Biology 150 Final Exam Study Guide
Biology 150 Final Exam Study Guide Biol 150
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 150 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Benjamin Keck in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see Organismal and Ecological Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
BIOLOGY 150 – FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE • ICHTHYOLOGY – the study of fish. This is what Dr. Keck studies • Learning Objectives: o EVOLUTION – the way that organisms have changed over time, both in ways they chose and in ways out of their control o STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION – everything alive has specific structures and ways those structures interact o INFORMATION FLOW AND STORAGE – organisms use different signals and the transfer of biological information in order to stay alive. It happens inside each organism and between organisms o TRANSFORMATIONS OF ENERGY AND MATTER – everything alive needs some sort of nutrient or energy to live, and each organism changes what they take in somehow in order to use it o SYSTEMS – living things interact, with each other and their environments, and all of these interactions can be grouped in many different ways Origins of Life • THREE DOMAINS – Bacteria split off first, making Archaea and Eukarya the more closely related pair. This is important to remember, because although Archaea are prokaryotes like Bacteria, they share a more recent common ancestor with Eukaryotes • 7 CRITERIA FOR LIFE o Organization – made up of cells, one or more o Metabolism – use energy and materials in some way o Growth – accumulate mass over time o Homeostasis – maintain an internal environment o Response to Stimuli – respond to factors to keep homeostasis o Adaptation – able to change over time o Reproduction – produce offspring to continue lineage • EARTH’S TIMELINE – formed 4.5 billion years ago, crust cooled and solidified about 4 billion years ago, and first microorganisms arose 3.5 billion years ago. Prokaryotes were dominant until 2 billion years ago • 4 STEPS TO CELLULAR LIFE o Synthesis of monomers – small organic molecules from inorganic o Synthesis of polymers – monomers joined to form proteins o Molecules attained self-‐replicating properties o Self-‐replicating molecules became packaged in protobionts o Protobionts with this genetic material evolved into common ancestor of all living things as we know them • EARLY EXPERIMENTS WITH ORIGIN OF LIFE o Oparin and Haldane in the 1920’s – were able to spontaneously synthesize organic molecules from inorganic molecules o Miller and Urey in the 1950’s – recreated an early environment in a closed system, so more definitive support for the earlier experiments • RNA – the first genetic material formed from nucleotides. Self-‐replicates • PROTOBIONT – phospholipid layer. Earliest and simplest membrane formation. As they accumulate mass, they are able to spontaneously split off and “reproduce” themselves. A protobiont + engulfed genetic material = first life • ENDOSYMBIOSIS – Lynn Margulis in the 1970’s had the idea that the prokaryote – eukaryote split occurred when a large prokaryote engulfed a smaller prokaryote. The two began a symbiotic relationship, in which the smaller would replicate inside the larger, and when the larger split, its offspring would have the small one inside already. This is supported by the fact that several organelles possess their own DNA and replicate independently of the rest of the cell • ARE VIRUSES ALIVE – viruses are known as acellular infectious particles. They are not alive because they are unable to reproduce on their own. They have to be inside of a host and use the host’s machinery in order to replicate 2 Archaea and Bacteria • PROKARYOTES – bacteria and archaea. No membrane bound organelles. DNA and ribosomes are free in the cytoplasm • EUKARYOTES – protists, plants, fungi, and animals. They all contain membrane bound organelles, including the nucleus which encapsulates the DNA • BACTERIA – unicellular, microscopic, no true nucleus (only nucleoid region), have cell wall containing peptidoglycan • ARCHAEA – mostly unicellular, microscopic, and have cytoplasmic membranes that lack fatty acid chains (ether linked), and their cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan. Archaea also have a DNA replication process that is more complicated than Bacterial DNA replication and more similar to Eukaryotes • GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA – simple cell walls made primarily of peptidoglycan. These stain violet in a Gram stain • GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA – more complex cell walls, made of two distinct layers and with less peptidoglycan. Stain red/pink in a Gram stain • BACTERIAL MOTILITY o Flagellum – rotation of the flagella appendage moves the cell o Corkscrew – spirochetes are able to rotate and move o Gliding – when the surface is slimy, the bacterium can glide across • BACTERIAL REPRODUCTION – binary fission. With no nucleus, this replication cycle does not involve the dissolution of the nuclear membrane or the reformation of the nuclear membrane • DIFFICULTY IN IDENTIFICATION – this stems from morphological similarities, sampling difficulties, culturing difficulties, and high gene flow • ARCHAEAL ENVIRONMENTS – archaea are able to live in extreme environments because of a unique membrane composition and the fact that their proteins are folded in a way that is more resistant to degeneration from heating or freezing • DIFFERING MICROBIOMES IN THE BODY – in one person’s body, the microbiome differs according to the placement because of factors such as oxygen availability, pH, and salt presence. Between individuals, the microbiome can be different because of different exposure and eating habits 3 Plants and Fungi • Organisms attempt to grow and reproduce in a given environ ment as efficiently as possible, and they evolve to accommodate this tendency. To do this, the best fit produces the most offspring, and the most offspring are the most fit, so the cycle continues • PLANTS – multicellular eukaryotes, have chloroplasts and cell walls, photoautotrophs (use light energy to produce organic matter) • WATER TO LAND: o + more nutrients and more structural support o – more predators and more competition • MAJOR PLANT GROUPS o Bryophytes – Mosses. Low growing, waxy cuticle, so the embryos are protected. Gametophyte is the dominant generation o Pteridophytes – Ferns. Contain lignin, still no seeds, and require water for reproduction. Sporophyte is the dominant generation o Gymnosperms – seed plants without flowers. Seeds contain the embryo and food source. A good example of these is a pine tree, or any other conifer. Sporophyte is the dominant generation o Angiosperms – flowering plants. Flowers are protective and dispersal enhancing structures for seeds. Sporophyte is dominant generation • Angiosperms are the MOST DIVERSE group of plants • Gymnosperms have the SHORTEST HAPLOID (gametophyte) lifespan • VASCULAR TISSUE – made up of the xylem (transports water and dissolved minerals, inorganic matter) and the phloem (transports organic nutrients) • FRUITS – offer protection and nutrients to a seed and aid in dispersal • FLOWERS – attract pollinators to aid in reproduction • FUNGI – do not have chloroplasts, decompose organic matter and absorb the nutrients. Three major components are hyphae, mycelium, and fruiting body • ANTIBIOTIC SUBSTANCES – fungi produce these to do away with competition with decomposer bacteria. We derive many of our antibiotic medicines from the compounds that the fungi create • MUTUALISM – Mycorrhizae grow in plant roots to provide the plant with nutrients, while benefitting from the decrease in bacterial competition 4 Invertebrates • ANIMAL CHARACTERISTICS – eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophs, digest food internally, and have no cell walls • INTESTINE LENGTH – herbivores have a longer intestinal tract than carnivores • BODY PLANS – bilateral symmetry (people), radial symmetry (starfish), or asymmetrical (sponges) • BODY CAVITIES – no body cavity (found in flatworms), pseudocoelom (found in roundworms), and coelom (found in annelids). • % INVERTEBRATES – 95% of animals are invertebrates • BASIC CHARACTERISTICS: o Sponges – non-‐motile and can reproduce both sexually and asexually . They don’t have tissue, but they have cells that are differentiated o Cnidarian – radial symmetry body plan and can reproduce both sexually and asexually. They have tissues (ex. Jellyfish) o Mollusks – bilateral symmetry, sexual reproduction but can change their sex, and some have venom (ex. Sea snail) o Flatworms – bilateral symmetry, sexual reproduction, and most are parasitic worms o Annelids – bilateral symmetry, segmented, capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction o Roundworms – found almost everywhere, many are parasites o Arthropods – crustaceans, arachnids, bugs. Exoskeleton o Echinoderms – radial symmetry (ex. starfish) water based vascular system, endoskeleton, simple neural system Fishes and Early Vertebrate Evolution • 50% of vertebrates are fish • Smallest vertebrate is a fish • BASIC CHARACTERISTICS: o Chordates – notochord, nerve chord, pharyngeal slits, and a tail at some point in their life cycle o Craniates – subset of chordates with skulls o Fishes – skull, vertebrae, and jaws but no limbs o Tetrapods – skull, vertebrae, jaws, and four limbs 5 o Amniotes – tetrapods that no longer lay eggs in water (either lay them on land or retain the fertilized egg) • TUNICATES – most closely related to early vertebrates. Their larvae have a notochord • NOTOCHORD – rod that provides structural support and a nervous center • BASIC CHARACTERISTICS: o Hagfish – marine scavengers, slime layer o Lampreys – parasite with adapted teeth o Cartilaginous Fishes – entire skeleton made of cartilage, internal fertilization, don’t have to swim to breathe o Bony Fishes – two primary groups, Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii • SHARK SCALES – placoid. Shaped like teeth pointed backward, help reduce drag as they move through the water • Ray-‐finned fishes are the most diverse group of fishes • PIRATE PERCH – first organism to use chemical camouflage, their predators and prey are unable to smell them • Tuna and Opah are endothermic • PARASITIC MALES – Anglerfish males attach parasitically to the female and are eventually engulfed, leaving only a pair of testicles on the outside • EXTANT LOBE-‐FINNED FISHES – coelacanths and lungfish. These are the sarcopterygii, the closest living fish relatives of tetrapods • COELACANTH DISCOVERY -‐ Marjorie Courtenay identified from the catch of a fisherman off the coast of eastern South Africa. Previously considered extinct and a transitional species between fish and tetrapods • TETRAPODS TO TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS – they need lungs, limbs, a rib cage and eggs or larvae that can survive out of water Amphibians and Reptiles • AMPHIBIAN BASIC TRAITS: o Need water to reproduce o Ectothermic o Can ‘breathe’ through skin (diffuse oxygen) • GROUPS OF AMPHIBIANS: caecilians, salamanders, and frogs/toads • Reptiles are paraphyletic because they gave rise to birds 6 • GROUPS OF REPTILES: o Crocodilians – teeth in sockets, extensive parental care o Squamates – lizards, snakes, and worm lizards. Most diverse group o Tuatara – late reproductive age, disjointed skull o Turtles -‐ shells • REPTILE BASIC TRAITS: scales, lungs, amniotes, and ectotherms • PALEONTOLOGY – study of fossils • FOSSILS – remnants of dead organisms. They form over long stretches of time when layers of mineral and rock press and preserve the sign in its original position. They provide evidence of evolutionary patterns and a timeline of the climate and environmental history of the earth Dinosaurs and Birds • DINOSAURS -‐ these were reptiles that had limbs erect underneath their bodies, so they were able to walk upright • They were around for about 180 million years • TWO MAJOR GROUPS OF DINOSAURS -‐ lizard hipped and bird hipped • MASS EXTINCTIONS – small organisms that reproduce quickly, have a large range, and don’t require much food tend to survive these • FEATHERS -‐ many dinosaurs had them, however they didn’t fly with them. They were basically accessories, not functional • ARBOREAL DINOSAURS TAKING FLIGHT -‐ this was probably possible because of longer arms, better climbing, feathers, better sight, and bigger brains • FLIGHT EVOLUTION HYPOTHESES: o Cursorial – ground species took flight up into the trees o Arboreal – tree species took flight down to the ground (makes more sense that it started as a glide downward as opposed to the energy inefficiency of flying up instead of climbing) • BIRDS BASIC TRAITS: o Beak – trophic morphology example, beaks better for their food o Wings – kind of wings they have can tell a lot about where they live o Feet – used for grasping onto most typical environment • REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIORS OF BIRDS: o Monogamy – common in birds, for a season or life o Polygyny – one male multiple females, most common in birds 7 o Polyandry – one female with multiple males o Egg care – nest building and usually both parents take care of young • Songbirds, Passeriformes, are the most diverse group Mammals • Mammals were alive when dinosaurs were alive , but hey were not dominant • MAMMAL SKULL – have a larger brain, differently muscled jaw, and differently arranged ears compared to other previous groups • CRETACEOUS EXTINCTION – only three groups of mammals made it through this most recent mass extinction. They then exhibited adaptive radiation and filled the empty niches • MAMMAL BASIC TRAITS: o Hair – insulates, and helps sense surroundings o Glands – secrete sweat, oils, and pheromones o Lactation – drastically changes the game of young-‐rearing. This development meant that food for the young was always able to be taken on-‐the-‐go. The young can be born less developed and have the “normal flora” established more efficiently • LINEAGES OF EXTANT MAMMALS: o MONOTREMES – only three species, have cloaca (only one excretory hole) and lay eggs o MARSUPIALS – have the pouch which allows for short gestation and long lactation o PLACENTALS – are relatively well developed at birth, which calls for a long gestation period and short lactation • MAMMAL SUCCESS RELATIVE TO OTHER CLADES – currently, yes. Mammals are successful because they are able to environmentally adapt as far as temperature (endothermic) and food (many are omnivores) necessities 8 Anthropocene and Biodiversity • ANTHROPOCENE PERIOD – time during which humans have modified the environment considerably more than any other species • Major human modifications to the environment include: o Agriculture – food source concentration in one area, also land clearing for agricultural use o Mining – destruction of an area to dig deep into the ground o Water Works – tapping into wells, depleting water resources, contaminating watersheds, irrigation, and putting down concrete to prevent the proper water cycle from being able to occur o Transport of Species – species introduced to an area can throw of the balance in an ecosystem by outcompeting something in the area • How are we protecting biodiversity – ecotourism is beneficial economically and for preserving biodiversity. State parks also limit development and preserve ecosystems 9
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