HSC 382 Exam 1 Study Guide
HSC 382 Exam 1 Study Guide HSC 382
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Helpful on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HSC 382 at Illinois State University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Improving Safety Performance in Nursing and Health Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Chapter 1: Managing Safety Knowledge & Skills for the Future - Need technical and business skills - Risk management - Finance & accounting - Cost/benefit analysis - Business communication Levels of Safety Program Maturity - Level 1 – Reactive Compliance o Organizations only do something for safety when they are forced to. o Incidents, accidents or regulatory citation make them take action o Safety manager is expected to do everything and is accountable - Level 2 – Proactive Compliance o Organizations goal is to meet regulatory guidelines o They don’t wait for something bad to happen o Safety is a priority o First line supervisor is the key employee to safety o Employee training is viewed as a solution o Not a lot of management involvement - Level 3 – Management Systems o Safety programs are maturing o Incidence rates are falling o Implementation of safety management systems o Management focuses on risk reduction o Employees are involved (inspections, observations, hazard assessment) - Level 4 – Culture & Human Performance o Management is committed to safety o Upper management is committed o Safety is valued o Employee involvement has increased - Level 5 – Sustainability o Large part in the organization o Shared goal of risk avoidance o Continuous improvements o Recognize that the health & wellness of their employees impacts their performance Voluntary Protection Program - Recognizes organizations with outstanding safety and health programs - Companies are provided some benefits and exemptions from OSHA o Requirements: Effective, ongoing safety & health process Cooperation Good performance o Management commitment and employee involvement o Workplace analysis o Hazard prevention & control o training Injury Illness Prevention Program: A proactive process to help employers find and fix workplace hazards before workers are hurt. Chapter 2: Safety Management Systems 3 E’s: - Engineer, educate, enforce Management Systems Approach - Programs are static with an input, process and outcome - Systems are dynamic with continuous improvement - How all components interact with and affect each other Safety Management System: A set of interrelated elements used to establish a policy and objectives, and to achieve those objectives Safety Management System vs. Programs: - Management System: o Oneness of purpose o Interdependence between elements o Enhanced structure & organization - Programs: o Safety is implemented independently with little thought of how they affect other programs o A lot of emphasis on the “do” part of the cycle Occupational Health & Safety Management System (OHSMS): Set of interrelated elements that establish and support occupation health & safety objectives, and mechanisms to achieve those objectives in order to continually improve occupational health and safety. Current OHSMS Standards: - ANSI Z-10 - OHSAS 18001 - CSA Z1000 Performance Standards: What needs to be accomplished (don’t tell how it has to be done) Specification Standards: What needs to be accomplished, but specify how it needs to be done Continuous Improvement 1. Plan a. Establish objectives/process 2. Do a. Implement the plan b. Execute the process 3. Check a. Compare results with target b. Look for deviations 4. Act a. Determine root cause b. Make corrections Consensus Standards: - ANSI Z-10 - Developed by a wide range of individuals reaching a consensus on what the standard should say. - Long process - ANSI & NFPA are specifically mentioned as recognized consensus standards - Used by plaintiff (the party suing) - Used to establish “Standard of Care” General Duty Clause: - Employer failed to keep workplace free of hazards - Hazard is recognized by the employer or the industry - Hazard is likely to cause death or serious harm - Feasible means or eliminate or reduce hazard is available Chapter 3: ANSI Z-10 Section 1 – Scope, Purpose, Application Section 2 – Definitions Section 3 – Management Leadership & Employee Participation Section 4 – Planning Section 5 – Implementation & Operation Section 6 – Evaluation & Corrective Action Section 7 – Management Review 2012 Revision: - More emphasis on the risk assessment process and more independence in the audit process. - Provide more guidance on implementing the standard Scope: Defines minimum requirements for an occupational health and safety management system. Purpose: To provide a management tool to reduce the risk of occupational injuries, illnesses and fatalities. Application: Applicable to organizations of all sizes and types Management is required to: - Establish a documented health and safety policy - Provide leadership and support to ensure the policy is implemented by: o Providing the needed funding, personnel and resources o Defining roles, responsibilities, accountability & authority o Integrating OHSMS into other business processes - Provide employees the time and resources needed to participate in the OSHSMS process - Provide employees access to relevant OHSMS information - Identify and remove obstacles and barriers that prevent participation Planning Process Includes: - Reviewing information to identify issues - Assessing and prioritizing issues - Developing risk control objectives formulating implementation plans Hazard: A condition, set of circumstances, or inherent property that can cause injury, illness or death. Exposure: Contact with or proximity to a hazard, taking into account duration and intensity Risk: An estimate of the combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or exposure, and the severity of injury or illness that may be caused by the event or exposure. Probability: The likelihood of a hazard causing an incident or exposure that could result in harm or damage – for a selected unit of time, events, population, items or activity being considered Severity: The extent of harm or damage that could result from a hazard related incident or exposures Risk Assessment: Process(es) used to evaluate the level of risk associated with hazards and system issues. Risk Assessment Techniques: - Brainstorming - Checklists - Consequence/probability matrix - Risk assessment matrix Hierarchy of Controls: - Elimination - Substitution of less hazardous materials, processes, operation, equipment - Engineering controls - Warnings - Administrative controls - PPE Management of Change: The process used to identify any new hazards that may be introduced when a process, equipment, or materials are changed Procurement: The business function that purchases products and materials for the organization Chapter 1: 1. - Level 1: These organizations expect the safety manager to do everything and only serious incidents are investigated. Improvements are not made until something bad happens. - Level 2: These organizations meet guidelines and safety is a priority to them. They focus on employee training in order to improve their organization. - Level 3: Incident rates have fallen due to their safety programs. Management has transitioned from focusing on regulatory compliance to risk reduction. Employees are better trained and report safety problems to a committee. - Level 4: The culture of the organization is based around safety. Safety is viewed as a value and employees are involved in improving safety processes. - Level 5: There is a shared goal of risk avoidance and safety is the main part of the organization. The health and wellness of the organizations employees has shown to impact their overall performance. 2. Why do using incidence rates as a sole measure of safety program success not tell the complete story? - Incidence rates can be very low but the over all safety program is not up to standards and there have been near misses but not a “incident”. The rates do not define a safety program in all cases and more information would need to be obtained in order to understand that specific organizations program. 3. OSHA VPP: o Not required by any regulations o Must apply to OSHA o Audit process o OSHA provides benefits I2P2: o OSHA thinks standards are needed o 2014 it was OSHA’s highest priority o Too long of a process Chapter 2: 1. How do OHSMS systems use the systems approach rather than the program approach to managing safety? - By using the systems approach, OHSMS are proactively working to identify any deficiencies before they occur. Safety professionals are able to understand the business side and how safety affects it. 2. What are the advantages of using the safety management system approach? - Oneness of Purpose - Interdependence between elements - Enhanced structure and organization 3. How does the plan, do, check, act cycle supports continuous improvement? - The cycle must be continually repeated in order to support continuous improvements. 4. Explain why consensus standards are important, even when they are not a specific regulatory requirement. - They are important because they are developed by a wide range of people and it is made sure no one group has too many members. The cooperation of all parties are able to develop and/or use standards. - They are important because they are addressing the public for comments and views in order to establish programs. 1. What is the purpose of Z-10? - To provide a management tool to reduce the risk of occupational injuries, illnesses and fatalities. 2. What is the difference between the left column and right column entries in the ANSI Z-10 standard? - Left Column: Standard requirements (“shall”) - Right Column: Recommended practices or explanatory comments (“should”) 3. How is the management of change process described within ANSI Z-10? - It is used to identify any new hazards that may be introduced when a process, equipment, or materials are changed. o Identification of tasks & related hazards o Recognition of potential human errors related to changes o Review of applicable codes and standards o Application of control methods o Determination of the scope of management review o Employee participation 4. What kind of direction does the Z-10 standard give to an organization say about prioritizing their safety issues? - Once identified, the most important issues to the organization are given the highest priority. Z-10 does not specify how issues should be prioritized, each situation is different. 5. Why is it important for Z-10 to specifically mention the procurement function? - It makes sure that the products and materials entering the organization are evaluated for health and safety risks. Safety Data Sheets help to evaluate incoming products.
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