HY104 Final Vocab
HY104 Final Vocab Hy 104
Popular in American history after 1865
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Popular in Art
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jess Snider on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hy 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kari frederickson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see American history after 1865 in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
HY104 Final Study Guide Part I: Identification: Four Freedoms: paintings by the magazine illustrator Norman Rockwell; represented the essential human freedoms which were freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear; Roosevelt’s statement of Allied aims Good Neighbor Policy: a policy which give the United States the right to intervene militarily in the internal affairs of Latin American countries Isolationism: 1930s version of Americans’ longstanding desire to avoid foreign entanglements Neutrality Acts: policies passed by congress in hope that the United States would avoid conflicts over freedom if the seas; banned travel on belligerents’ ships and the sale of arms to countries at war “Arsenal of Democracy”: Roosevelt’s decision to provide Britain and China with military supplies in their fight against Germany and Japan LendLease Act: Authorized military aid so long as countries promised somehow to return it all after the war; allowed the U.S. to funnel billions of dollars’ worth of arms to Britain and China as well as the Soviet Union Bataan “death march”: Japanese soldiers forced 78,00 American and Filipino troops to lay down their arms (largest surrender in American military history), thousands perished on the “death march” to a prisoner of war camp DDay: nearly 200,000 American, British, and Canadian soldiers under the command of General Eisenhower landed in Normandy in Northwestern France; most massive sealand operation Holocaust: the culmination of the Nazi belief that Germans constituted a “master race” destined to rule the world; the mass extermination of undesirable people such as Slavs, gypsies, homosexuals and especially Jews Rosie the Riveter: the female industrial laborer depicted as muscular and selfreliant in Norman Rockwell’s famous magazine cover; glorified the independent woman GI Bill of Rights: aimed at rewarding members of the armed forces for their service and preventing the widespread unemployment and economic disruption that had followed WWI “patriotic assimilation”: millions of Americans moved out of urban ethnic neighborhoods and isolated rural enclaves into the army and industrial plants where they came into contact with people of different backgrounds Bracero program: allowed tens of thousands of contract laborers crossed into the United States to take up jobs as domestic and agricultural workers Zoot suit riots: clubwielding sailors and policemen attacked MexicanAmerican youths wearing flamboyant clothing on the streets of L.A. Executive Order 9066: ordered the relocation of all Japanese descent from the West Coast Korematsu v. United States: Supreme Court denied the appeal of Fred Korematsu, a JapaneseAmerican citizen who had been arrested for refusing to present himself for internment Second Great Migration: the war spurred the movement of black population from the rural South to the cities of the North and West that resembled the Great Migration of WWI and the 1920s Executive Order 8802: banned discrimination in defense jobs and established a Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) to monitor compliance; hailed as a new Emancipation Proclamation “Double V”: symbolize black attitudes during the war; victory over Germany and Japan must be accompanied by victory over segregation at home Manhattan Project: top secret program in which American scientists developed an atomic bomb during WWI Yalta Conference: war time conference held in Yalta where FDR, Stalin, and Churchill attended to agree on the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany and its occupation status of Poland Breton Woods Conference: meeting of Western allies to establish a postwar international economic order to avoid crises like the one that create WWII; led to the creation of IIMF and the World Bank United Nations: international body formed to bring nations into dialogue in hopes of preventing further world wars; guaranteed veto power to all permanent members of its security council Atlantic Charter: secret meeting between FDR and Churchill that discussed the wat; public statement expressed their ideas of a postwar world Containment: American policy of containing & suppressing communism (NATO attack one=attack all, end of isolationism); Long Telegram “Militant Liberty”: national security agencies encouraged Hollywood to produce anticommunist movies and urged scripts to be changed to remove references of lessthan praiseworthy aspects of American society Long Telegram: Long Telegram the US would not instigate a war with Soviet Union but would support countries threatened by SU or communism Totalitarianism: political system where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible “Iron curtain” speech: Speech given by Winston Churchill in 1946 warning of the "iron curtain" of communism that is descending to the west from the USSR and how there must be a division between the free West and communist East The Fair Deal: Domestic reform proposals of the second Truman administration (1949 53); included civil rights legislation and repeal of the TaftHartley Act, but only extensions of some New Deal programs were enacted. Truman Doctrine: containment of communism, US would economically & militarily support countries susceptible of falling to communism TaftHartley Act: act that sought to reverse some of the gains made by organized labor in the past decade Marshall Plan: George C Marshall, Sec of State. Proposes economicaid plan for the broken Europe in order to contain communism and to build free states again Dixiecrats: group of Deep South delegates who walked out of the 1948 Democratic National Convention in protest of the party's support for civil rights legislation. National Security Council: 10 men and women who advise the President, in consultation with the Department of Defense, connect the dots between foreign relations and Defense Loyalty Review System: Part of Truman foreign policy; Set up to spot out Communists among federal employees; Based in House of Representatives; Succeeds at making people afraid to become a part of Communism General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: Trade agreement under which countries met periodically to negotiate tariff reductions that were mutually advantageous to all members, but contained loopholes that enabled countries to avoid tradebarrier reduction agreements Hollywood Ten: A group of Hollywood employees that were accused of radical ideas and promoting those ideas, good example of the limited civil rights Northern Atlantic Treaty Organization: military alliance of European and North American democracies founded after World War II to strengthen international ties between member states ArmyMcCarthy hearings: Congressional hearings called by Senator McCarthy to accuse members of the army of communist ties. In this widely televised spectacle, McCarthy finally went too far for public approval NSC68: a secret policy statement proposed by the National Security Council that called for a large, ongoing military commitment to contain Soviet Communism. It was accepted by Truman after the N Korean invasion of S Korea Conformity: strong patriotism and need to conform to try to avoid blame during red scare, nonchurchgoers, unmarried, and critics suspected as communists Decolonization: began to occur because a "free world" should not include colonies and empires McCarranWalter Act: moved away from excluding immigrants based simply upon country of origin Levittown: Lowcost, massproduced developments of suburban tract housing built by William Levitt after World War II on Long Island and elsewhere “Baby Boom”: booming birth rate postWWII; idealized the family; Women had more children (3.2 per family) than ever before, making the end of the war until the mid1960s a "baby boom" era. Housing Segregation: During the postwar suburban boom, federal agencies continued to insure mortgages that barred resale of houses to nonwhites, thereby financing housing segregation Urban Renewal: A program for cities to demolish poor neighborhoods in city centers that occupied potential valuable real estate “In God We Trust”: In 1957, 'In God We Trust' was included on paper money, again marking America's religiosity as opposed to 'godless' communism Interstate highway system: The largest publicworks enterprise in American history, was the building of the 41,000mile interstate highway system Sputnik: First artificial satellite to orbit the earth; launched October 4, 1957, by the Soviet Union National Defense Education Act: Passed in reaction to America's perceived inferiority in the space race; encouraged education in science and modern languages through student loans, university research grants, and aid to public schools Massive retaliation: In 1954, John Foster Dulles announced an updated version of the doctrine of containment. Massive retaliation, as it was called, declared that any Soviet attack on an American ally would be countered by a nuclear assault on the Soviet Union itself Iranian Coup: The U.S. sponsored coup that overthrew Mohammed Mossadegh in 1953 created resentments that helped lead to Iran's Islamic Revolution twentyfive years later Geneva Accords: A peace conference in Geneva divided Vietnam temporarily into northern and southern districts, with elections scheduled for 1956 to unify the country Juvenile delinquency: A mid1950s panic about 'juvenile delinquency' occurred as a result of works such as J.D. Salinger's Catcher in the Rye Rockandroll music: A musical style derided as alarming, overly sexualized, and provocative The Beats: A term coined by Jack Kerouac for a small group of poets and writers who railed against mainstream culture League of United Latin American Citizens: A Southwestern group that challenged restrictive housing, employment discrimination, and the segregation of Latino students Brown v. Board of Education: U.S. Supreme Court decision that struck down racial segregation in public education and declared separate but equal as unconstitutional Montgomery bus boycott: Sparked by Rosa Parks's arrest on December 1, 1955, for refusing to surrender her seat to a white passenger, a successful yearlong boycott protesting segregation on city buses; led by the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. “Southern Manifesto”: In 1956, 82 of 106 southern congressmenand every southern senator except Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas and Albert Gore and Estes Kefauver of Tennesseesigned a Southern Manifesto, denouncing the Brown decision as a 'clear abuse of judicial power,' and calling for resistance to 'forced integration' by 'any lawful means “Missile Gap”: A belief that the Soviets had achieved technological and military superiority over the United States Militaryindustrial complex: The conjunction of 'an immense military establishment' with a 'permanent arms industry' with and influence felt in 'every office' in the land Bay of Pigs: group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. The invasion ended in disaster, happened under President Kennedy Berlin Wall: Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet missiles were placed in Cuba as a response for help. The event greatly increased tensions between the Soviets and the Americans. As a result, a hotline was established between the two nations to avoid any accidents The HartCeller Act: abandoned national origins quota system; created "illegal aliens" status for Mexicans Great Society: A domestic program in the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs War on Poverty: programs of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society that were specifically aimed at assisting the poor Counterculture: a culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture; "hippies" who accepted drugs and sexuality and lived unconnected to the past The Feminine Mystique: about the false belief system that women find identity and meaning in their lives solely through their husbands and children; inspired women's liberation movement National Organization for Women: battled for equal rights in partnership with men by lobbying for legislation and testing laws in court Silent Spring: voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development Affirmative Action: a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities Title IX: female college athletes gained the right to the same financial support as male athletes Strategic Arms Limitation Talks: a mutual effort by the US and Soviet Union to limit the growth of their nuclear weapons but still maintaining a sufficient amount to deter a surprise attack Stagflation: used to describe coexistence of economic recession and inflation Vietnam Syndrome: reluctance of US to get involved in foreign conflicts following the Vietnam war; caused somewhat isolationist policy Sunbelt: states in the south and southwest that have a warm climate and tend to be politically conservative Camp David Accords: A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel Iran Hostage Crisis: Crisis during Carter's term in which Iranian fundamentalists stormed the US embassy and took many hostages in response to the US sheltering of the Shah. Disastrous foreign conflict that Carter refused to use military intervention on Reaganomics: federal economic policies of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supplyside tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting; goal was to reduce size of federal gov. and stimulate economic growth IranContra Affair: scandal that erupted after the Reagan administration sold weapons to Iran in hopes of freeing American hostages in Lebanon; money from the arms sales was used to aid the Contras Tet Offensive: The Vietnamese New Year celebration, during which the communists launched a heavy offensive against the U.S. in 1968 Eugene McCarthy: Minnesota senator whose antiwar "Children's Crusade" helped force Johnson to alter his Vietnam policies Freedom Rides: Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation Civil Rights Act of 1964: outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, or religion Voting Rights Act of 1965: a law designed to help end barriers to AfricanAmerican suffrage Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee: one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s Marshall Plan: plan to provide economic assistance to all European nations that would join in drafting a program for recovery. Sixteen western nations participated Korean War: armies of North Korea invaded the proWestern half of the Korean peninsula to the South. Within days, they had occupied much of South Korea, including Seoul, its capital. Almost immediately, the U.S. committed itself to the conflict Loyalty Security Program: HUAC: The House Committee on UnAmerican Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered unAmerican propaganda McCarthyism: AntiCommunist attitudes and actions associated with Senator Joe McCarthy in the early 1950s, including smear tactics and innuendo Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill): gave money to veterans to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business Equal Rights Amendment: proposed amendment to the U.S. constitution passed by Congress and submitted to the states for ratification in 1971; outlawing discrimination based on gender, it was at first seen as a great victory by women'srights groups; fell 3 states short
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