CHM116 chapter 14 study guide notes, Chemical kinetics
CHM116 chapter 14 study guide notes, Chemical kinetics Chem 116
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by ntombizodwa makuyana on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 116 at Arizona State University taught by Dr cabraic in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Chemistry Exam Guide Chemical kinetics 14 Three questions to be answered: Does a chemical reaction occur? How far to completion does a reaction occur? How fast is a reaction? Factors that affect Reaction Rates. Temperature Concentration of the reactants Physical State of the reactants Catalysts Reaction rate: is the change in the concentration of a reactant or a product over a change in time Most of the times, initial rate is used to avoid reverse reactions. Rate law gives the relationship of the rate of a reaction to the rate constant, k and the concentrations of one or more of the reactants raised to powers. Rate=K[A]^x[B]^y The overall order of the reaction is addition of (x+y) Rate Expression ≠ Rate law Rate Expression tells how the concentration of a reaction changes with time. Rate Law tells how the rate of a chemical reaction depends on the concentration of a reactant. Reaction order is always defined in terms of reactant concentrations not product The order of a reactant is not related to the stoichiometric coefficient of the reactant in the balanced chemical equation. The change of concentration with time In[A]t=-kt +ln[A] 0 first order integrated rate law Y= MX+B [A]t=-kt+[A] 0 Zero order 1/[A]t=kt+1/[A] 0 second order HALF LIFE Is the time required for the concentration of the reactant to decrease to half its initial concentration. T 1/2n2/k [ for first order reactions only] Activation Energy- is the minimum energy required to initiate a chemical reaction -Ea/RT K=Ae As E ancreases, k decreases the reaction goes slower, As T increases, more reactants are converted to products thus k increases In(k1/k2)=E aR [1/T 21/T ]1 Reaction Mechanisms The rate determining step is the slowest step in the sequence of steps. Catalysis- is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed. Catalyst increases rates of forward and backward reactions. Most of the times, catalyst are included in the rate law equation. Homogeneous catalysis, reactants and catalyst are in the same phase. Heterogeneous catalysis, reactants and the catalysts are in different phases.
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