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Biology 150 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Katharyn Taylor

Biology 150 Final Exam Study Guide Biol 150

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Katharyn Taylor

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This is a complete, concise study guide that covers all the material Dr. Keck put on the outline. The information is from my personal notes, the book, his powerpoints, and a little bit of research....
Organismal and Ecological Biology
Dr. Benjamin Keck
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 150 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Benjamin Keck in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see Organismal and Ecological Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 05/01/16
BIOLOGY  150  –  FINAL  EXAM  STUDY  GUIDE   •    ICHTHYOLOGY  –  the  study  of  fish.  This  is  what  Dr.  Keck  studies  
   •  Learning  Objectives:  
   o  EVOLUTION  –  the  way  that  organisms  have  changed  over  time,  both  in   ways  they  chose  and  in  ways  out  of  their  control     o  STRUCTURE  AND  FUNCTION  –
everything  alive  has  specific  structures  and   ways  those  structures  interact
   o  INFORMATION  FLOW  AND  STORAGE  –  organisms  use  different  signals  and   the  transfer  of  biological  information  in  order  to  stay  alive.  It  happens   inside  each  organism  and  between  organisms     o  TRANSFORMATIONS  OF  ENERGY  AND  MATTER  –  everything  alive  needs   some  sort  of  nutrient  or  energy  to  live,  and  each  organism  changes  what   they  take  in  somehow  in  order  to  use  it     o  SYSTEMS  –  living  things  interact,  with  each  other  and  their  environments,   and  all  of  these  interactions  can  be  grouped  in  many  different  ways     Origins  of  Life     •   THREE  DOMAINS  –  Bacteria  split  off  first,  making  Archaea  and  Eukarya  the   more  closely  related  pair.  This  is  important  to  remember,  because  although   Archaea  are  prokaryotes  like  Bacteria,  they  share  a  more  recent  common   ancestor  with  Eukaryotes   •   7  CRITERIA  FOR  LIFE     o   Organization  –  made  up  of  cells,  one  or  more   o   Metabolism  –  use  energy  and  materials  in  some  way   o   Growth  –  accumulate  mass  over  time   o   Homeostasis  –  maintain  an  internal  environment   o   Response  to  Stimuli  –  respond  to  factors  to  keep  homeostasis   o   Adaptation  –  able  to  change  over  time   o   Reproduction  –  produce  offspring  to  continue  lineage   •   EARTH’S  TIMELINE  –  formed  4.5  billion  years  ago,  crust  cooled  and  solidified   about  4  billion  years  ago,  and  first  microorganisms  arose  3.5  billion  years  ago.   Prokaryotes  were  dominant  until  2  billion  years  ago   •   4  STEPS  TO  CELLULAR  LIFE   o   Synthesis  of  monomers  –  small  organic  molecules  from  inorganic     o   Synthesis  of  polymers  –  monomers  joined  to  form  proteins     o   Molecules  attained  self-­‐replicating  properties     o   Self-­‐replicating  molecules  became  packaged  in  protobionts     o   Protobionts  with  this  genetic  material  evolved  into  common  ancestor   of  all  living  things  as  we  know  them   •   EARLY  EXPERIMENTS  WITH  ORIGIN  OF  LIFE   o   Oparin  and  Haldane  in  the  1920’s  –  were  able  to  spontaneously   synthesize  organic  molecules  from  inorganic  molecules   o   Miller  and  Urey  in  the  1950’s  –  recreated  an  early  environment  in  a   closed  system,  so  more  definitive  support  for  the  earlier  experiments   •   RNA  –  the  first  genetic  material  formed  from  nucleotides.  Self-­‐replicates     •   PROTOBIONT  –  phospholipid  layer.  Earliest  and  simplest  membrane  formation.   As  they  accumulate  mass,  they  are  able  to  spontaneously  split  off  and   “reproduce”  themselves.  A  protobiont  +  engulfed  genetic  material  =  first  life   •   ENDOSYMBIOSIS  –  Lynn  Margulis  in  the  1970’s  had  the  idea  that  the   prokaryote  –  eukaryote  split  occurred  when  a  large  prokaryote  engulfed  a   smaller  prokaryote.  The  two  began  a  symbiotic  relationship,  in  which  the   smaller  would  replicate  inside  the  larger,  and  when  the  larger  split,  its   offspring  would  have  the  small  one  inside  already.  This  is  supported  by  the  fact   that  several  organelles  possess  their  own  DNA  and  replicate  independently  of   the  rest  of  the  cell   •   ARE  VIRUSES  ALIVE  –  viruses  are  known  as  acellular  infectious  particles.  They   are  not  alive  because  they  are  unable  to  reproduce  on  their  own.  They  have  to   be  inside  of  a  host  and  use  the  host’s  machinery  in  order  to  replicate     2   Archaea  and  Bacteria     •   PROKARYOTES  –  bacteria  and  archaea.  No  membrane  bound  organelles.  DNA   and  ribosomes  are  free  in  the  cytoplasm   •   EUKARYOTES  –  protists,  plants,  fungi,  and  animals.  They  all  contain  membrane   bound  organelles,  including  the  nucleus  which  encapsulates  the  DNA   •   BACTERIA  –  unicellular,  microscopic,  no  true  nucleus  (only  nucleoid  region),   have  cell  wall  containing  peptidoglycan   •   ARCHAEA  –  mostly  unicellular,  microscopic,  and  have  cytoplasmic  membranes   that  lack  fatty  acid  chains  (ether  linked),  and  their  cell  walls  do  not  contain   peptidoglycan.  Archaea  also  have  a  DNA  replication  process  that  is  more   complicated  than  Bacterial  DNA  replication  and  more  similar  to  Eukaryotes   •   GRAM  POSITIVE  BACTERIA  –  simple  cell  walls  made  primarily  of  peptidoglycan.   These  stain  violet  in  a  Gram  stain   •   GRAM  NEGATIVE  BACTERIA  –  more  complex  cell  walls,  made  of  two  distinct   layers  and  with  less  peptidoglycan.  Stain  red/pink  in  a  Gram  stain   •   BACTERIAL  MOTILITY     o   Flagellum  –  rotation  of  the  flagella  appendage  moves  the  cell   o   Corkscrew  –  spirochetes  are  able  to  rotate  and  move   o   Gliding  –  when  the  surface  is  slimy,  the  bacterium  can  glide  across   •   BACTERIAL  REPRODUCTION  –  binary  fission.  With  no  nucleus,  this  replication   cycle  does  not  involve  the  dissolution  of  the  nuclear  membrane  or  the   reformation  of  the  nuclear  membrane   •   DIFFICULTY  IN  IDENTIFICATION  –  this  stems  from  morphological  similarities,   sampling  difficulties,  culturing  difficulties,  and  high  gene  flow   •   ARCHAEAL  ENVIRONMENTS  –  archaea  are  able  to  live  in  extreme   environments  because  of  a  unique  membrane  composition  and  the  fact  that   their  proteins  are  folded  in  a  way  that  is  more  resistant  to  degeneration  from   heating  or  freezing   •   DIFFERING  MICROBIOMES  IN  THE  BODY  –  in  one  person’s  body,  the   microbiome  differs  according  to  the  placement  because  of  factors  such  as   oxygen  availability,  pH,  and  salt  presence.  Between  individuals,  the   microbiome  can  be  different  because  of  different  exposure  and  eating  habits       3   Plants  and  Fungi     •   Organisms  attempt  to  grow  and  reproduce  in  a  given  environ ment  as   efficiently  as  possible,  and  they  evolve  to  accommodate  this  tendency.  To  do   this,  the  best  fit  produces  the  most  offspring,  and  the  most  offspring  are  the   most  fit,  so  the  cycle  continues   •   PLANTS  –  multicellular  eukaryotes,  have  chloroplasts  and  cell  walls,   photoautotrophs  (use  light  energy  to  produce  organic  matter)   •   WATER  TO  LAND:   o   +  more  nutrients  and  more  structural  support   o   –  more  predators  and  more  competition   •   MAJOR  PLANT  GROUPS   o   Bryophytes  –  Mosses.  Low  growing,  waxy  cuticle,  so  the  embryos  are   protected.  Gametophyte  is  the  dominant  generation   o   Pteridophytes  –  Ferns.  Contain  lignin,  still  no  seeds,  and  require   water  for  reproduction.  Sporophyte  is  the  dominant  generation   o   Gymnosperms  –  seed  plants  without  flowers.  Seeds  contain  the   embryo  and  food  source.  A  good  example  of  these  is  a  pine  tree,  or   any  other  conifer.  Sporophyte  is  the  dominant  generation   o   Angiosperms  –  flowering  plants.  Flowers  are  protective  and  dispersal   enhancing  structures  for  seeds.  Sporophyte  is  dominant  generation   •   Angiosperms  are  the  MOST  DIVERSE  group  of  plants     •   Gymnosperms  have  the  SHORTEST  HAPLOID  (gametophyte)  lifespan   •   VASCULAR  TISSUE  –  made  up  of  the  xylem  (transports  water  and  dissolved   minerals,  inorganic  matter)  and  the  phloem  (transports  organic  nutrients)   •   FRUITS  –  offer  protection  and  nutrients  to  a  seed  and  aid  in  dispersal   •   FLOWERS  –  attract  pollinators  to  aid  in  reproduction   •   FUNGI  –  do  not  have  chloroplasts,  decompose  organic  matter  and  absorb  the   nutrients.  Three  major  components  are  hyphae,  mycelium,  and  fruiting  body   •   ANTIBIOTIC  SUBSTANCES  –  fungi  produce  these  to  do  away  with  competition   with  decomposer  bacteria.  We  derive  many  of  our  antibiotic  medicines  from   the  compounds  that  the  fungi  create   •   MUTUALISM  –  Mycorrhizae  grow  in  plant  roots  to  provide  the  plant  with   nutrients,  while  benefitting  from  the  decrease  in  bacterial  competition     4   Invertebrates     •   ANIMAL  CHARACTERISTICS  –  eukaryotic,  multicellular,  heterotrophs,  digest   food  internally,  and  have  no  cell  walls   •   INTESTINE  LENGTH  –  herbivores  have  a  longer  intestinal  tract  than  carnivores     •   BODY  PLANS  –  bilateral  symmetry  (people),  radial  symmetry  (starfish),  or   asymmetrical  (sponges)   •   BODY  CAVITIES  –  no  body  cavity  (found  in  flatworms),  pseudocoelom  (found  in   roundworms),  and  coelom  (found  in  annelids).     •   %  INVERTEBRATES  –  95%  of  animals  are  invertebrates   •   BASIC  CHARACTERISTICS:     o   Sponges  –  non-­‐motile  and  can  reproduce  both  sexually  and  asexually .   They  don’t  have  tissue,  but  they  have  cells  that  are  differentiated   o   Cnidarian  –  radial  symmetry  body  plan  and  can  reproduce  both   sexually  and  asexually.  They  have  tissues  (ex.  Jellyfish)   o   Mollusks  –  bilateral  symmetry,  sexual  reproduction  but  can  change   their  sex,  and  some  have  venom  (ex.  Sea  snail)   o   Flatworms  –  bilateral  symmetry,  sexual  reproduction,  and  most  are   parasitic  worms   o   Annelids  –  bilateral  symmetry,  segmented,  capable  of  both  sexual   and  asexual  reproduction   o   Roundworms  –  found  almost  everywhere,  many  are  parasites   o   Arthropods  –  crustaceans,  arachnids,  bugs.  Exoskeleton   o   Echinoderms  –  radial  symmetry  (ex.  starfish)  water  based  vascular   system,  endoskeleton,  simple  neural  system   Fishes  and  Early  Vertebrate  Evolution     •   50%  of  vertebrates  are  fish     •   Smallest  vertebrate  is  a  fish     •   BASIC  CHARACTERISTICS:   o   Chordates  –  notochord,  nerve  chord,  pharyngeal  slits,  and  a  tail  at   some  point  in  their  life  cycle   o   Craniates  –  subset  of  chordates  with  skulls   o   Fishes  –  skull,  vertebrae,  and  jaws  but  no  limbs   o   Tetrapods  –  skull,  vertebrae,  jaws,  and  four  limbs   5   o   Amniotes  –  tetrapods  that  no  longer  lay  eggs  in  water  (either  lay   them  on  land  or  retain  the  fertilized  egg)   •   TUNICATES  –  most  closely  related  to  early  vertebrates.  Their  larvae  have  a   notochord     •   NOTOCHORD  –  rod  that  provides  structural  support  and  a  nervous  center     •   BASIC  CHARACTERISTICS:   o   Hagfish  –  marine  scavengers,  slime  layer   o   Lampreys  –  parasite  with  adapted  teeth   o   Cartilaginous  Fishes  –  entire  skeleton  made  of  cartilage,  internal   fertilization,  don’t  have  to  swim  to  breathe   o   Bony  Fishes  –  two  primary  groups,  Sarcopterygii  and  Actinopterygii     •   SHARK  SCALES  –  placoid.  Shaped  like  teeth  pointed  backward,  help  reduce   drag  as  they  move  through  the  water     •   Ray-­‐finned  fishes  are  the  most  diverse  group  of  fishes     •   PIRATE  PERCH  –  first  organism  to  use  chemical  camouflage,  their  predators   and  prey  are  unable  to  smell  them     •   Tuna  and  Opah  are  endothermic     •   PARASITIC  MALES  –  Anglerfish  males  attach  parasitically  to  the  female  and  are   eventually  engulfed,  leaving  only  a  pair  of  testicles  on  the  outside   •   EXTANT  LOBE-­‐FINNED  FISHES  –  coelacanths  and  lungfish.  These  are  the   sarcopterygii,  the  closest  living  fish  relatives  of  tetrapods   •   COELACANTH  DISCOVERY  -­‐    Marjorie  Courtenay  identified  from  the  catch  of  a   fisherman  off  the  coast  of  eastern  South  Africa.  Previously  considered  extinct   and  a  transitional  species  between  fish  and  tetrapods   •   TETRAPODS  TO  TERRESTRIAL  ENVIRONMENTS  –  they  need  lungs,  limbs,  a  rib   cage  and  eggs  or  larvae  that  can  survive  out  of  water   Amphibians  and  Reptiles     •   AMPHIBIAN  BASIC  TRAITS:   o   Need  water  to  reproduce   o   Ectothermic   o   Can  ‘breathe’  through  skin  (diffuse  oxygen)     •   GROUPS  OF  AMPHIBIANS:  caecilians,  salamanders,  and  frogs/toads   •   Reptiles  are  paraphyletic  because  they  gave  rise  to  birds       6   •   GROUPS  OF  REPTILES:     o   Crocodilians  –  teeth  in  sockets,  extensive  parental  care   o   Squamates  –  lizards,  snakes,  and  worm  lizards.  Most  diverse  group   o   Tuatara  –  late  reproductive  age,  disjointed  skull   o   Turtles  -­‐  shells   •   REPTILE  BASIC  TRAITS:  scales,  lungs,  amniotes,  and  ectotherms   •   PALEONTOLOGY  –  study  of  fossils   •   FOSSILS  –  remnants  of  dead  organisms.  They  form  over  long  stretches  of  time   when  layers  of  mineral  and  rock  press  and  preserve  the  sign  in  its  original   position.  They  provide  evidence  of  evolutionary  patterns  and  a  timeline  of  the   climate  and  environmental  history  of  the  earth   Dinosaurs  and  Birds     •   DINOSAURS  -­‐    these  were  reptiles  that  had  limbs  erect  underneath  their   bodies,  so  they  were  able  to  walk  upright   •   They  were  around  for  about  180  million  years   •   TWO  MAJOR  GROUPS  OF  DINOSAURS  -­‐    lizard  hipped  and  bird  hipped   •   MASS  EXTINCTIONS  –  small  organisms  that  reproduce  quickly,  have  a  large   range,  and  don’t  require  much  food  tend  to  survive  these   •   FEATHERS  -­‐    many  dinosaurs  had  them,  however  they  didn’t  fly  with  them.   They  were  basically  accessories,  not  functional   •   ARBOREAL  DINOSAURS  TAKING  FLIGHT  -­‐    this  was  probably  possible  because   of  longer  arms,  better  climbing,  feathers,  better  sight,  and  bigger  brains   •   FLIGHT  EVOLUTION  HYPOTHESES:   o   Cursorial  –  ground  species  took  flight  up  into  the  trees   o   Arboreal  –  tree  species  took  flight  down  to  the  ground  (makes  more   sense  that  it  started  as  a  glide  downward  as  opposed  to  the  energy   inefficiency  of  flying  up  instead  of  climbing)   •   BIRDS  BASIC  TRAITS:   o   Beak  –  trophic  morphology  example,  beaks  better  for  their  food   o   Wings  –  kind  of  wings  they  have  can  tell  a  lot  about  where  they  live   o   Feet  –  used  for  grasping  onto  most  typical  environment   •   REPRODUCTIVE  BEHAVIORS  OF  BIRDS:   o   Monogamy  –  common  in  birds,  for  a  season  or  life   o   Polygyny  –  one  male  multiple  females,  most  common  in  birds   7   o   Polyandry  –  one  female  with  multiple  males     o   Egg  care  –  nest  building  and  usually  both  parents  take  care  of  young   •   Songbirds,  Passeriformes,  are  the  most  diverse  group   Mammals     •   Mammals  were  alive  when  dinosaurs  were  alive ,  but  hey  were  not  dominant     •   MAMMAL  SKULL  –  have  a  larger  brain,  differently  muscled  jaw,  and  differently   arranged  ears  compared  to  other  previous  groups     •   CRETACEOUS  EXTINCTION  –  only  three  groups  of  mammals  made  it  through   this  most  recent  mass  extinction.  They  then  exhibited  adaptive  radiation  and   filled  the  empty  niches   •   MAMMAL  BASIC  TRAITS:   o   Hair  –  insulates,  and  helps  sense  surroundings   o   Glands  –  secrete  sweat,  oils,  and  pheromones   o   Lactation  –  drastically  changes  the  game  of  young-­‐rearing.  This   development  meant  that  food  for  the  young  was  always  able  to  be   taken  on-­‐the-­‐go.  The  young  can  be  born  less  developed  and  have  the   “normal  flora”  established  more  efficiently   •   LINEAGES  OF  EXTANT  MAMMALS:   o   MONOTREMES  –  only  three  species,  have  cloaca  (only  one  excretory   hole)  and  lay  eggs     o   MARSUPIALS  –  have  the  pouch  which  allows  for  short  gestation  and   long  lactation   o   PLACENTALS  –  are  relatively  well  developed  at  birth,  which  calls  for  a   long  gestation  period  and  short  lactation   •   MAMMAL  SUCCESS  RELATIVE  TO  OTHER  CLADES  –  currently,  yes.  Mammals   are  successful  because  they  are  able  to  environmentally  adapt  as  far  as   temperature  (endothermic)  and  food  (many  are  omnivores)  necessities           8   Anthropocene  and  Biodiversity   •   ANTHROPOCENE  PERIOD  –  time  during  which  humans  have  modified  the   environment  considerably  more  than  any  other  species   •   Major  human  modifications  to  the  environment  include:   o   Agriculture  –  food  source  concentration  in  one  area,  also  land   clearing  for  agricultural  use   o   Mining  –  destruction  of  an  area  to  dig  deep  into  the  ground     o   Water  Works  –  tapping  into  wells,  depleting  water  resources,   contaminating  watersheds,  irrigation,  and  putting  down  concrete  to   prevent  the  proper  water  cycle  from  being  able  to  occur   o   Transport  of  Species  –  species  introduced  to  an  area  can  throw  of  the   balance  in  an  ecosystem  by  outcompeting  something  in  the  area   •   How  are  we  protecting  biodiversity  –  ecotourism  is  beneficial  economically   and  for  preserving  biodiversity.  State  parks  also  limit  development  and   preserve  ecosystems   9  


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