American Revolutions Final Exam Study Guide
American Revolutions Final Exam Study Guide HIST 0848-002
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
History 848 American Revolutions Final Exam Study Guide KEY TERMS Nonviolent Civil Rights: Led by people like Martin Luther King, Jr., this movement employed peaceful protests, sit ins, marches, speeches, etc. in the fight for civil rights. Neoconservatism: Advocates for the spread of democracy and condemnation of communism, pro military action to advance American national interests. Identity Politics: Advocates of identity politics believed that differences among American radical and ethnic groups were critically important and that group identity must be the basis for political actions. Al Qaeda: a radical Wahabism group, dedicated to the complete removal of western influence in Arab nations, etc. Colorblind Politics: advocates for treating everyone equally completely regardless, or “blind” to, race, religion, culture, etc. This does not take into account the importance and legitimacy of cultural diversity. Global War on Terror: Fought through covert operations, legislation, ties in to wars in Iraq and Afghanistan; No conventional rules on warfare; Ongoing Resistance to the Civil Rights Movement: many whites rejected the civil rights movement, especially after its more radical turn in the late 1960s. Many discredited radical and violent acts in a movement that they saw as having picked up ground using its peaceful methodology. Other resistance came in the form of blatant racism of southern whites and the violence they exhibited to people of color, and in organized action like that of the Ku Klux Klan. Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq: The wars launched in the name of the Global War on Terror; Afghanistan came first, in an effort to destroy al Qaeda, which the Taliban rule of Afghanistan refused to turn over to the US. Iraq was a “preemptive war”, justified by the statements that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction and was prepared to supply them to al Qaeda. This was not true. Terrorism: impossible to truly define; the use of violence for a political purpose U.S. Extralegal Behavior: The US broke a slew of human rights and international laws during the global war on terror. HIGHLIGHTS OF EACH LECTURE The Great Society Vietnam Birmingham Protests, 1963 1954 Geneva Accords Civil Rights Act of 1964 U.S. StateBuilding in South Vietnam “Freedom Summer” Gulf of Tonkin Resolution War on Poverty: Johnson Tet Offensive AntiWar Protest Radical Civil Rights (late 1960’s) Gender and Race Black Nationalism: Malcom X Identity Politics Race Riots National Organization for Women Malcolm X Equal Rights Amendment Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Stonewall Riots Counterculture Weathermen Chicano Movement: 1969: National chicano liberation youth conference, El Plan Espiritual Aztlán o Called for the liberation of “la raza”, “The brown people” from the oppressive force of American society and culture o Effectively challenged discrimination on a local level o We are using the term Mexican Americans, but this is a term they themselves never would have used. They felt it distanced them even more from being “American” and instead opted for slang terms like Chicano (which many dislike) o Never as effective as its African American counterpart, it creates a local social change and helps Mexican Americans challenge their discrimination The Silent Majority The Reagan Revolution The Sunbelt Affirmative Action Suburban “Tax Revolts” Suburban Resistance Vietnam Syndrome Law and Order The Moral Majority Watergate Reaganomics ColorBlind Civil Rights The Silent Majority: Nixon deliberately appealed to these people, who were angry about racial violence and social unrest After his election he supported select civil rights legislation but still attempted to dismantle the system of liberal government and civil rights as a whole Affirmative Action: Actives moved from color blind rhetoric towards group and identity politics, as did the government to an extent as well (beyond law—changed bureaucracies and federal practices). Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC): investigate and judge claims of discrimination, The Philadelphia Plan was Nixon’s first major governmental affirmative action plan. Suburban Resistance: Suburban backlash. White families lifestyles were dependent on government programs that provided government subsidies for suburban sprawl. White collar families rallied around “color blind” discourse that depicted residential segregation as the class based outcome of meritocratic individualism (rather than the unconstitutional product of structural racism) Watergate: Nixon forms a secret organization, “The Plummers”, to infiltrate campaign staffs, bug phones, accuse people of sexual misconduct, and finally break into the offices of the democratic national committee to plant surveillance equipment. They were caught and arrested. They were financed by the “committee to reelect the president”. Nixon, instead of distancing himself from it, tried to cover it up, which was an obstruction of justice. Vietnam Syndrome: Many opposed the war and claimed that it was caused by unchecked government power. Naturally suspect of future actions abroad. Denied exceptionalism of the United States. Human Rights rhetoric becomes social norm, functions as a distraction from the doubt of the 1960’s and early 70’s Moral Majority: Religious Evangelists; Grassroots movement that condemned women’s liberation, abortion, gay rights, and liberal Great Society programs. These churches boom— changes in the religious spectrum of the US. The “Moral Majority”. Reaganomics: Supplyside economics: tax cuts for businesses to incentivize expanding and investing, which will “trickle down” to the rest of America o Funds limitations for welfare o Increased defense spending o Result: annual budged dericit rises from 59 billion dollars to 300 billion dollars o “All of these policies don’t really add up”—he cuts taxes but spends way more on defense than he could ever gain back o He actually spends far more than any president before him o The origins of the deficit we have today can first be seen in his economic actions o Attacks environmental, health, and safety regulations, which he sees as undercuts to profits. o Cut organized labor’s ability to negotiate wages and working conditions Professional air traffic controller’s organization (PATCO) strike, 1981. Reagan fires all 11,000 laborers on strike. Terrorism U.S. Policy and the Middle East Terrorism as a Cultural Construct Zionism NonState Actor Gamal Abdel Nasser State Terror Eisenhower Doctrine Terrorism as Illegitimate Violence Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) National Liberation Movements Iranian Hostage Crisis Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan Nonstate actor: an influencing person or organization that has political power without an alliance to any one state or nation. State Terror: acts of terror committed by a state against another state or its own population. Zionism: Created by Theodore Herzl in the late 1890’s. The concept is that Jews need their own state in order to be safe from anti Semitic discrimination. The state should be in Palestine (Biblical homeland). This is a radical idea. Zionist immigration to Palestine begins. Gamal Abdel Nasser: 1953, becomes president of Egypt after coup to overturn previous ruler. PanArabism (secular, socialist): movement to unite all Arabs. Not allied to Soviet Union, China, or communist block. He tries to remain a nonaligned person. Changed the policy of the middle east, but not get involved with the US or SU or the cold war. Both try to get him involved—to try to get them to be more friendly to their own policies—he dams the Nile river. Both want to help the project. He also negotiates with GB, who still has control of the Suez Canal, which they built. He wants control to revert to Egyptians. Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): headed by Yasser Arafat. Freelance guerilla raids by Palestinians turned on Israeli territory to an instrument of Egyptian policy. Neoconservatives The Global War on Terror Team B September 11, 2001 Reagan Doctrine Global War on Terror 19801988 IranIraq War Domestic and worldwide Sympathy 19901991 Gulf War U.S. Patriot Act Neoconservative U.S. Hegemony Extralegal Behavior Al Qaeda “Team B” report: Attack on CIA The U.S. Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq U.S. Society and Limited Warfare Operation Enduring Freedom Axis of Evil Tora Bora Bush Doctrine Weapons of Mass Destruction Worldwide Protests Guantanamo Bay Abu Ghraib Operation Iraqi Freedom Netroots Activism Tora Bora: 10 day military engagement in Afghanistan in December of 2001. Abu Ghraib: Abu Ghraib scandal; Grave human rights abuses at US detention facility. Pattern of behavior; caused uproar in US. The “Surge” Veterans Post9/11 U.S. Society AllVolunteer Force Counterinsurgency Unconventional Warfare Militarization of Society Celebration of Veterans Health Care Education Counterinsurgency: 2006 counterinsurgency program, “the surge”; military action against guerrilla or insurgent warfare
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