Communication 101 Comm 100
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Montanez on Sunday May 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 100 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Esposito in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Human Communication in Communication at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 05/01/16
Human Communications Study Guide CHAPTERS 10, 11, 12, &13 10 Communication in Personal Relationships Overview of Chapter How effective communication applies to personal relationships Definition of personal relationships o Friendships o Romances Guidelines for sustaining healthy personal relationships Features of Personal Relationships Uniqueness Commitment o Passion o Investment Relationship rules o Regulative Affected by contexts Understanding Personal Relationships A personal relationship is a voluntary commitment between irreplaceable individuals who are influenced by rules, relationship dialects, and surrounding contexts. This definition highlights important features that distinguish personal relationships from other kinds of human connections. Features of Personal Relationships Personal relationships are unique: Each one is distinct as a result of commitment, rules, surrounding contexts, and relationship dialectics. Uniqueness Most of our relationships are social, not personal. A social relationship is one which participants interact according to general social roles rather than unique individual identities. For instance, you might talk about a course and professor with a classmate and talk return policies with store clerks. In each case, the person could be replaced by someone else in the same role. In social relationships, the individual people are less important than the roles they fulfill. Voluntary Commitment The sparks and the emotional high of being in love or discovering a new friend stem from passion, an intense feeling based on the rewards of involvement with another person. Passion is why we have the sensations of butterflies in the stomach and giddiness. As exciting as passion is, it isn’t the basis of enduring relationships. Commitment is the decision to remain with a relationship. The hallmark of commitment is the intention to share the future. Committed friends and romantic partners assume they will stay together. Because commitment assumes a shared future, partners are unlikely to bail out if the going gets rough. Instead, they stay together despite trouble, disappointments, sporadic restlessness, and lulls in emotional depth. Relationship Dialectics A final quality of personal relationships is the presence of relationship dialectics. These are opposing and continuous tensions that are normal in all close relationships. Autonomy/connection dialectic involves the desires to be separate, on the one hand, and to be connected, on the other. Because we want to be deeply linked to others, we cherish spending time with our intimates, sharing experiences, and feeling connected. At the same time, we don’t want relationships to swallow our individuality, so we seek some distance and time apart, even from our intimates. Both autonomy and closeness are natural human needs. The challenge is to nurture both individuality and intimacy. The dialectic novelty/predictability reflects tension between the desire for familiar routines and the desire for novelty. We like a certain amount of routine to provide security and predictability in our lives. Friends often have standard times to get together, families develop rituals for holidays and birthdays, and romantic couples settle on preferred times and places for going out. Yet too much routine is boring, so we seek novel experiences. Friends may take up a new sport together, families may plan unusual vacations, and romantic partners might explore a new hobby or do something spontaneous and different to introduce variety into their customary routine. The third dialectic, openness/closedness, is the tension between the desire to share private thoughts, feelings, and experiences, with intimates and the desire to preserve personal privacy. Families often share deep feelings and thoughts but don’t discuss sexual activities and attitudes. Friends and romantic partners, on the other hand, may talk about sex and other personal topics but may not share family secrets. Dialectical Tensions Neutralization is balancing or finding a compromise between two dialectical poles. o This involves striking a compromise in which both needs are met to an extent, but neither is fully satisfied. A couple might agree to be generally open but not highly disclosive. The Evolutionary Course of Personal Relationships Develops at its own pace Friendships and romances share commonalities Turning points o Particular experiences and events that cause relationships to become more or less intimate. o Moves a relationship toward or away from intimacy. o In romantic relationships, turning points that propel a relationship toward intimacy might include a first kiss, first “I love you,” and meeting parents. o Turning points that move a relationship away from closeness might include learning a person has a drug problem or discovering infidelity. Greatest Influences on Attraction Proximity o Physical nearness, that influences initial attraction o Can be in person or in cyberspace We can only interact with people we meet, whether in person or online. Where we live, work and socialize and our online social communities constrain the possibilities for relationships. Similarity o We are attracted to people similar to ourselves Important to emotional relationships. In realm of romance, “birds of a feather flock together,” seems truer than “opposites attract.” o Matching hypothesis The prediction that people will seek relationships with others who closely match their values, attitudes, social background, and physical attractiveness. Styles of Loving Eros is style of loving that is passionate, intense, and fast moving. Not confined to sexual passion, eros may be expressed in spiritual, intellectual, or emotional ways. Storge is a comfortable, “best friends” kind of love that grows gradually to create a stable, even-keeled companionship. Ludus is a playful, sometimes manipulative style of loving. For ludic lovers, love is a challenge, a puzzle, a game to be relished but not to lead to commitment. Mania is an unsettling style of love marked by emotional extremes. Manic lovers often are insecure about their value and their partners’ commitment. Agape is a selfless kind of love in which a beloved’s happiness is more important than one’s own. Agapic lovers are generous, unselfish, and devoted. Pragma is a pragmatic and goal-oriented style of loving. Pragmas rely on reason and practical considerations when initially selecting people to live. Relationship culture is a private world of rules, understandings, and patterns of acting and interpreting that partners create to give meaning to their relationship; the nucleus of intimacy. Nucleus of an established intimate relationship Developed over time Evolves throughout the life of the relationship Equity theory is the theory that people are happier and more satisfied with equitable relationships than inequitable ones. In equitable relationships, partners perceive the benefits and costs of the relationship as about equal for each of them. 11 Communication in Groups and Teams Overview of Chapter How basic communication skills apply to groups & teams We identify potential strengths and weaknesses of groups & teams Aspects of groups that affect communication Two effective methods of group decision making Understanding Communication in Groups and Teams Each group has a distinctive goal 3 kinds of communication: o Climate communication social groups devote the bulk of their talk to climate communication, yet they often move into discussion, as when one friends asks another for help in solving a problem. Create and sustain support and trust. One of the 3 constructive forms of participation in group decision making; the creating and sustaining of an open, engaged atmosphere for discussion. o Procedural communication manages time and move conversation along. One of the 3 constructive forms of participation in group decision making; orders ideas and coordinates contributions of members. o Task communication typically include some climate communication and a good deal of procedural communication, and personal growth and therapy groups include task communication to deal with members’ issues One of the 3 constructive forms of participation in group decision making; focuses on giving and analyzing information and ideas. Defining Groups and Teams A group is more than two people who interact over time, who are interdependent, and who follow shared rules of conduct to reach a common goal. A team is one type of group. A team is a special kind of group characterized by different and complementary resources of members and by a strong sense of collective identity. All teams are groups, but not all groups are teams. Groups and teams develop rules that members understand and follow. The Rise of Groups and Teams Brainstorming Groups When idea generation is the goal, brainstorming groups are appropriate. The goal of brainstorming is to come up with as many ideas as possible. Brainstorming is a group technique for generating potential solutions to a problem; the free flow of ideas without immediate criticism. Advisory Groups The solitary manager, president, or CEO who relies only on his or her own ideas is not functional in modern life. Instead, most high-level decision makers rely on advisory groups to provide expert briefing on the range of issues relevant to decisions they must make. Advisory groups allow decision makers to benefit from other experts’ information and advice pertinent to developing effective policies and making informed decisions. Quality Improvement Teams include three or more people who have distinct skills or knowledge and who work together to improve quality in an organization. These teams mix not only people with differing expertise but also people with different levels in an organization’s hierarchy. For quality improvement teams to be effective, management must support their work and recommendations. Potential Limitations and Strengths of Groups Potential Limitations of Groups Time needed for the group process o It takes substantial time for each person to express thoughts, clarify understandings, and respond to questions or criticisms. Potential to suppress individuals or encourage conformity o This can happen in 2 ways: First, conformity pressures may exist when a majority has an opinion different from that of a minority or a single member. Members have an ethical responsibility to encourage expression of diverse ideas and open debate about different views. Conformity pressure may also arise when one member is extremely charismatic or has more power or prestige than other members. Social loafing o Exists when members of a group exert less effort than they would if they worked alone. Potential Strengths of Groups Greater resources More thorough thought o Synergy is a special kind of collaborative vitality that enhances the efforts, talents, and strengths of individual members Heightened creativity o Any individual eventually runs out of ideas, but groups seem to have almost infinite generative ability. As members talk, they build on each other’s ideas, refine proposals, and see new possibilities in each other’s comments. Enhanced commitment to decisions o Arises from 2 sources: First, participation. Groups in which all members participate tend to generate greater commitment among members, which is especially important if members will be involved in implementing the decision. Second, because groups have greater resources than individual decision makers, their decisions are more likely to take into account the points of view of the various people needed to make a decision work. Features of Small Groups Cohesion Closeness, or feeling of esprit de corps, among members of a group. In highly-cohesive groups, members see themselves as tightly linked and committed to shared goals. o Groupthink The absence of critical and independent thought on the part of group members about ideas generated by the group. Group size Power structure o Power over The ability to help or harm others. Power over others usually is communicated in ways that highlight the status and influence of the person exerting the power. This form of power usually is expressed in ways that emphasize and build the status of the person wielding influence. o Power to The ability to empower others to reach their goals. People who use power to help others generally do not highlight their own status and influence. People who empower others do not emphasize their status. Instead, they act behind the scenes to enlarge others’ influence and visibility to help others succeed. o Social climbing The attempt to increase personal status in a group by winning the approval of high-status members. If social climbing doesn’t increase the status of those doing it, they often become marginal participants in groups. Group Norms A final feature of small groups is the presence of norms – guidelines that regulate how members act as well as how they interact with each other. Group norms control everything from the most trivial to the most critical aspects of a group’s life. Norms define what is normal or appropriate in various situations. 12 Communication in Organizations Overview of Chapter Identify key features of organizational communication Overall culture of an organization Key Features of Organizational Communication Structure Organizations are structured. Communication Networks Communication Networks are formal and informal links between members of organizations. In most organizations, people belong to multiple networks. For example, a faculty member belongs to a social network that includes colleagues, students, and staff. Communication networks are the links among members of an organization, May be formal (e.g., as specified in an organizational chart) or informal (friendship circles). Links to External Communication Like other communication systems, organizations are embedded in multiple contexts that affect how they work and whether they succeed or fail. In other words, an organization’s operation cannot be understood by looing only within the organization. Organizational Culture Extending the idea of culture to organizations, communication scholars focus on organizational culture, which consist of values, behaviors, practices, and forms of communication that shared by members of an organization and that reflect an organization’s identity. Consists of ways of o Thinking o Acting o Understanding work Shared by members of an organization Reflect an organization’s distinct identity Vocabulary Hierarchical Language Many organizations and professions have vocabularies that designate status. The military, for example, relies on language that continually acknowledges rank (“Yes, sir;” “Captain;” “Major;” “General”), which reflects the close ties among ranks, respect, and authority. Salutes, as well as stripes and medals on uniforms, are part of the nonverbal vocabulary that emphasizes rank and status. Masculine Language Because organizations historically were run by men, and men held most or all of the high-level positions, it’s not surprising that many organizations have developed and continue to sue language reflecting men’s traditional interests and experiences. From male sexual parts and activities (a troublesome person is a “prick”; you can “hit on” a person, “screw” someone, or “stick it” to them; bold professionals have “balls”). Stories Corporate Stories Corporate stories convey the values, style, and history of an organization. Just as families have favorite stories about their histories and identities that they retell often, organizations have favorite stories that reflect their collective visions of themselves. One important function of corporate stories is to socialize new members into the culture of an organization. Personal Stories Members of organizations also tell stories about themselves. Personal stories are account that announce how people see themselves and how they want to be seen by others. For example, if Sabra perceives herself as a supportive team player, she could simply tell new employees, “I am a supportive person who believes in teamwork.” Collegial Stories The third type of organizational story offers accounts of other members of the organization. When I first became a faculty member, a senior colleague took me out to launch and told me anecdotes about people in the department and university. Collegial stories told by co-workers forewarn us about what to expect from whom. They are the part of the informal network that teaches new members of an organization what to expect from other members of the organization. 13 Public Communication Overview of Chapter Discuss the different purposes of public speaking and its distinctive features Overview of planning and presenting public speeches Key Features of Public Speaking Adapt to others’ perspectives Create a good climate for interaction Use effective verbal & and nonverbal communication Organize our thoughts Support our claims Present our ideas in an engaging and convincing manner Listen & respond to questions The Purpose of Public Communication Entertain o In a speech to entertain, the primary objective is to engage, interest, amuse, or please listeners. Inform o A speech to inform has the primary goal of increasing listeners’ understanding, awareness, or knowledge of some topic. For example, a speaker might want listeners to understand the rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights or to make listeners aware of recycling programs. The primary purpose is to enrich listeners’ knowledge, although each topic has persuasive implications. Persuade o A speech to persuade aims to influence attitudes, change practices, or alter beliefs. The persuasive speaker is an advocate who argues for a cause, issue, policy, attitude, or action. Earning Credibility Credibility exists when listeners believe in a speaker and trust what the speaker says. Initial credibility o The expertise and trustworthiness listeners attribute to a speaker before a presentation begins. Initial credibility is based on the speaker’s titles, positions, experiences, or achievements that are known to listeners before they hear the speech. Derived credibility o The expertise and trustworthiness attributed to a speaker by listeners as a result of how the speaker communicates during a presentation. Terminal credibility o The cumulative expertise and trustworthiness listeners attribute to a speaker as a result of initial and derived credibility; may be greater or less than initial credibility, depending on how effectively a speaker has communicated. Planning Public Speeches Select a topic Define the speaking purpose Develop the thesis o Thesis statement The main idea of an entire speech; should capture the key message in a concise sentence that listeners can remember easily. Presents the principle claim of speech and the main points by which it will be developed. o Should be short, clear sentence that captures the main idea of your talk and the key points supporting that idea. Organizing Speeches Speech Introduction Captures listeners’ attention Motivates audience to listen Tells listeners the thesis and key points Enhance the speaker’s credibility Transitions are words, phrases, and sentences that connect ideas in a speech. Transitions signal listeners that you have finished talking about one idea and are ready to move to the next one. Transitional words and phrases include: therefore, and so, for this reason, and as the evidence suggests. Speech Body Chronological o Organize ideas chronologically. They emphasize progression, sequences, or development (1) year of birth, (2) year of graduation, (3) 20 years after graduation Spatial Topical o Organize ideas according to physical relationships They are useful in explaining layouts, geographic relationships, or connections between parts of a system. 3 points of making a difference at (1) local, (2) national, (3) international level Wave patterns o Features repetitions; each “wave” repeats the main theme with variations or extensions. Comparative o Compare two or more phenomena (people, machines, planets, situations) This demonstrates similarities between phenomena (Steve Jobs and Usain Bolt are alike in dedicating themselves to a goal) or differences between phenomena (people like president Obama use their time to serve others while people like Lance Armstrong use their time to serve themselves) Problem-solution o Allows speakers to describe a problem and propose a solution: There is much need in the world that we can address with your minds, hearts, and hands. Cause & effect o Order speech content into two main points: cause and effect This structure is useful for persuasive speeches that aim to convince listeners that certain consequences will allow from particular actions. Beneficial outcomes to service and mission trips Motivated Sequence Attention focuses listeners’ attention on the topic with a strong opening o “Imagine a mother with three young children and no home to live in.” Need shows that a real and serious problem exists o “Poverty makes it impossible for some people to afford homes.” Satisfaction a speaker recommends a solution to the problem described o “Habitat for Humanity was founded to assist people in building homes for themselves.” Visualization intensifies listeners’ commitment to the solution by helping them imagine the results that the recommended solution would achieve o “Here is a photo of Vivian Murphy standing in front of the home that she and 10 other students built in 2013” Call to action the speaker appeals to listeners to take concrete action to realize the recommended solution o “I urge you to call Habitat today and volunteer to help another Vivian have a home.”
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