BIO 103 FInal Study Guide
BIO 103 FInal Study Guide BIOL 103
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Borges on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 103 at Catholic University of America taught by Seema in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at Catholic University of America.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Final Exam Biology: May 4, 2016 14pm Chapter 1217, 20, 21 Assignments 915 (Main focus) Chapter 17: STD only Chapter 21: Genetic Disorder of choice only Format: 1. Fill in table( STD cause, symptoms, treatment) 20pts 2. Short Note(genetic disordercause, symptoms, treatment, of color blindness) 20pts 3. Múltiple Chorice 50pts 4. Matching 40 pts 1. Disease characteristic 2. System Function b. T/F 10 pts. c. Multiple Choice 50pts d. Fill in the blanks 10pts Chapter 12: 1. Arrange the steps of bone repair in order : 1.Remodeling, 2. Bony callus, 3. Hematoma, 4. Fibrocartilaginous callus Answer: 3,4,2,1 2. The name of the tailbone is the Answer: Coccyx 3. What type of cartil is found at the ends of long bones? Answer:hyaline cartilage 4. How are osteocytes and osteoblasts related? Answer: Osteoblasts become osteocytes as the bone matures. 5. What term is associated with spongy bone but not with compact bone? Answer: trabeculae 6. What are the intervertebral disks made of? Answer: fibrocartilage 7. What is the term used to describe bone cells? Answer: osteocytes 8. Emma developed a rotator cuff injury . What part of her body is injured? Answer: shoulder 9. Which of the following joints is a fibrous joint? Answer: sutures between cranial bones 10. Jason broke his finger playing football, while Sean tore the cartilage in his knee playing basketball. Which one will heal faster and why? Answer: Jason, because bones have a blood supply and heal faster 11. How are the bones of the cranium named? Answer: for the lobes of the brain they protect 12. How many vertebrae are there? Answer: 33 13. Jill broke her cheekbone in an ice skating accident. Which bone did she break? Answer: zygomatic bone 14. What is the name of the first cervical vertebra? Why? Answer: atlas, Greek mythology 15. Bone cells are called _________________ while cartilage cells are called ________________. Answer: osteocytes, chondrocytes 16. Bones continue to grow throughout a lifetime. Answer: True 17. The epiglottis is a structure that needs to be strong but extremely flexible. What type of tissue makes up the epiglottis. Answer: elastic cartilage 18. What two hormones are involved in regulating the blood calcium level? Answer: PTH and calcium 19. A ligament connects Answer: bone to bone 20. What criterion is used to categorize the skeleton into axial and appendicular? Answer: whether the bones lie on the midline or on a girdle Chapter 13: 1. What does troponin bind to and what happens when it binds? Answer: Ca , tropomyosin shifts 2. What supplies the energy for muscle contraction? Answer: ATP 3. What structure attaches a muscle to bone? Answer: tendons 4. What is the deltoid muscle shaped like? Answer: a triangle 5. What is the name of the muscle that is responsible for blinking and winking? Answer: orbicularis oculi 6. One sarcomere Answer: extends from Z line to Z line 7.Which of the following does not occur when a muscle fatigues? Answer: tetanus is achieved 8.What is the biggest muscle in the body? Answer: gluteus maximus 9.What information does the word rectus give you about a muscle? Answer: the direction of the muscle fibers 10.From the outside of a muscle coming in, the first thing encountered would be? Answer: fascia 11. A muscle fiber is made up of many Answer: myofibrils 12.Of the three types of muscle tissue, which is not striated? Answer: smooth muscle 13. Which of the following is not a function of skeletal muscles? Answer: pumping of blood throughout the body 14. What happens to the actin and myosin filaments when a muscle contracts? Answer: both stay the same length 15.What muscle works in a pair with the biceps brachii? Answer: the triceps brachii 16. What does the word sacro mean? Answer: muscle 17.Several of the structures in the muscle cell are given special names. For example, the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber is called the sarcoplasm. Which of the following is truly a unique structure to muscle cells (not just a renamed one)? Answer: transverse(T) system 18. Of the three types of muscle tissue, which is voluntary? Answer: skeletal muscle 19.What do smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscle all have in common? Answer: The cells of these muscles are all called muscle fibers. 20.Of the three types of muscle tissue, which has multinucleated fibers? Answer: skeletal muscle Chapter 14: 1. Which of the following statements about cranial nerves is not true? 1. Answer: humans have 31 pairs of cranial nerves b. Which of the following is part of the limbic system? 1. Answer: amygdala b. The repeated use of which drug leads to the body decreasing the natural production of endorphins? 1. Answer: heroin b. Which of the ollowing statemtnes is not true concerning the central nervous system? 1. Answer:The brain and teh spinal cord contain only whitematter myelnatied axons that run together in bundles b. What type of memory does language depend on? 1. Answer: semantic b. Which is the largest part of the brain? 1. Anser: cerebrum b. The entire action potential occurs in a matter of 1. Answer: milliseconds b. What is the summing up of the excitory and inhibitory signals by a nueron called? 1. Answer: intergration b. When a students crams for a test at 3 in the mornig before the test, the information usually goes into 1. Answer: shortterm memory b. The spinal cord belongs to 1. Answer: the central nervous system b. Which conducts an action potenial faster and why? 1. Answer: myelinated fibers, the action potential jumps from one node of Ranvier to another b. Which of the following is associated with PNS and not CNS? 1. ANswer: Schwann cells b. The central nervous system is protected by 1. ANswer: bone b. How is alocolh classified? 1. Answer: depressant b. Long term use of heorin results in what set of symptoms? 1. Answer: addicition, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, various bacterial infections b. Wernicke’s area is associated with 1. Answer: the abulity to speak b. Which of the followign s not a neurotransmittier? 1. Answer: ATP b. Which of the following is not a function of the nervous sytem? 1. Answer: cushion and prrotect soft tssue b. How does caffeine work? 1. Answer: interferes with or decreases the action of the neurotransmitter b. Which of the following types of nerves is not covered by a protective myelin sheath? 1. Answer: gray matter of the CNS CHapter 15: 1. Which structure in the eye plays a role in accomodation by holding the lens in place? Answer: ciliary body a. In farsightedness, 1. Answer: the eyeball is shorter than normal b. Which structure in the eye refracts and focuses light ray? 1. Answer: lens b. What percentage of what we perceive as taste is due to smell? 1. Answer: 8090% b. What type of exteroceptors are located in the ear? 1. Answer: mechanoreceptors b. Nerve signals from taste buds go primarily to the __________ while those for olfactory cells go primarily to the ___________. 1. Answer: parietal lobe, temporal lobe b. Many rod cells share one bipolar cell but cone cells do not. Certain cone cells synapse with only one ganglion cell. What are the consequences of this arrangement? 1. Answer: Cone cells dinstinguish more detail than rod cells b. Which structure is associated with the outer ear? 1. Answer:auditory canal b. What structures, in order, are responsible for hearing, starting with a sound wave? 1. Answer: auditory canal, tympanic membrane, malleus, incus, stapes, oval window, cochlea 10. The rod and cone cells are located within which layer of the eye? Answer: retina 11. Proprioceptors are classified as which type of receptor? Answer: mechanoreceptors 12. What do nociceptors detect Answer: stimuli of pain 13. Which type of sensory receptor responds to chemicals? Answer: taste cells 14. What is the correct order of cells within the retina starting in the posterior compartment and ending in the choroid? Answer: ganglion cell layer, bipolar cell layer, rod and cone cell layer 15. Which of the following is part of the middle ear? Answer: malleus 16. When blood pressure increases, what type of sensory receptor detects this? Answer:an interoceptor called a baroreceptor 17. What controls the shape of the lens? Answer: ciliary muscle 18. Which region of the brain contains the olfactory cortex? Answer:temporal lobe 19.The type of taste called umami allows us to enjoy what type of flavor? Answer: savory 20. The receptors involved in our sense of equilibrium are Answer: mechanoreceptors Chapter 16: 1. Which of the following is a result of mineralocorticoid release? Answer: blood volume and pressure increase a. Which pancreatic hormone will be secreted when blood glucose levels are high? ANswer: insulin 3. How are type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus similar? Answer: The blood glucose levels are very high in both. 4. Which of the following statements is not true concerning the hypothalamus? Answer: The hypothalamus communicates with the somatic nervous system 5. The hormone produced by the parathryoid gland influences the blood level rise of what product? Answer: calcium 6. Where are the adrenal glands located? Answer: on top of the kidneys 7. Which of the following statement about the pancreas is not true? Answer: The pancreatic islets are the exocrine tissue. 8. Which of the following hormones is mismatched with its producing gland? Answer: ovariesfolliclestimulating hormone 9. Which of the following secretes erythropoietin? Answer: kidneys 10. Which disorder is characterized by the overproduction of growth hormone in an adult? Answer: acromegaly 11.Where is the thymus located? Answer: in the chest 12. Which hormone triggers satiety? Answer: leptin 13. Which gland produces melatonin Answer: pineal gland 14. The thyroid gland is located Answer: in the neck 15. Peptide hormones Answer:bind to a receptor in the plasma membrane. 16. Which pancreatic hormone stimulates the uptake of glucose by cells? Answer:insulin 17. When insulin is secreted, what happens? Answer: Glucose is taken up by the cells. 18. Which of the following is not a symptom of Addison disease? Answer: increased blood sugar levels 19. Which of the following statements is not true about growth hormone? Answer: Growth hormone is produced by the posterior pituitary 20.Jamie suffers from heartburn. Sometimes this can be treated with Answer: prostaglandins. Chapter 17: Name of Cause Symtpoms Treatment Disease HIV Body fluids of Can develop flu None infected person like symptoms. Can use ART enter the other Yeast infections to slow down persons on the tongue, the bloodstream, vaginal yeast progression sharing needles, infections, PID , born to a mother with HIV, AIDS HIV(human Fever, sweating, None immunodeficiency fatigue, feeling Can take virus) sick, loss of drugs to weight, swollen help combat glands, oral against thrush infections Genital Warts HPV(human Wart or lesions on Surgery, papillomaviruses) genitals freezing, or burning with lasers or acids Gential Herpes Herpes simplex Tingling or No cure virus 2 itching sensation Antiviral Passed through before blisters, drugs can be intercourse or Blisters on used to oral sex with an genitals,painful reduce the infected person ulcers once number and blisters rupture, length of fever,pain during outbreaks urination, swollen lymph nodes in the groin or a copious discharge, fever, headache, muscle aches Hepatitis Caused by a virus Liver failure, A that inflames liver cancer and B medicines your liver. death such as A sewage A, B, C, E loss Hepsera, contaminated of appetite, Baraclude, drinking water, nausea, discomfort etc. or oralanal in stomach, dark CMedicines contact urine, clay such as Bsexual contact colored bowel Telaprevir, and by blood movements, Boceprevir borne yellowing of the E goes away transmission, skin or eyes on its own sharing needles usually Cblood borne transmission D sexually transmitted; occurs only in those with Hep B E contaminated water G sexually transmitted Chlamydia Bacterium called Women mild Oral Chlamydia burning sensations antibiotics trachomatis on urination and a usually mucoid discharge, Zithromax abnormal vaginal discharge, symptoms similar to UTI, can cause cervical ulcerations, pain when having sex, pain while urinating Men Cloudy discharge, painful urination, burning and itching around opening of penis, pain and swelling of testicles Gonorrhea Bacterium Male pain upon Antibiotic Neisseria urination and therapy gonorrhoaea thick, greenish yellow urethral discharge Females can lead to PID which results in damage to the uterus, ovaries, and other reproductive structures Gonorrhea Same as gonorrhea Anal pain and Antibiotic proctitis blood or pus in therapy the feces Syphilis Bacterium 1 stage hard Pencillin Treponema chancre(ulcerated pallidum sore with hard edges) nd 2 stage rash on palms of hands and soles of feet, hair loss, infectious gray patches on the mucous membranes 3 stage aneurysms in the aorta, psychological disturbances, gummas, eventually death Vaginitis Bacterium Vaginal discharge Medication Gardnerella with a strong vaginosis, yeast odor, burning Candida albicans, sensation during Trichomonas urination, and/or vaginalis itching or pain in the vulva, pain during intercourse Yeast Overgrowth of Thick, white, Antifungal Infection yeast in the body curdlike vaginal medications discharge and inserted itching of the into the vulva and/or vagina vagina Trichomoniasis Trichimonas Foulsmelling, Perscription vaginalis yellowgreen, drugs frothy discharge and itching of the vulva/vagina Chapter 20: 1. Which of the following is not one of the things to watch for in a mole? 1. Answer: a solid color, usually brown b. What is the most common cancer found in males? 1. Answer: prostate b. When should screening for colorectal cancer begin? 1. Answer: in 50’s b. Which of the following is not one of the seven warning signs? 1. Answer: a cut that bleeds b. Which of the following is not a type of chemotherapy? 1. Answer: bone marrow transplants b. Which of the following factors can lead to cancer? 1. Answer: Radiation, BRCA1 gene, tobacco smoke, radon gas b. A Pap test looks for what type of cancer? 1. Cervical b. What was the name of the first gene associated with breast cancer? 1. Answer: BRCA1 gene b. Which of the following dietary changes will not reduce your risk of developing cancer? 1. Answer: decrease your consumption of highfiber foods b. What type of cancer causes the most deaths in males? 1. Answer: lung and bronchus b. Cancers of epithelial tissues are called 1. Answer: carcinomas b. Taxol is used to treat what type of cancer? 1. Answer: ovarian cancer b. Which two tests are done for prostate cancer? 1. Answer: digital rectal examination and PSA b. How often should a woman do a shower selfexamination of her breasts for lumps, knots, or changes? 1. Answer: once a month b. How many Americans will deal with cancer in their lifetime? 1. Answer: 1 in 3 b. The ends of chromosomes are “capped” with special repitive DNA Sequences called 1. Answer: telomeres b. Which of the following is not a standard therapy for cancer treatment? 1. Answer: immunotherapy b. Which is responsible for more cancer deaths in women: breast, colon and rectum, pancreas or ovary? 1. Answer: breast b. Which of the following tests is not used to screen for colon cancer? 1. Answer: blood test b. Which of the following characteristics is not associated with metastasis? 1. Answer: The low oxygen content in the middle of the a tumor may turn on genes for angiogenesis. Chapter 21: The genetic disorder that I wanted to learn more about was color blindness. When researching which disorder I wanted to do I stumbled across color blindness and was amazed because I didn’t know that it was considered a genetic disorder. Color blindness is caused by a point mutation or any insertion/deletion entirely inside one gene, specifically the X chromosome. In color blindness the genes that carry photopigments are carried on the X chromosome. Someone who is color blind is impaired or completely unable to see color or the differences in colors in normal light settings. Many times people who are colorblind have trouble distinguishing green from blue. There are some cases where color blindness can also be caused by brain or retinal damage. The symptoms of color blindness include difficulty distinguishing between colors, inability to see shades or tones of the same color, and rapid eye movement( in extreme cases) . There is no treatment for color blindness. Testing should be done starting at age 4 to detect whether or not the child has color blindness. In some case color filters can be worn to help with color blindness. Cumulative Test Questions: 1. Rotational and gravitational equilibrium both involve all of the following except 1. Answer:calcium carbonate granules b. Heavy use of which drug can lead to hallucinations, anxiety, depression, paranoia, and psychotic symptoms? 1. Answer:marijuana b. A mole becomes suspicious when it is greater in size then 6mm in diameter. How big is 6mm approximately? 1. Answer:about the size of a pencil eraser b. Hodgkin lymphomas develop from 1. Answer:mutated B cells b. Taste buds 1. Answer: are located on the tongue, hard palate, pharynx, and epiglottis b. Which of the following is not a function of the endocrine gland? 1. Answer: secretes a hormone directly into the bloodstream b. What is the function of melatonin? 1. Answer:control the daily sleepwake cycle b. A tumor located in the primary somatosensory area would impact which function? 1. Answer: the ability to feel a rough object b. Contact inhibition means that 1. Answer: when cells come in contact with a neighbor, they stop dividing b. Which disorder is associated with a low level of parathyroid hormone? 1. Answer: tetany b. Depolarization of the neuron occurs when 1. Answer: sodium gates open and sodium moves inside the cell b. In which way are the senses of taste and smell different? Answer: Taste depends on a “weighted” average of all the taste messages while smell depends on the signature of olfactory cells stimulated.
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