oocyte.
iv. The remaining half of the chromosomes go to a smaller cell called the first polar body.
v. The secondary oocyte begins the second meiotic division, but the process stops in metaphase.
a. The packaging (remodeling) of spermatids includes their differentiation into four parts:
b. Through sperm cell maturation, the cells are intimately associated with Sertoli cells.
c. The functions of the Sertoli cells
i. Tight junctions forming the bloodtesties barrier.
ii. provide nourishment for sperm cells
iii. carry out phagocytosis
iv. secrete a seminiferous tubule fluid into the lumens of the tubules. v. site of action to control spermatogenesis
vi. signaled by testosterone and FSH.
33. Menstrual cycle
a. Menstruation is the cyclic and orderly loss of the uterine lining, the endometrium, in response to the interactions of hormones produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries.
b. Two phases:
i. follicular phase
ii. luteal secretory phase (release of hormones by corpus luteum) c. Temperature and the Menstrual Cycle
i. During the follicular (proliferative) phase, a woman’s body
temperature is low, can be as low as 98.0° F (36.7° C) or less.
ii. Sometimes there is a slight rise near the end of the phase during the preovulatory burst of LH before it dips again at ovulation.
iii. Throughout this phase, the cervical mucus becomes progressively clearer and thinner.
a. At this point ovulation occurs. If fertilization occurs, meiosis II continues. i. unequal division with all of the cytoplasm going to the ovum (23
ii. smaller cell from this division is a second polar body
iii. The first polar body also usually divides in meiosis I to produce two even smaller polar bodies
iv. If fertilization does not occur, the second meiotic division is never completed and the secondary oocyte degenerates
b. Sperm live for about 4 days, after ejaculation into the vagina life expectancy is ~48 hrs
c. Fertilization occurs in the Fallopian Tubes (normally)
d. 200400 million sperm to one egg
e. When 1 sperm penetrates the zona pellucida (clear zone around egg), f. The sperm loses its tail
g. cortical granules are released that prevent any other sperm from penetrating the egg
h. Plasma membrane of sperm fuses with zona pellucida
a. Implantation is complete at end of 2nd week
b. If fertilization and implantation occur, the trophoblast secretes hCG (Day 2128)
36. Milk production
a. About 38 weeks from conception
b. Physical changes within mother occur to meet demands of pregnancy: i. uterine enlargement
ii. breasts enlarge and develop ability to produce milk
iii. volume of blood increases 30%
c. Prolactin promotes milk secretion.
d. Oxytocin induces milk ejection
37. Development of the embryo
a. Day 1: first cleavage 1 cell becomes 2
b. Day 2: second cleavage 4cell stage
c. Day 3: 612 cell stage
d. Day 4: 1632 cell stage solid ball of cells morula
e. Day 5: Solid morula develops into hollow, fluidfilled blastula i. The embryo will develop from the inner cell mass, or embryonic disc
f. Day 6 7: Blastocyst attaches to the endometrium and implatation occurs. i. Two cell groups w/in blastocyst:
1. 1) trophoblast outer cell layer; becomes the chorion
2. 2) embryoblast or inner cell mass will develop into the
g. Week 2 after Ovulation = Week 4 of Pregnancy:
i. primary germ layers
1. earliest structures from which all tissues forming the human
body will develop
ii. Two layers that together make up the embryonic disc :
iii. Implantation is complete at end of 2nd week
iv. Placenta is formed from:
1. chorion: fetal portion of placenta (formed by trophoblast
2. stratum functionalis of uterus: maternal portion of placenta
h. Day 20: structures for formation of the brain, spinal cord and nervous system are already established.
i. Day 2123: The heart begins to beat.
j. Day 28: The backbone and muscles are forming. Arms, legs, eyes and ears have begun to show.
k. Week 6: liver takes over production of blood cells,
i. brain begins to control movement of muscles and organs.
l. Week 7: The embryo begins to move spontaneously.
i. The jaw forms, including teeth buds in the gums.
ii. eyelids will seal to protect the embryo's developing lightsensitive eyes, and will reopen at about the seventh month.
38. Development of the fetus
a. Week 8: At a little more than an inch long,
i. now called a fetusLatin for "young one" or "offspring.“
ii. Everything is now present that will be found in a fully developed adult.
iii. the stomach produces digestive juices and the kidneys have begun to function.
iv. Forty muscle sets begin to operate in conjunction with the nervous system.
v. The fetus' body responds to touch
b. Week 9: Fingerprints develop
i. The fetus will curve its fingers around an object placed in the palm of its hand.
c. Week 10: The fetus can squint, swallow and wrinkle its forehead. d. Week 11: At this time, the fetus is about two inches long.
i. Urination occurs
ii. The face is developed
iii. muscle movements become coordinated
e. Week 12: fetus now sleeps
i. awakens and exercises
ii. turning its head,
iii. curling its toes
iv. and opening and closing its mouth
v. will make a tight fist.
vi. fetus breathes amniotic fluid to help develop the lungs
f. Week 13:
i. Fine hair begins to grow
ii. sexual differentiation
iii. By the end of month 3, the fetus is eight to ten inches in length and weighs a half pound or more.
iv. The ears are functioning (hears the mother's voice and heartbeat as well as external noises)
v. The umbilical cord transports 300 quarts of fluid a day
g. 5th Month
i. fetus is ~12 inches long
ii. mother has begun to feel movement
iii. the fetus may jump and react to loud noises
h. 6th Month
i. Oil and sweat glands are functioning
ii. delicate skin of the growing baby is protected by "vernix.“
iii. If the baby were given the proper care, he/she could survive. i. 7th Month
i. baby now can see, hear, taste and touch.
j. 8th Month
i. skin thickens
ii. layer of fat stored underneath for insulation and nourishment iii. Antibodies increasingly build up
iv. baby absorbs a gallon of amniotic fluid per day
v. fluid is replaced every three hours.
a. Parturition is birth.
b. During the last trimester:
i. The uterus becomes more excitable
ii. Mild contractions occur.
iii. The cervix begins to soften near parturition.
iv. The fetus shifts downward, with its head contacting the cervix. c. Rhythmic contractions begin at the onset of labor. There are high levels of estrogen at this time.
d. Factors triggering the onset of parturition are not well understood. e. Oxytocin plays a key role as labor progresses. It is a powerful muscle stimulant.
f. CRH plays a major role. It drives the manufacture of placental estrogen. It also promotes changes in the fetal lungs.
40. Digestive anatomy organ structure and function (motility, secretion, digestion, absorption) and secretion
a. The mouth
i. Motility chewing
ii. Secretions in saliva (pH about 6)
1. Amylase (breaks down starch in sugars)
3. Lysozymes (breaks down cell walls/membranes)
iii. Digestion carbohydrates
iv. Absorption some medicines
1. Example; nitroglycerin
b. Pharynx and Esophagus
i. Motility swallowing
ii. Secretion mucus
c. Exocrine Pancreas
1. Trypsin stored as trypsinogen until release
2. Activated by enterokinase and trypsin (itself)
3. Chymotrypsinstored as chymotrypsinogen
4. Activated by trypsin
5. Carboxypeptidase stored as procarboxypeptidase
6. Activated by trypsin
7. Amylase secreted in its active form
8. Lipase secreted in its active form
ii. Digestion by these enzymes accomplishes digestion in the
i. Secretion Bile
1. Bile salts (composed of cholesterol related compounds)
2. Alkaline secretion (bicarbonate solution buffers acid from
the stomach for enzymes to work properly)
1. Bile salts aid in fat digestion\
e. Small Intestine
i. Motility segmentation, migrating motility complex
iii. Digestion in lumen by pancreatic enzymes and bile, carbohydrates and proteins are digested along with the completion of fat digestion iv. Absorption all nutrients along with most electrolytes and water f. Large Intestine
i. Motility Haustral contractions, mass movement
ii. Secretion mucus
iii. Absorption salt and water, conversion of contents into feces g. The Stomach
i. Motility receptive relaxation; peristalis
ii. Secretion gastric juice
4. Intrinsic factor
iii. Digestion continuation of carbohydrate digestion beginning of protein digestion in the antrum of the stomach
iv. Absorption alcohol and aspirin
41. Endocrine anatomy organ structure and function and secretion a. Pineal Gland
i. Secretes melatonin
1. Circadian rhythm biological cycle for night and day
regulated by the SCN (suprachiasmic nucleus)
a. Melatonin secretion increases at night in the
absence of light
2. Induces sleep
3. Inhibits hormones that stimulate reproductive activity
4. Is an antioxidant
5. Enhances the immune system
b. Hypothalamus and Pituitary
i. The hypothalamus is directly connected to the posterior pituitary ii. The pituitary has two parts
1. Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) which buds off from
the roof of the mouth
2. Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) which is formed as
an outgrowth of the brain
a. The hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary form a
b. The neurosecretory cell bodies lie in the supraoptic
and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus
42. Reproductive anatomy structure and function and secretion
a. Female ovaries
i. Secretes the female sex hormones; estrogen and progesterone ii. The female reproductive system includes
a. sex cells (egg cells or ova), production of female
b. primary female reproductive organs, or gonads
c. ovaries are distinctly divided into an outer cortex
and an inner medulla.
d. The cortex has ovarian follicles in various stages of
e. Each of follicle contains an oocyte, a female germ
f. The medulla is made of loose connective tissue with
abundant blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and
2. Fallopian tubes
a. site of fertilization
a. environment for the developing embryo/fetus
4. Vagina and external genitalia
a. Outlet for developed fetus
5. Accessory glands
a. Provide secretions for favorable environment for
b. Male testes
i. Secretes the male sex hormone; testosterone
ii. Seminal vesicles supplie
1. fructose for energy and prostaglandins for smooth muscle 2. dilutes the thick mass of sperm and supplies fibrinogen. iii. The prostate gland
1. secretes an alkaline fluid to neutralize the acidity of the female reproductive tract and provides clotting enzymes.
iv. The bulbourethral glands
1. add a mucus secretion for lubrication.
1. locallyacting chemical messengers.
2. fatty acid derivatives produced in most tissues.
3. promote sperm transport
4. other effects in the body include:
a. promoting bronchodilation
b. increasing renal blood flow
c. inhibiting hydrochloric acid secretion in the
d. enhancing cortisol secretion
vi. The epididymis
1. attached to the rear of the testis
2. serves as the exit route from the testis to the ductus
3. allows the sperm cells to gain the abilities for movement and fertilization
4. concentrates the sperm as they mature and are stored
vii. Ductus deferens
1. unit behind the bladder, forming a V.
viii. A seminal vesicle joins the last part of each ductus deferens. ix. Beyond the seminal vesicles, the two ductus deferens form a ejaculatory duct.
x. This part of the male reproductive tract joins the urethra in the prostate gland under the bladder.