nuclear chemistry Chapter 21, CHM 116
nuclear chemistry Chapter 21, CHM 116 Chem 116
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by ntombizodwa makuyana on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 116 at Arizona State University taught by Dr cabraic in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry Isotopes: Elements with different number of neutrons Radioisotope: An atom that spontaneously emits radiation. A nuclear reaction is the one that involves changes in an atom’s nucleus. Spontaneous radioactive emission rate is not affected by Temperature, pressure or catalyst. Q: what are five types of radioactive decays? Alpha particle( helium nucleus) - Beta particle( electron) β Positron( positive charge β + Gamma radiation ( no charge ϒ) Electron Capture( electron) What are the relative penetrating powers? Alpha 1 Beta 100 Gamma 10000 (gamma has the most penetrating power) Patterns of Nuclear Stability Light nuclei with low n/p ratios undergo positron emission Nuclei with Z≥84 undergo alpha emission Nuclei with high n/p ratios undergo beta emission Heavy nuclei with low n/p ratios undergo electron capture Nuclei with an even number of protons and neutrons tend to be more stable. Nuclear Transmutations-is the change of one element into another by bombarding atoms with high-energy particles. Radioactive decay is a first order reaction. Thus t1/2n2/k In(Nt/N0)=-Kt Half life is the time required for half of the original sample to decay Nuclear Binding Energies The most stable nuclide is Fe Therefore lighter elements combine( Fusion) and heavier nuclei split( fission) Nuclear Fission is the fragmentation of heavy nuclei to form lighter eg Uranium chain reaction Critical mass- the mass required for the chain reaction to become self sustaining What are the relative powers of ionization for radioactive particles? Gamma rays 1 Beta 100 Alpha particles 10000
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