Midterm 1 studyguide
Midterm 1 studyguide Geo 003
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by H. Dawoody on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geo 003 at University of California Riverside taught by Prof Mary in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see History in the Headlines of Life in Geology at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Geology 3 Midterm 1 Study Guide 4.5 billion yrs ago earth had no oxygen First evidence of life 35 billion yrs ago Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes (bacteria) 565 mill. Yrs ago 1 multicellular organisms Cambrian Explosion 545 million years ago Amniotic Egg 345 mill yrs ago, expanded success of vertebrates on land , allowed animals t not be tied to marine realm Permian extinction (95% of marine organisms) Paleontology study of ancient life using the fossil record A field which uses biology and chemistry Relevance Recourses fossil fuels coal, remains of ancient life on planet and its distribution Climate Change extinction of ancient life Biodiversity Crisis Extinction Astrobiologylife on other planets Evolution vs. Creationism Science, observation, data, hypothesis, experiments more, analyze data, conclusion Parsimony simplest logical explanation is actually the best Reciprocity all experiments must be replicable Intro To Geology Big Bang 13.7 bill. Yrs. ago Earth Forms 4.5 billion yrs ago Structure of Earth Chemical Layers Crust silicon, oxygen (cont. oceanic) Mantle mg, iron, silicates Core mainly iron with nickel (dense) Mechanical Layers Lithosphere rigid and brittle Athenosphere plastic ductile (upper mantle)(slushy) Lithosphere 12 plates Plate Tectonics radioactive decay in core gives off heat causing upwelling, mantle convection, which pushes lithosphere around on top of athenosphere (lith. piggybacks of athen.) Wegener Cont drift (similar rocks on diff mountains) 1960’s theory of plate tectonics 1Divergent moving away from each other (midocean ridge) spreading, rising lava/magma 2Convergent collision of plate’s subduction, contcont collision, oceancont collision, arc volcanism, Andes, cascades 3 Transform plates sliding laterally along each other Oldest ocean crust –( 180 mill. yrs. ago) (Jurassic) Oldest Cont. Crust (4.1 g.a ) (Achaean) Late Permian Pangaea Ocean circulation climate, volcanism change Paleozoic (Pangaea), Mesozoic (drift) Cenozoic (modern day) Rock Cycle igneous: cooled from molten rock, sediment: hardened sediment, metamorphic altered by heat pressure, temp. FOSSILS ARE PRESERVED IN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Formation of Sedimentary Rocks 1 Sediment is weathered and eroded from highlands, transported/ deposited in lowlands (cladistics rocks, silicalstic) 2 Sediment is precipitated from solution and deposited, biogenic, (skeletons) or abiogenic (silicalstic) Chemical Rocks, Carbonate Silicalstics weathered/ eroded in highlands deposited in lowlands Father of Stratigraphy Nicholas Steno Fossil Shark Teeth Tongue Stones How can a solid be in another solid? Answer These solids were once fluids STENOS LAWS Original Horizontality all rocks deposited horizontally originally Lateral Continuity all strata will continue to expand laterally until they thin to nothing ending their deposition Superposition undisturbed sequence of rocks, oldest at bottom, youngest at top Faulting and plate tectonic processes displace layers (dikes, molten lava) Relative and Absolute Dating Relative Ordering something’s age relative to something else Absolute measure of time (ex 10 GA yrs old) Relative Dating uses laws of horizontality, superposition, and lateral continuity Fossils occur in distinct intervals, correlation of assemblages, subdivision of rocks based on fossils Correlation of Relative Age fossils, marker beds Absolute Dating: radioactive decay, isotope of elements with diff. amount of neutrons Certain isotopes unstable, change in a particular way Parent is unstable, daughter is new element Half life – time it takes for half of parent atom to decay, decay is predictable but spontaneous (popcorn) Rate of decay is constant, and known for all elements, known halflife is constant Absolute Dating of igneous rocks is common, but not for sedimentary rocks (O.M), so we are not dating fossils, but the igneous rocks on top DEPOSITION AND MARINE LIFE depositional environments, and what animals do for a living Depositional Environment-where sediments are deposited ultimately producing sed. Rocks How do we know Dinosaurs didn’t live in the ocean? We interpret the rock record Rocks Record the Environment (ex- sandstone in beaches or desserts) Sediments-solid fragments of organic/inorganic material that come from weathering of rocks, carried by wind, water, or ice (erosion) (CO2, Rain, Wind, Soil erode rocks) -Usually material at the bottom of liquid How do we know if sediments were deposited at a beach? Because sed. Structures are preserved in rock records Uniformitarianism- same processes operating know have operated in past, and will continue to operate in the future (same chemical laws do not change over time) Asymmetrical Ripples- (sand dunes) occur in one direction Symmetrical Ripples- (Beaches) occur in 2 direction Cross bedding- wind deposits, sand moves upward with wind then deposits Mud cracks- mud surfaces exposed to sun Lamination- certain conditions of water flow Not all fossils are preserved where animals lived Ex- Tribotes in shale and sandstone Erosion in uplands, deposition in lowlands, low point were gravity cannot take the sediment any further NON-MARINE ENVIORMENTS- largely erosional, cover only about 30% of earth’s surface, not as good rock record as marine Commonly preserved non-marine (terrestrial environments) -swamps, glacial deposits, alluvial fans, rivers, lakes MARINE ENVIORMENTS- overwhelming majority of depositional environments, cover 70% of earth’s surface, best fossil records Shallow marine environments BEACHES- poor fossil records, high energy and sand environments REEFS- excellent fossil records, constructional, built off sea floor, high-diversity, construction deposits, and maps out how things lived relative to each other -coral bleaching; corals have algae (symbiotic relationship) algae eats coral waste product, coral helps algae grow, air pollution causes algae to leave, warming coral, and bleaching it INTERTIDAL ENVIORMENT- ocean meets land, high energy, not well preserved DELTAS-tons of sediment SHELVES- most of rock record, is from continental shelves, slope and ocean basin Marine Organisms- What they do for a living BENTHIC- Live on seafloor sediment (intervertebrates, most of fossil records, clams oysters, corals, crab, starfish) - Epifaunal: live on top of sediment (seaweed, barnacle, crabs) - Intafaunal: live beneath sediment (provides good food for reproduction and predation concealing (borough holes, shrimp) PLEAGIC- Live in water column (fish, shark) NEKTONIC- active swimmers (fish, dolphins , shark, octopus) PLANKTONIC- active floater (phytoplankton, zooplankton) Activity sessile: fixed or vagrant: active Carnivores- shark, sea stars, nektonic Grazers- (snails, eat algae and microbes) Deposit Feeders- (holothurians eat sediments, poop it out (clean)) Scavengers- HOLOTHURIANS- BENTHIC----EPIFAUNAL-----MOBILE-----DEPOSIT FEEDER CORAL- BENTHIC-----EPIFAUNAL----SESSILE------FILTER FEEDER Significance of Ecology of Marine Organisms 1. Animals have big impacts of ecosystems, and ocean circulation 2. Ecology is related intimately to evolution 3. Ecology matters is terms of extinction and surviving 4. Dominant ecologies haven’t remained the same CLADISTICS How do we organize dead and living organisms? Tree of life- hypothermohiles at the base Species- group of individuals with same genetic material from same gene pool, incompatible with another gene pool Potentially interbreed to produce offspring Species are a real natural unit NOT an arbitrary group of organisms The Linnaean System A species is given a unique specific name (homo sapiens) Species share large number of characteristics grouped into genera Phylogeny is the evolutionary pathway Cladistics- traces evolutionary history or phylogeny of species by analyzing characteristics and grouping them into clades Aim to trace phylogeny/ evolutionary relationships Clade- group of species descended from 1 ancestral species Hierarchy- species which belong to a clade, and a bigger clade and so on… ALL MEMEBRS OF A CLADE SHARE A COMMON ANCESTOR Cladistics/ Evolutionary Taxonomy How do we decide relatedness? Unique characteristics EX- 4 legs, jaw bone, lungs, fur Evolution leads to diversification As animals evolve they develop new characteristics and thus diversify , ex: amniotic egg, dinasours with wings .. Cladistics- based on shared derived characteristics (defined by primitive characteristics; which all members of a clade share) HOMOPLASY- result of converging evolution (dolphins, sharks) CLADOGRAM- visually reconstructs evolutionary history using shared characteristics
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