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HY104 Final Vocab

by: Jess Snider

HY104 Final Vocab Hy 104

Jess Snider

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About this Document

All the vocabulary for the final including the ones from the quizzes
American history after 1865
Kari frederickson
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in American history after 1865

Popular in Art

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jess Snider on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hy 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kari frederickson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see American history after 1865 in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 05/01/16
HY104 Final Study Guide Part I: Identification:  Four Freedoms: paintings by the magazine illustrator Norman Rockwell; represented the essential human freedoms which were freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom  from want, and freedom from fear; Roosevelt’s statement of Allied aims  Good Neighbor Policy: a policy which give the United States the right to intervene  militarily in the internal affairs of Latin American countries  Isolationism: 1930s version of Americans’ long­standing desire to avoid foreign  entanglements   Neutrality Acts: policies passed by congress in hope that the United States would avoid  conflicts over freedom if the seas; banned travel on belligerents’ ships and the sale of  arms to countries at war  “Arsenal of Democracy”: Roosevelt’s decision to provide Britain and China with  military supplies in their fight against Germany and Japan  Lend­Lease Act: Authorized military aid so long as countries promised somehow to  return it all after the war; allowed the U.S. to funnel billions of dollars’ worth of arms to  Britain and China as well as the Soviet Union  Bataan “death march”: Japanese soldiers forced 78,00 American and Filipino troops to  lay down their arms (largest surrender in American military history), thousands perished  on the “death march” to a prisoner of war camp  D­Day: nearly 200,000 American, British, and Canadian soldiers under the command of  General Eisenhower landed in Normandy in Northwestern France; most massive sea­land operation  Holocaust: the culmination of the Nazi belief that Germans constituted a “master race”  destined to rule the world; the mass extermination of undesirable people such as Slavs,  gypsies, homosexuals and especially Jews  Rosie the Riveter: the female industrial laborer depicted as muscular and self­reliant in  Norman Rockwell’s famous magazine cover; glorified the independent woman  GI Bill of Rights: aimed at rewarding members of the armed forces for their service and  preventing the widespread unemployment and economic disruption that had followed  WWI  “patriotic assimilation”: millions of Americans moved out of urban ethnic  neighborhoods and isolated rural enclaves into the army and industrial plants where they  came into contact with people of different backgrounds  Bracero program:  allowed tens of thousands of contract laborers crossed into the  United States to take up jobs as domestic and agricultural workers  Zoot suit riots: club­wielding sailors and policemen attacked Mexican­American youths  wearing flamboyant clothing on the streets of L.A.  Executive Order 9066: ordered the relocation of all Japanese descent from the West  Coast  Korematsu v. United States: Supreme Court denied the appeal of Fred Korematsu, a  Japanese­American citizen who had been arrested for refusing to present himself for  internment  Second Great Migration: the war spurred the movement of black population from the  rural South to the cities of the North and West that resembled the Great Migration of  WWI and the 1920s  Executive Order 8802: banned discrimination in defense jobs and established a Fair  Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) to monitor compliance; hailed as a new  Emancipation Proclamation  “Double V”: symbolize black attitudes during the war; victory over Germany and Japan  must be accompanied by victory over segregation at home  Manhattan Project: top secret program in which American scientists developed an  atomic bomb during WWI  Yalta Conference: war time conference held in Yalta where FDR, Stalin, and Churchill  attended to agree on the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany and its occupation  status of Poland  Breton Woods Conference: meeting of Western allies to establish a postwar  international economic order to avoid crises like the one that create WWII; led to the  creation of IIMF and the World Bank  United Nations: international body formed to bring nations into dialogue in hopes of  preventing further world wars; guaranteed veto power to all permanent members of its  security council  Atlantic Charter: secret meeting between FDR and Churchill that discussed the wat;  public statement expressed their ideas of a postwar world  Containment: American policy of containing & suppressing communism (NATO attack  one=attack all, end of isolationism); Long Telegram  “Militant Liberty”: national security agencies encouraged Hollywood to produce  anticommunist movies and urged scripts to be changed to remove references of less­than­ praiseworthy aspects of American society  Long Telegram: Long Telegram the US would not instigate a war with Soviet Union but would support countries threatened by SU or communism  Totalitarianism: political system where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible  “Iron curtain” speech: Speech given by Winston Churchill in 1946 warning of the "iron curtain" of communism that is descending to the west from the USSR and how there must be a division between the free West and communist East  The Fair Deal: Domestic reform proposals of the second Truman administration (1949­ 53); included civil rights legislation and repeal of the Taft­Hartley Act, but only  extensions of some New Deal programs were enacted.  Truman Doctrine: containment of communism, US would economically & militarily  support countries susceptible of falling to communism  Taft­Hartley Act: act that sought to reverse some of the gains made by organized labor  in the past decade  Marshall Plan: George C Marshall, Sec of State. Proposes economic­aid plan for the  broken Europe in order to contain communism and to build free states again  Dixiecrats: group of Deep South delegates who walked out of the 1948 Democratic  National Convention in protest of the party's support for civil rights legislation.  National Security Council: 10 men and women who advise the President, in  consultation with the Department of Defense, connect the dots between foreign relations  and Defense  Loyalty Review System: Part of Truman foreign policy; Set up to spot out Communists  among federal employees; Based in House of Representatives; Succeeds at making  people afraid to become a part of Communism  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: Trade agreement under which countries met periodically to negotiate tariff reductions that were mutually advantageous to all  members, but contained loopholes that enabled countries to avoid trade­barrier reduction  agreements  Hollywood Ten: A group of Hollywood employees that were accused of radical ideas  and promoting those ideas, good example of the limited civil rights  Northern Atlantic Treaty Organization: military alliance of European and North  American democracies founded after World War II to strengthen international ties  between member states  Army­McCarthy hearings: Congressional hearings called by Senator McCarthy to  accuse members of the army of communist ties. In this widely televised spectacle,  McCarthy finally went too far for public approval  NSC­68: a secret policy statement proposed by the National Security Council that called  for a large, ongoing military commitment to contain Soviet Communism. It was accepted  by Truman after the N Korean invasion of S Korea  Conformity: strong patriotism and need to conform to try to avoid blame during red  scare, non­churchgoers, unmarried, and critics suspected as communists  Decolonization: began to occur because a "free world" should not include colonies and  empires  McCarran­Walter Act: moved away from excluding immigrants based simply upon  country of origin  Levittown: Low­cost, mass­produced developments of suburban tract housing built by  William Levitt after World War II on Long Island and elsewhere  “Baby Boom”: booming birth rate post­WWII; idealized the family; Women had more  children (3.2 per family) than ever before, making the end of the war until the mid­1960s  a "baby boom" era.  Housing Segregation: During the postwar suburban boom, federal agencies continued to insure mortgages that barred resale of houses to non­whites, thereby financing housing  segregation  Urban Renewal: A program for cities to demolish poor neighborhoods in city centers  that occupied potential valuable real estate  “In God We Trust”: In 1957, 'In God We Trust' was included on paper money, again  marking America's religiosity as opposed to 'godless' communism  Interstate highway system: The largest public­works enterprise in American history,  was the building of the 41,000­mile interstate highway system  Sputnik: First artificial satellite to orbit the earth; launched October 4, 1957, by the  Soviet Union  National Defense Education Act: Passed in reaction to America's perceived inferiority  in the space race; encouraged education in science and modern languages through student loans, university research grants, and aid to public schools  Massive retaliation: In 1954, John Foster Dulles announced an updated version of the  doctrine of containment. Massive retaliation, as it was called, declared that any Soviet  attack on an American ally would be countered by a nuclear assault on the Soviet Union  itself  Iranian Coup: The U.S.­ sponsored coup that overthrew Mohammed Mossadegh in  1953 created resentments that helped lead to Iran's Islamic Revolution twenty­five years  later  Geneva Accords: A peace conference in Geneva divided Vietnam temporarily into  northern and southern districts, with elections scheduled for 1956 to unify the country  Juvenile delinquency: A mid­1950s panic about 'juvenile delinquency' occurred as a  result of works such as J.D. Salinger's Catcher in the Rye  Rock­and­roll music: A musical style derided as alarming, overly sexualized, and  provocative  The Beats: A term coined by Jack Kerouac for a small group of poets and writers who  railed against mainstream culture  League of United Latin American Citizens: A Southwestern group that challenged  restrictive housing, employment discrimination, and the segregation of Latino students  Brown v. Board of Education: U.S. Supreme Court decision that struck down racial  segregation in public education and declared separate but equal as unconstitutional  Montgomery bus boycott: Sparked by Rosa Parks's arrest on December 1, 1955, for  refusing to surrender her seat to a white passenger, a successful year­long boycott  protesting segregation on city buses; led by the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr.  “Southern Manifesto”: In 1956, 82 of 106 southern congressmen­­and every southern  senator except Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas and Albert Gore and Estes Kefauver of  Tennessee­­signed a Southern Manifesto, denouncing the Brown decision as a 'clear  abuse of judicial power,' and calling for resistance to 'forced integration' by 'any lawful  means  “Missile Gap”: A belief that the Soviets had achieved technological and military  superiority over the United States  Military­industrial complex: The conjunction of 'an immense military establishment'  with a 'permanent arms industry' with and influence felt in 'every office' in the land  Bay of Pigs: group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central  Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel  Castro. The invasion ended in disaster, happened under President Kennedy  Berlin Wall: Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany  Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet missiles were placed in Cuba as a response for help. The  event greatly increased tensions between the Soviets and the Americans. As a result, a  hotline was established between the two nations to avoid any accidents  The Hart­Celler Act: abandoned national origins quota system; created "illegal aliens"  status for Mexicans  Great Society: A domestic program in the administration of President Lyndon B.  Johnson that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs  War on Poverty: programs of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society that were  specifically aimed at assisting the poor  Counterculture: a culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established  culture; "hippies" who accepted drugs and sexuality and lived unconnected to the past  The Feminine Mystique: about the false belief system that women find identity and  meaning in their lives solely through their husbands and children; inspired women's  liberation movement  National Organization for Women: battled for equal rights in partnership with men by  lobbying for legislation and testing laws in court  Silent Spring: voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist  movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development  Affirmative Action: a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and  minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational  opportunities  Title IX: female college athletes gained the right to the same financial support as male  athletes  Strategic Arms Limitation Talks: a mutual effort by the US and Soviet Union to limit  the growth of their nuclear weapons but still maintaining a sufficient amount to deter a  surprise attack  Stagflation: used to describe coexistence of economic recession and inflation  Vietnam Syndrome: reluctance of US to get involved in foreign conflicts following the  Vietnam war; caused somewhat isolationist policy  Sunbelt: states in the south and southwest that have a warm climate and tend to be  politically conservative  Camp David Accords: A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to  recognize the nation state of Israel  Iran Hostage Crisis: Crisis during Carter's term in which Iranian fundamentalists  stormed the US embassy and took many hostages in response to the US sheltering of the  Shah. Disastrous foreign conflict that Carter refused to use military intervention on  Reaganomics: federal economic policies of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981.  These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply­side tax cuts, and domestic  budget cutting; goal was to reduce size of federal gov. and stimulate economic growth  Iran­Contra Affair: scandal that erupted after the Reagan administration sold weapons  to Iran in hopes of freeing American hostages in Lebanon; money from the arms sales  was used to aid the Contras  Tet Offensive: The Vietnamese New Year celebration, during which the communists  launched a heavy offensive against the U.S. in 1968  Eugene McCarthy: Minnesota senator whose anti­war "Children's Crusade" helped  force Johnson to alter his Vietnam policies  Freedom Rides: Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation  Civil Rights Act of 1964: outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race,  sex, or religion  Voting Rights Act of 1965: a law designed to help end barriers to African­American  suffrage  Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee: one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s  Marshall Plan: plan to provide economic assistance to all European nations that would  join in drafting a program for recovery. Sixteen western nations participated  Korean War: armies of North Korea invaded the pro­Western half of the Korean  peninsula to the South. Within days, they had occupied much of South Korea, including  Seoul, its capital. Almost immediately, the U.S. committed itself to the conflict  Loyalty Security Program:   HUAC: The House Committee on Un­American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un­American propaganda  McCarthyism: Anti­Communist attitudes and actions associated with Senator Joe  McCarthy in the early 1950s, including smear tactics and innuendo  Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (GI Bill): gave money to veterans to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business  Equal Rights Amendment: proposed amendment to the U.S. constitution passed by  Congress and submitted to the states for ratification in 1971; outlawing discrimination  based on gender, it was at first seen as a great victory by women's­rights groups; fell 3  states short


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