GEOG 1010 - Final Exam Study Guide
GEOG 1010 - Final Exam Study Guide GEOG1010
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Allison on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG1010 at Auburn University taught by Mc.Gowin in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 212 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in GEOG at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE SubSaharan Africa 1. What country was the focal point of the "Great War of Africa"? Democratic Republic of the Congo (former name until WWII was Zaire) 2. What is the significance of renaming in terms of postcolonial Africa? It was a way to separate themselves from their European colonists, it was dignifying, and gave them more power. 3. For what reason(s) does the Democratic Republic of the Congo refuse to grant independence to Katanga province? Katanga is rich in resources and if they give them independence then the East will want to be independent too. 4. What was the primary reason for the rise in importance of the Axum Kingdom? It was a major contributor to the Global Economy 5. What importance did the Mali Kingdom city of Timbuktu serve during precolonial Africa? It was the capital of the Mali Empire, education center of the world, and important trading center (south=silver and gold, North=salt) 6. Though shortlived, which southern African kingdom fought against the British and the Dutch and whose defeat essentially marked the end the major African nations? Zulu Kingdom 7. By total number of countries, which language is the most common official language in Africa? French 8. Khoisan languages are known for what linguistic peculiarity? Clicking noises, no written account 9. How does the geography of language families in South Africa reflect the population geography of the country? It shows how settlers/colonists came in with their European languages and pushed out native Africans, where you can see the differences and concentrations of European and African languages. 10. Know the basic geography of religion in Africa. North – primarily Islam. SubSaharan – almost exclusively Christian. (Some countries still have African religions such as Voodoo). 11. Who are Falashas? A Jewish group in Ethiopia who claim a connection back to a tribe in Israel. This group faces discrimination from the government and Christians in Ethiopia, some Jews don’t think they have the right to return to Israel, mostly north Ethiopia. 12. How did Hinduism become the dominant religion of the island state of Mauritius? It came about after slavery was abolished, was brought over through slave practices with the British. 13. What factors prevented Europe from conquering Africa until the 1800s, which in turn kept Africa generally isolated and "remote"? The only known regions of Africa were the coast, Mediterranean and Red Sea regions, not the interior. It was hard for ships to port/dock because of Africa’s smooth coastline. 14. Generally speaking, how did slavery in Africa differ from the forms utilized in the Atlantic region? In Africa – slaves were treated as people, traded when land was conquered (losers were taken as slaves), could work off debt/become free, less about hard labor. Atlantic Slave Trade – Africans seen as property, can’t become free or work off debt, hard labor. 15. Which two countries were founded as states for freed slaves? Liberia – founded by the U.S. and Sierra Leone – founded by the British a. NOTE: also know the countries that founded each 16. What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference (1884)? To determine Africa’s fate (which European nations would get what) 17. In what way does postcolonialism compare to the "white flight" phenomenon witnessed in many urban areas in the United States? Postcolonialism left the formerly colonized country/city with nothing – taking the wealthy Europeans with them. “White Flight” also took the wealthy out of the cities and into the suburbs, leaving the poor blacks and whites in the cities. Both of these drastically hurt their economies. 18. What was the primary cause for the end of Portugal’s colonial empire? There was a revolution in Portugal, so they gave up their last colonies. 19. Supported by Cuba and the Soviet Union among others, what political ideology did Angola's MPLA follow? Communism 20. What territory of Angola, which is home to much of the country's oil, has sought independence? Cabinda 21. How has Mozambique’s postindependence era differed from that of Angola? Angola’s was filled with war for the following 25 years, whereas Mozambique stopped fighting for good shortly after their independence and then focused on manufacturing – becoming one of the fastest growing economies. 22. Which country's war of independence marked the beginning of the end of French African colonies? Algeria 23. Though the global leader in cocoa production, why have some called for the boycott of chocolate originating from Cote d'Ivoire? Because child labor is used for chocolate production 24. Of the former colonizing countries, which one is still directly involved in its former colonies, often sending its military to countries such as Niger, Mali, and Chad? France 25. Occurring 42 years after independence, what event became a small source of pride for Senegal over its former colonizer France? They beat France in the 2002 World Cup 26. Why is Ethiopia held by some as a symbol of African pride and resistance? It is the only African country to never fully be colonized (only small parts of it were) 27. Based on the Ethiopian flag, what threecolor scheme is mimicked by many independent African countries, a color pattern that is also used by the PanAfrican movement? Red, green, and yellow 28. Why is Somalia considered to be a "failed state"? Because it’s so divided it doesn’t have control over its people 29. Differing from tension in countries such as Nigeria and Rwanda, what is the primary source of division and conflict in Somalia? They’ve had major conflicts between pastoral and agricultural clans. Clan loyalty is very important, people don’t care about Somalia they only care about their individual clans 30. Despite having the highest GDP per capita in Africa, why does Equatorial Guinea have one of the highest poverty rates in the world? The president pockets most of the country’s income from oil for himself instead of putting it towards the people and the country 31. How has Ghana worked to diversify its economy? Hydroelectric dams – utilized their many rivers, produces so much energy they export energy. Solar power – one of largest solar fields in Africa. Rainforests – instead of cutting them down they sustain them to use for ecotourism 32. Which mainland African country is the region’s leader in per capita income, with an average of $21,263? Gabon 33. What is the "House of Chiefs"? A decisionmaking body made up of about 35 members who are all leaders from the 12 largest ethnic groups to give balance of power 34. Despite immense diamond wealth and “upper middle class” status, which county is heavily impacted by the spread of HIV? Botswana 35. Diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, and river blindness are predominantly found in which physical region of Africa? Central Africa 36. Differing from its origin, the 2014 Ebola outbreak was concentrated in which part of Africa? West Africa 37. Although all of Africa is negatively impacted by the spread of HIV, which sub region is the hardest hit by the disease with some countries possessing prevalence rates over 15 percent? Southern Africa 38. What best explains the urbanrural geography of HIV in Africa? Urban areas have higher rates of HIV. Rural areas don’t because they lack the technology to diagnose it and never know before they die, and if someone gets it they are ostracized and sent out of the town. 39. Why did Robert Mugabe's land redistribution program in Zimbabwe ultimately fail? His plan was to give farm land to those blacks who needed it, but instead he gave it to those who don’t need it and took it away from white farmers who were actually helping the economy and doing nothing wrong. 40. What geographic restriction has made it difficult for Chad and Central African Republic to prosper economically? Both are landlocked 41. Because of its formation as the core of the ancient Gondwanaland supercontinent, what physical geographic feature tends to be relatively absent in Africa? Mountain ranges 42. Know the three main rivers in Africa, including sub regional location and characteristics. 1) Nile River: longest river in the world, North Africa. 2) Congo River: largest river in Africa (2 in the world) based on volume not length, Central Africa. 3) Zambezi River: has no waterfalls because it runs over escarpments, South Africa. 43. Which of the African Great Lakes is NOT a rift lake? Lake Victoria 44. What is the principle cause for the border dispute between Malawi and Tanzania? They have been fighting over Lak Malawi 45. The Malagasy language of Madagascar is related to languages located in which part of the world? South Asia 46. What is the Sahel? Largest transition zone, very important to North Africa, very delicate because of rain patterns (similar to South Asia with monsoons) – sometimes rains don’t come during wet seasons though, this happens every couple of years 47. What climatological process creates the Namib Desert, one of the driest deserts in the world? Cold water and air currents – the water directly off the coast of the desert is very cold which creates cold air currents and no precipitation. 48. What is apartheid? A system of rules/laws to maintain segregation in order to keep white government in power 49. What are “homelands”? Independent territories for Africans (blacks), the idea was to get rid of the Africans by moving them all (this was set in place under the Apartheid). 50. Which ethnic group in South Africa proposed creating an independent homeland known as “Volkstaat”? Africaners 51. Know the three largest ethnic groups in Nigeria, including geographic concentration and characteristics. 1) Hausa: North, Muslim, least successful of the 3 largest. 2) Yoruba: Southwest, political strength and power. 3) Igbo: Southeast, economic power, where most of the oil is. 52. What is Boko Haram? A group that has attempted to enforce radical Islam in all of Nigeria, located in far Northeast Nigeria, they’ve formed an alliance with ISIS, believe the world is flat, have spread to other countries too 53. What is the primary cause for the current unrest in Burundi, which has in turn reignited historical ethnic tension? The president said he wanted to run for a 3 term (which is unconstitutional) and he ended up winning because he was unopposed. This led to uprisings and an ethnic war (with mass genocide) 54. What is the primary difference between the ethnic groups Hutu and Tutsi? Hutu: majority, farmers. Tutsi: minority, nomads 55. Spillover from the conflict in Rwanda led to unrest in eastern Zaire, eventually leading the country’s government to be overthrown and the country was renamed. What is Zaire known as today? DR Congo Middle East 1 Why is it problematic to equate Arabs and Muslims? Arabic = ethnicity and Islamic = religion 2 By population, what is the largest Muslim country in the world? Indonesia 3 Which mountain range is the primary cause for creating the Sahara? Atlas Mountains 4 The Egyptian population is focused on what physical geographic feature? Nile River 5 As discussed in class, what is notable about the Empty Quarter? Last place on Earth to have borders drawn because it’s uninhabitable and no one lives here a HINT: it has to do with the borders 6 What is culturally significant about the Zagros Mountains? It’s an ethnic boundary: people to the East are Persian and Farsi, whereas people to the West are Arabic 7 The Southeastern Anatolian Project was a modernization program in which country? Turkey 8 What ancient empire created the qanat system, a system that spread to China and to Spain? Persia 9 Know the main uses of the qanat system. It’s a system to get ground water out and use it through an elaborate tunnel system used for irrigation, drinking water, and bathing water. It runs through towns so everyone shares from the same little canal which is why they have to be very mindful of how they use it 10 The Fertile Crescent, the origin point for the agricultural revolution, was concentrated around which two rivers? Tigris and Euphrates 11 Know the location of the three primary nomadic groups in the “Middle East.” Arabian Bedouins – North Africa. Bakhtiaris – Iran. Berbers – North Africa. 12 Though not as large in terms of total number of adherents, why is Judaism important in terms of its relation to other religions? It’s one of the oldest religions and it connects Christianity and Islam because it’s an Abrahamic religion 13 Lebanon's political system is based on dividing power between what two groups? Muslims and Christians 14 Which religion of Southwest Asia is an ethnic religion, which is a religion closely associated with one ethnic group? Judaism 15 Although Sunni Islam is more widespread, Shia Islam tends to be more concentrated. In which countries is Shia Islam the dominant religion? Iran 16 Know the three holiest places in Islam, including the characteristics for each. 1) Mecca: birthplace of nd Mohammed, nonMuslims cannot go here. 2) Medina: Mohammed’s death place, 2 holiest. 3) Jerusalem: used to be the holiest place in Islam, northernmost extent of Islam, Mohammed “flew” here magically from Medina and transcended to heaven. 17 What is the primary reason for the schism in Islam? After Mohammed died, he left no successor so one group (Sunni Muslims) said the successor should be anyone who’s a devout follower, while the other group (Shia Muslims) said it should be a blood relative. 18 Know the two waves of the diffusion (spread) of Islam. 1) Islam was initially spread by Arab armies who were very aggressive and violent when bringing it to new countries. 2) Much of the rest of the spread was done by peaceful merchants. 19 The city of Andalusia, Alabama gets its name from a European city and is derived from which language? Arabic 20 Why was the transition of Turkish from Arabicscript to Latinscript relatively easier than one might expect? Because most people were illiterate and so it was a lot easier teaching them the new script since they didn’t know any different 21 Though among the countries with the highest GDP per capita in the world, what negative impact does immigration have on countries like Qatar and the United Arab Emirates? Most of their population is comprised of immigrants and immigrants have little to no rights, the GDP does not include immigrants’ salaries, and indigenous peoples here don’t have their own culture. 22 Generally speaking, how do Arab states differ from nonArab Muslim states in terms of the treatment of women? Arab states: women have almost no power, it’s more about the culture not the religion. Muslim states: less conservative, more freedom/power (still not great though) 23 Though it later took a more radical turn, what was the original catalyst for the revolution in Iran? Students rose up against the Shah (leader) because he made the West an ally and wanted to reform the government. Initially it was political, but quickly became religious. 24 Though they control part of Western Sahara, which country's claim to the region makes it difficult for the Sahrawi to have a homeland of their own? Morocco 25 Know the three levels of conflict in Sudan. 1) Historic: North=nomadic and South=farmers. 2) Ethnic: North=Arabs and South=Africans. 3) Religion: North=Muslim and South=Christian. 26 What is the primary source of conflict in South Sudan, a country that has only existed for five years? Clan loyalty conflicts between Dinka and Nuer 27 What consequence of the First ArabIsraeli War remains today the primary source of contention between Israel and its neighbors? Every single neighbor of Israel declared war on them. Israel kicked everyone’s asses. 28 What purpose does Israel’s occupation of the West Bank serve? Israel's occupation of the West Bank serves as a military strategy to have the highest elevation so that the missiles have less of a range for the Palestinians. 29 Broadly speaking, what was the significance of the Camp David Accords? First Arab country (Egypt) to have diplomatic relations with Israel 30 What is the “Arab Spring”? A series of demonstrations, protest, and war that changed the entire Middle East – the hope was that it would bring democracy 31 Which country, formerly led by Muammar Gaddafi, was accused of using statesponsored terrorism? Libya 32 Though coming from several countries, which country's ongoing civil war is responsible for a majority of the refugees fleeing to Europe as part of the current "refugee crisis"? Syria 33 Know how Iraq is internally divided with regards to ethnicity and religion. North: Sunni Muslims and Kurds. Central: Arab Sunnis. South: Shia Arabs. 34 From Saddam Hussein's perspective, what was Iraq's justification for the war against Iran? Hussein was scared that the revolution in Iran would spill over, so he started the war to try to stop it before it got to Iraq 35 During the 1991 Gulf War, for what reason was Saudi Arabia the primary country used to liberate Kuwait? Because if a Western country (U.S.) liberated Kuwait then its people would rebel and it would cause more problems. 36 Ansar alSharia is a group in Yemen that is helping fight against ISIL/Daesh in that country. To which larger group is Ansar alSharia affiliated? Al Qaeda 37 What is the ultimate goal of ISIL, a goal that they already claim to have authority granted to the entity? They are trying to create a global caliphate saying they have authority over every Muslim in the world 38 How does ISIL function as a legitimate state? It controls territory, has law/rules, has a government, population, and a working economy (through oil trade) – which technically makes it a country. Idiot Abroad 1. What lesson did Karl teach the children in Diepsloot? He taught them to wait to have kids, don’t rush. 2. Related to Karl's charity work in South Africa, what bribe did Ricky use to attempt to convince Karl to do the bungee jump off of the cooling tower? He said he would buy 5 huts for the people in the village if he jumped. 3. Ndebele women paint their homes as a way to assert their identity. What is the base for the "paint" that they use to color their homes, as well as Karl's camper ["caravan"]? Cow crap 4. What technique did Karl and Lee initially use to track the rhino? Tasting the rhino dung for freshness 5. Why do Ricky and Steven think that Karl should drive Route 66 rather than visit Times Square or Disneyland? Because everyone goes to Times Square and Disneyland, it’s too touristy. They want him to see the “real” America in the smaller lessvisited towns on Route 66. 6. What was the primary purpose of the "cuddling party" that Karl attended at Soncco Wasi? To explore, express yourself, go beyond your comfort zone, ask for what you want, and say no to what you don’t want. 7. Why does Karl believe that the Amish family lives a better life than British families? Because they live an uncluttered and simple life 8. What is the cultural significance for an Amish man to grow a beard? It’s a sign that you’re married.
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