Hist 1020 Final Exam Study Guide
Hist 1020 Final Exam Study Guide World history II
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Final Exam Study Guide Hist1020 1 D ATES November 9, 1989: End of WWII and tearing down of the Berlin Wall 1949: PRC began. 1978: mixed economy in the PRC. 1911: revolutionary events ended rule of emperors in China. The last ones were members of the Qing Dynasty 1912: Chinese National Party or GMD was renamed to People’s Republic of China (PRC). 1921: Chinese Communist Party created by Chen Duxiu. 1943: Moa Zedong becomes chairmen of communist china. 1937-1945: Japan invaded China; 2dSino-Japanese War. 1945-1949: Chinese Civil War. 1953-1958: First Five Year plan by Mao 1959-1962: Second 5 year plan by Mao (Great Leap Forward). 1966-1976: Cultural Revolution Spring 1979: democracy movement in china: Beijing Spring. June 3-4, 1989: Tiananmen Square democracy movement. 1840’s-50’s: The Purges. 1917: Cheka were founded 1954: Cheka renamed and reorganized into the KGB. 1953: purges ended with Stalin’s death. Each control gained full control over their own governments. 1956: Hungarian Revolution of 1956 1968: Prague Spring of 1968 December 1989: Nicholae Ceausescu was publically executed. 1975: Helsinki Accords signed by 35 governments. 1968: origins of the Plastic People of the Universe January 1977: Charter 77 December 1970: workers strikes broke out throughout Poland. 1976: KOR was formed. July 1980: more strikes and more rises in food prices in Poland. Summer 1980: KOR organized into committees. September 1980: Solidarity was founded. 1977: SS-20s were developed 1983: Ronald Reagan’s “star wars program” December 1988: Mikhail Gorbachev withdrew Soviet troops from Eastern Europe 1914-1918: WWI 1939-1945: WWII 1994: Dutch lost control of SA. Whites could only vote until this point. Apartheid completely ended. Talban was created. 1948: elections to the parliament of SA took place. These weren’t multi-racial but were multi-party. The two main parties were the Afrikaner Party and Reunited National Party. The two parties merged to make the National Party of South Africa. 1949: first Grand Apartheid law passed. Prohibition of mixed marriage act of 1949. 1950: immortality Act and population registration act 1951: Bantu Authorities act 1953: Reservation of separate amenities act and public safety act. March 21, 1960: Sharpeville Massacre 1962-1989: Nelson Mandela imprisoned. 1959: violent revolutions broke out in Rwanda 1962: Rwanda gained independence 1992: RPF tried to take over Rwanda government 1993: RPF and Hutus declared cease fire. April 1994: Tutsis took over the Rwanda government and genocide ended. 1700-1750: Durani Empire created and established the foundations of Afghanistan. 1919: Afghanistan gained control from the British. 1973: Mohammad Daoud Khan overthrew Shah Zahir. 1978: Saur Revolution and Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) September 1979: leader of the PDPA was killed by a member of the Mujahideen. December 1979: SU invaded Afghanistan. Beginning of Soviet-Afghan War. February 1989: end Soviet-Afghan War. May 14, 1948: Israel became independent. November 1917: Balfour Declaration 1936-1939: Great Uprising July 1946: King David Hotel Bombing October 1945: United Nations created November 1947: Resolution 181 November 1947-March 1949: First Palestinian War 1964: creation of the PLO 2 P EOPLE /G ROUPS Mao Zedong (1893-1976): first leader and creator of PRC Sun Yat-sen: leader of Chinese nationalist movement. He tightened up and transformed the movement into an official Chinese nationalist’s political party. Died in 1925 and replaced by Jiang Jeishi. Jiang Jieshi: very devoted to the GMD. Didn’t want political opponents. Chinese Communist Party emerged much to his dismay. Chen Duxiu: created the chinese Communist Party in 1921. Mao Zedong: follower of Chen Duxiu. In 1943 he became leader of the PRC; chairman of the communist party. Revised Leninism to make it work for China. Deng Xiaoping: (1904-1997) led economic reforms in 1978. One of the founding members of the communist party. Denounced Four Olds and replaced them with the Four Modernizations. Wei Jingshang: called for the fifth modernization. Xi Jinping: current leader of the PRC. Determined to build a powerful mixed economy and to maintain single-party rule which are hard to balance. Cheka: Soviet police; very brutal and trained the police in Soviet Eastern Europe the same way. Known for their interrogation methods. Founded in 1917 and forerunner to the KGB (1954). Laszlo Rajk: from a famous show trial during the purges. He was sentenced to hanging (in Hungary, his country). Found guilty of “being a spy”. Rudolf Slansky: Another famous show trial. He was from Czechoslovakia and sentenced to hanging. Judge revisited both trials and decided they were killed by accident so they were “rehabilitated” trials. Imre Nagy: led the freedom fighters in the Hungarian revolution of 1956. Alexander Dubcek: leader of the Prague Spring of 1968. Nicolae Ceausescu: an extremely hated man. He was the leader of the communist domain and wanted a large population under his control because he thought it would give him a strong army. He created a family policy which made him even more hated. Romania had high unemployment and was very impoverished but he and his wife were known to never wear the same thing twice. They also built the second largest building in the world for themselves. Publically executed in December 1989. Gustav Husak: Czechoslovakia’s new leader in the years following the Prague Spring. He was the main leader of the Czech communist party 1969-1987. Chosen by SU for his loyalty. He didn’t like dissidents. The Plastic People of the Universe: or PPOTU. This was a rock band that originated in Czechoslovakia in the 60s. This was a time of freedom for the Czechs. After the Prague Spring was crushed, they were made illegal to play as well as other rock bands because song were being critical of the SU. Communist leaders thought rock had a bad influence on young people, making them lose their morals. This didn’t stop them and they did play underground which was hard because of the crowds and loud music. They were caught before long. Magor, band members, and audience members were regularly arrested. This meant the Helsinki Accords weren’t being followed. Ivan Jirous aka “Magor”: leader of the PPOTU. Magor means blackhead. He was trained in art history which taught him the power of culture as a tool against injustice and used music as a tool for resistance. He was influenced by Frank Zappa. Vaclav Havel: leader and main author of the Chapter 77. He was the first president of Czech after the cold war and he was vitally important to the people. Edvard Gierek: leader of Polish communist party during the 70’s strikes. Lech Walesa: leader of the Solidarity. He was an electrician by trade. He was also elected president after the war. General Wojciech Jaruzelski: was put in charge of Poland in December 1981 by the SU to crack the whip on the Solidarity. Mikhail Gorbachev: last leader of the SU. He learned of the star wars program and decided that the SU couldn’t afford to participate in the space race and decided to end the arms race. By December of 1988, he withdrew his troops from Eastern Europe leaving nobody to stop the tearing down of the berlin wall. 3 types of people in SA: Whites (dutch and English; on top), coloreds (Indians and Asians who came to SA to work) and blacks (Africans/natives). Boers or Afrikaners: descendants of Dutch settlers. They didn’t get along well with the English and they competed for control over SA. English won the upper hand in the late 19 century. They gave up control after WWII so Dutch took over. Lost control of SA in 1994. Nelson Mandela: 1918-2013. Most famous leader of the African National Congress. He was arrested in 1962 for protesting and was sentenced to life in jail. He served 27 years, he was released in 1989 with the dismantling of the apartheid. 1993 he won the Nobel peace prize. Hutus: given worst work, least favored and sometimes bossed by Tutsis. Tutsis: looked more European to the Belgians (taller) so the Tutsis were favored by the Belgians and gave them privileges creating a division in the native population. Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF): Tutsis created this who wanted to return home from exile. They wanted to take back the government. Tried this in 1992. Shah: term for Afghani King Shah Amanullah Khan: first king of Afghanistan. He was a devout Muslim and modernizer. He did a lot of reforms and thought this was the key to staying independent. Was interested in women’s education for help educate their children, etc. he made elementary education required for both sexes and established co- educational schools. He also didn’t require women to wear a burqa. Sadly, because he tried to push so much change so fast, by the1920’s opposition grew and rebellion broke out in January; fundamentalists took over and civil war lasted until 1933. Shah Mohammad Zahir: reigned from 1933-1973 (starting age 19). This was a golden age for Afghanistan. He was also a modernizer except he knew rapid change was dangerous. SU and US competed for Afghan loyalty during his reign (he used this to his advantage). Mohammad Daoud Khan: Shah Zahir’s cousin who overthrew him while out of the country in 1973. He was a more radical modernizer and wanted quick change. He wanted a parliamentary rule and democratic government, a Republic to be specific. His republic was overthrown in 1978 with a violent revolution. Osama Bin Laden: led Al-Qaeda and was accused of the events on September 11, 2001. US tumbled the Taliban State. Palestinians: got their name from the territory, Palestine. This was within the Roman Empire in the old days and they adopted their religion from the Ottoman Empire (Muslim). Theodor Herzl: founder of Zionism. Born in Budapest but moved to Vienna (lots of anti-Semitism here) to raise his family. He was Jewish and didn’t want his children to live in a world where they were hated because of their religion. Arthur Balfour: wrote the Balfour Declaration, 1917 Yitzhak Shamir: leader of the Stern Gang. He became the prime minister of Israel after it was created. Menachem Begin: leader of terrorist group Haganah and also became a prime minister of Israel. Yassar Arafat: leader of PLO. Replaced by Mahmud Abbas 3 P LACES /G OVERNMENTS People’s Republic of China (PRC): began in 1949, still exists today and still a leading global power. Not the same as Republic of China. Aka Communist China. Government: Communist China: has a parliament elected by universal adult suffrage. There is only one political party that can run in elections. This is authoritarian! Economy: Command economy (everything controlled by the government) in 1949 but since 1978 (know this), the government of the PRC has begun to allow some changes in economy. They now allow some aspects of free enterprise which makes it a mixed economy (elements from 2+ types of economies). It was 1/3 free enterprise (most of the wealth) and 2/3 command. Communist Party of China: borrow largely from Lenin and Bolshevik. Hasn’t changed since 1949. Qing Dynasty: lasted from 1644-1911, Overthrown by Chinese nationalist movement. Chinese Nationalist Party or Guomindang (GMD): In 1912 Sun Yat-sen took over the government of China and renamed it to the Republic of China and lasted till 1949 when PRC became the new government (communist). Formosa: In Taiwan where Jiang Jieshi fled after the civil war and changed his name. He had harsh rule over Taiwan until 1975 where he loosened up and allowed multi-party elections and free enterprise. Democracy Wall: in Beijing (capitol), established by Deng. He didn’t want this to be used in this way. He wanted it to be used as a place to criticize Mao and Cultural Revolution. Eastern European Soviet Countries: East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. Yugoslavia escaped from the influence. All of these are authoritarian with a command economy. Shortage economy: shortage of basic goods. These were horrifically inefficient economies (command economy and shortage). Produce few goods of low quality. Pewex and Intershop: names of special access shops in Poland and Germany respectively. Poland, 1970: in December, workers strikes broke out. This shocked the Polish communist party because they thought they were representing and helping the workers. Strikes broke out when the government announced they were raising food prices when people were already struggling. The leader of the communist party, Edvard Gierek, didn’t try to throw them into jail. Instead, he tried to negotiate by making two promises: 1. Pay hike for workers, 2. more consumer goods would be made available like meats. He couldn’t live up to the second promise because of the bad economy and food grew even scarcer so opposition grew. More strikes happened in 1976 and this time he didn’t negotiate and he ordered strikers to be arrested (lessening income for families). A new group grew called KOR. Poland July, 1980: more strikes and more rises in food prices. Most organized and strongest center was Polish port city Gdansk (Danzig). Better organized after learning from previous strikes. Poland Summer, 1980: KOR organized into committees. These were called inter- factory strike committees. All factories throughout Poland came to have these and operated on local levels but did have representatives and national meetings. In Gdansk they created one unified body of striking workers to represent them all called the Solidarity. Africa: second largest and second most populated continent. Very diverse and has over 50 countries. South Africa: an area rich in natural resources like gold and diamonds. Europeans began to travel there in the 1600s. Dutch and English explorers were the first to settle here. Boers or Afrikaners: descendants of Dutch settlers. They didn’t get along well with the English and they competed for control over SA. English won the upper hand in the late 19 century. They gave up control after WWII so Dutch took over. Lost control of SA in 1994. Afrikaner Party: Dutch descendants. One of the main parties in the 1948 elections. Wanted the intensification of apartheid. Reunited National Party: another main party in the 1948 elections. Wanted intensification of apartheid. National Party of South Africa: Afrikaner Party and Reunited National Party joined in 1948 to make this large and powerful party. African National Congress: founded in 1912 to protest apartheid. Very active after WWII and began to protest in 1950s. Rwanda: genocide broke out here in 1994; the opposite ending of SA. Part of the Congo Free State. Two important groups: Hutus and the Tutsis. Belgians still had control after WWII. Violent revolution broke out in 1959. Belgians decolonized in 1962 and Rwanda became independent. Afghanistan: a landlocked Middle Eastern country. It is surrounded by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. Last three became independent of the SU in 1991. Rich with gold, silver, lithium, petroleum, etc. and primarily Muslim (religion is Islam, the god is Allah, and the book it the Quran). Fundamentalists: Muslims who are very traditional; greatest symbol is the burqa. Modernizers: new age and open Muslims; they want to reform and change with the times. Believe women should be educated and free to wear what they would like and should be social in public, unlike fundamentalists. Durani Empire: laid foundations for Afghanistan1700-1750. Kandahar: capitol of Durani Empire. Kabul: capitol shifted here in 1776. Have a history of flip flopping capitols. Kabul is present capitol. People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA): this was a political party that was created in 1973. They were Bolshevik in orientation so they were pro Soviet. They pulled Afghanistan into the SU and US rivalry which they had stayed out of previously. They established authoritarian rule and command economy. Most were atheists and didn’t want religion in politics. They arrested thousands of political opponents and they really angered the fundamentalists. In response, the Mujahideen arose. Mujahideen: fundamentalist Muslim group. Name comes from Arabic word Jihad (holy war). Wanted women back under the burqa and segregated society. September 1979, leader of the PDPA was killed by members. Worried SU so they invaded Afghanistan. Islamic State of Afghanistan: this was a fundamentalist state. Taliban: Didn’t think ISA was strong enough so they took over. Taliban brought more civil war. Taliban began in 1994. They were extremely fundamentalist and had their base in Kandahar. 1996 they took over the government. They created the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan: state created by the Taliban. Lasted until 2001. Women’s freedom was severely cut back and they returned to life behind the veil. Department for the Propagation of Virtue and the Suppression of Vice: basically religious police who were fundamentalist men making sure women were living in strict segregation. United Front: opponents of the Taliban and sometimes fought against them. Al-Qaeda: led by Osama Bin Laden. This helped the Taliban. Israel: became independent May 14, 1948. Palestine: in the Middle East and dates back to ancient times. Jews called this the “Promised Land”. Palestine has never really been independent but was a territory in the Ottoman Empire. World Zionist Organization: first met in 1897 in Basel, Switzerland. 200 people attended. Basel Program: name from the place it was founded. Called for the creation of an independent state for Jews (Palestine). Balfour Declaration: by Arthur Balfour. He was a British Diplomat and the British government promised to support the Zionist dream of creating an independent Jewish state after WWI. Announced in November 1917. United Nations: establish October 1945. British asked them to decide the fate of Palestine and 51 nations agreed to the creation of the United Nations. Knesset: Israel parliament created by multiparty rule but not multiethnic. Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO): created in 1964 in order to try and create an independent Palestinian state. Gaza Strip: West Bank, territory of the Israelis Gaza Strip Wall: west bank wall. Israeli government began to build walls around the border, separating from the Palestinians. This was also to cut them out from the best land and opportunities. 4 W ARS /C ONFLICTS /R EVOLUTIONS /M OVEMENTS nd 2 Sino-Japanese War: 1937-1945 (During WWII). Nationalists and communists cooperated to defeat Japan. Ended in September 1945 because Japan was defeated by the Big Three. Fighting resumed between the nationalists and communists. Chinese Civil War: 1945-1949. Chinese communists won over the nationalists and took over the government. Jiang Jieshi survived and fled to Formosa (Taiwan). Cultural Revolution: this was a reign of terror in which thousands died and millions persecuted. Began in 1966 and ended 1976 with Mao’s death. Wanted to get rid of the “Four Olds”. “The Red Guards”: young people in Chinese society who were loyal communist students. Believed they would make china a better place and many joined for opportunity. Known for uniforms and the “little red book”. Beijing Spring: in spring of 1979 in Beijing the capitol. Called for democracy and free speech. Deng didn’t like this so December 1979, he shut down democracy wall and arrested leaders of Beijing Spring. This remained suppressed through 1980s but reignited in 1989. Tiananmen Square: in Beijing, June 3-4, 1989. This called for democracy. Led by students. The government wouldn’t loosen up so June 3-4 they rolled tanks onto the square and squashed the movement. 100s died and 1000s injured. Hungarian Revolution of 1956: centered in capitol Budapest. This was one effort to overthrow single-party rule. Leader was Imre Nagy and he led a group called the freedom fighters. In Fall of 1956, it was cruelly crushed by Soviet tanks. Imre was arrested and killed. Prague Spring of 1968: in Prague, capital of Czechoslovakia. Was led by Alexander Dubcek. This was also cruelly squashed by tanks but in August 1968. Alexander was captured but not executed; he had to leave politics and live on the countryside. Also tried to stop single-party rule. Brontosaurus Movement: spoke out against pollution and the environment. Many were arrested and jailed. Ecology Club: in Poland, tried to make people aware of the black triangle and pollution. These people were also jailed quite often. WTU: Warsaw Treaty Organization or Warsaw Treaty Pact. This was under soviet domination and all had to contribute troops. NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Held countries of Western Europe together under command of the US. Still exists today. Dissident Movements: to disagree with the government. These emerged in the 70s and 80s. Started with the crushing of Prague Spring in 1968. Two important ones covered so far are the brontosaurus movement and the polish ecology club. Helsinki Accords: international document about human rights. Any government to sign was committing itself to protecting human rights. Signed in 1975 in Helsinki, Finland, by 35 governments. This spelled out what human rights meant: freedom of expression and right to live in freedom from fear of one’s government. The signing of papers didn’t translate to reality. Charter 77: important dissident movement. One of the 2 with the greatest impact. Got its name from a document that appeared in January 1977. This protects the rights of the plastics to play music of their choice aka human rights. The leader was Vaclav Havel. This reminded people of the Helsinki Accords. The government declared this illegal and Havel was arrested. Copies circulated and people bravely started signing the document (10,000 people and many were arrested). This contributed to the crumbling of communist rule and it kept hope alive. KOR: committee for the workers’ defense. This formed to help Polish striking workers. This was an important dissident group. This formed in 1976 with specific goals: 1. to collect funds for families of striking workers, 2. given to wives to feed the children, and 3. this kept men from feeling bad about striking. The members were students and intellectuals; this was a powerful combination. Gierek and others declared KOR illegal but they went underground and continued. This kept hope alive. Solidarity: one of the most important dissident movements next to Charter 77 in Europe. The leader was Lech Walsesa. Founded in September 1980. Communist party left them alone from September 1980 to December 1981 because they didn’t know what to do with them so this was a good time for the Poles. December 1981, SU told the government to crack the whip and General Wojciech Jaruzelski was put in charge of the polish government. He established Marshall Law so many were arrested but they didn’t stop. Nuclear missiles: heated up the arms race between the SU and US. SS-20s: a mobile nuclear missile by the SU making it hard for the US to find and track them. These were placed all over Eastern Europe. 1977 it was developed. Minute men missiles ICBMs: US responded to the SU threat and placed these all over Western Europe. Decolonization: this happened between WWI and WWII and accelerated in 1945. This was a process of European governments giving up their foreign lands and letting the indigenous government take control again. 3 problems: Economy: Europeans took all the valuable resources leaving African countries in poverty as well as low in supplies of food and clothing as well as poor housing and healthcare. Politics: left African countries with many political problems, many governments became authoritarians instead of democratic and many became corrupt and brutal. Racial/ethnic tensions and conflict: genocides. Maxim guns: guns used to control Africans. Sharpeville Massacre of March 21, 1960: This is a Bantustan where blacks were forced to live. Some blacks refused to carry their pass books which was a form of protest. The African National Congress organized this and the government squashed it using the public safety act of 1953. Many died and were arrested. Genocide: deliberate and systematic effort to wipe out a groups based on ethnic, racial or religious identity. Example: Nazi Holocaust and Cambodia in 1970s. Saur Revolution in 1978: Daoud was killed along with his family and a new political power arose: People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). Soviet-Afghan War: December 1979-February 1989. US began to arm the Mujahideen to fight the soviets and PDPA and then sent Stinger Missiles without the US public knowing. Mujahideen won in 1992 and created the Islamic State of Afghanistan. Zionism: Jewish Nationalism. A movement that grew into action and used anti- Semitism. Founder was Theodor Herzl and the desire was to create an independent state of Palestine. Great Uprising: 1936-1939. A major Palestinian uprising against the Jews. They used violence to scare them away; they even public places killing innocents. It was up to the British to put an end to this so in 1940 they tried to end the movement of Jews into Palestine. Stern Gang: aka Lehi Group. Leader was Yitzhak Shamir. This was a terrorist group that tried to push Jews out of Palestine. Haganah: another terrorist group of the Jewish. This branched into Irgun and was led by Menachem Begin. King David Hotel: most famous attack by Irgun/Haganah, headquarters of the British government. This was a bombing in July 1946. 91 people were killed and British pulled out in 1947. First Palestinian War: Nov 1947-March 1949. Began right after the announcement of resolution 181. The Israelis came out ahead on the war and this led to Palestinians fleeing to different countries. 5 L AWS /A GREEMENTS /P OLICIES First 5 year plan Mao used 1953-1958: Nationalizing of industry (making private industrial properties/resources of the state) and collectivization. Collectivization is a two-step process that pertains to farmland. 1. Private plots of land are taken away from private owners and given to the state (forcibly). 2. Combining plots of land into large lands of which peasants had to work. They often didn’t work hard because they had no incentive to do so. Barely effective. Second 5 year plan Mao used 1959-1962: Aka the Great Leap Forward. War supposed to bring about rapid and better industrial growth. Special attention was given to steel production. Wanted as much as possible. Collective farms were producing steel over food often. This was declared over after 4 years because it was a tremendous failure. Ended up known as the Great Leap Famine. Farms weren’t focused on growing food, no motivation due to no incentive and millions died of starvation and many turned to cannibalism. Four policies to modernize the Chinese economy: 1. De-collectivization: reverse of collectivization, allowing for some small private free-enterprise. 2. Opened to foreign investors. 3. Allowed for some free-enterprise in industry. 4. Promoted consumer goods. These were radical and very quick. The Purges: 1840’s and 50’s modeled on Stalin’s great purge of 1936-68 (tried to end political opposition). Goal: scare the population and intimidate into following the wishes of the rulers. Carried out using training from SU in police interrogation methods (Described in Misc. below). First thing that would happen is people would be arrested and then interrogated and tortured into confessing to something they didn’t do. Second they would be put on trial after confession which was public and used as show trials to scare the population; they were normally sentenced to death. Special access stores: needed to be member of the communist party in good standing. These had stocked shelves of all sorts of commercial goods and western goods. There were also special access restaurants, vacations, and hospitals. Open access stores: anybody could use these. They were minimally stocked, necessities were hard to find and usually each store sold one specific product. Lines were long and products like toilet paper and bread were hard to attain. Nicolae Ceausescu’s family policy: mandated that women under 45 were required by law to have at least 5 children. Used secret police of Romania to make sure it happened. Ordered police to give the women random gynecological exams. These doctors had to report findings to police. This was to see early pregnancy. Abortion was illegal. If a woman was discovered to have done such, she was jailed for 2 years. This was common. Birth control was illegal. Books about reproduction were illegal (state secrets). He outlawed abortion and birth control because he wanted the fetuses to be soldiers. Most couldn’t afford the children so they were sent to orphanages or barracks. Hundreds existed in the 70s and 80s. the kids lived in horrendous circumstances and had no physical or psychological nourishment. Policy of Microtransfusions: part of the family policies. This was to address male nourishment. He wanted Nicolae wanted orphans to be strong to make a strong army so he decided to strengthen them with small blood transfusions. This had no medical backing and the blood came from the Romanian army. HIV got into the blood supply and this became known in 1989. He continued the transfusions and declared it illegal to talk about HIV. Marshall Law: declared in Poland to get rid of Solidarity. This is military rule in Poland and led to thousands of arrests. Star wars program: by Ronald Reagan in 1983. This was a protective barrier of satellites to find coming missiles and deflect them. This scared the SU. Pass laws: laws to maintain power and domination by English in SA. Required that nonwhites in SA required passes on them at all times. These passes stated where these people could and couldn’t go so it restricted their freedom of movement in order to ensure only the whites (descendants of English and Dutch) could have the best land and resources. Became basis for a system of Apartheid that ruled Africa until 1994. Apartheid: separateness (apart is in the word; a way to remember!). Apartheid in SA was a system of legalized racial segregation between the descendants of the whites and the Africans and colored migrants at the end of the 19 century. Also a system of racial discrimination that aimed to secure privileges for the white at the expense of those who had colored skin. Not all whites wanted it to end. Some wanted to intensify it. Grand Apartheid: very deep racial segregation based on skin color. Began in 1948. First law passed in 1949. Prohibition of mixed marriages act of 1949: prohibited mixed marriage. Those who were already married were annulled and those who disobeyed were arrested. The immorality Act of 1950: Prohibited sexual relations between people of different skin colors. Population registration act of 1950: Required all people in SA e registered with the state according to one of three categories: Register as either white, black, or colored. Refined the old pass laws from late 19 cent., requiring all black and coloreds had to carry pass books that indicated where they could travel, limiting freedom of movement. Bantu Authorities Act of 1951: Established so called home lands or “Bantustans”. These were independent state units created for blacks and sometimes colored to live in. this was a system of forced resettlement. Territories where they were required to live were the worst lands in SA. Poor farming lands, no mines, and lack of water. Great poverty! Reservation of Separate Amenities act of 1953: Formalized the practice of whites’ only public services. Certain public services and areas were reserved for whites only (beaches, buses, swimming pools, etc. protests began in 1950. Public Safety Act of 1953: Passed by National parliament of SA to stop people from protesting. In a state of emergency, these people could be whipped, fines, arrested, imprisoned, etc. this didn’t stop protests. Resolution 181: United Partition Plan for Palestine, Nov 1947. Created by the United Nations. This recommended the creation of 2 separate states, one for the Palestinians and one for the Zionists. Neither side agreed to the Resolution specifically how the borders were created and wanted the state as a whole. 6 B OOKS The “Little Red Book”: Taken everywhere with the Red Guards. This was a book full of Mao’s quotes. 7 M ISCELLANEOUS /E XTRA INFO The Four Olds: things holding china back from modernization. Traditions he wanted to get rid of. This is was he said was the official reason but unofficially it served to eliminate those criticizing Mao and strike fear into the hearts of those who think that they might wasn’t to oppose him (similar to purge Stalin unleashed). The Four Modernizations: military, agriculture, industry, and science and technology. These replaced the four olds. Fifth modernization: called by Wei Jingshang. He was an electrician who wanted political modernization. This would be allowing freedom of speech and democracy. He called for this by presenting a poster on the democracy wall. Soviet police interrogation methods: police in Eastern Europe during the purges used methods of the feared soviet cheka. Very brutal and Cheka methods used to train the police. Cheka apparatus spied on the people. Black Triangle: region that borders of E. Germany, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. This area is rich was natural resources and the source of extreme pollution. This area was strip-mined for lignite, iron ore, and mined for uranium. These were heavily exploited. There was a ton of industry and factories in the area. High cases of lung cancer and mortality was very high. Studies of pollution were withheld. Lignite: brown soft coal, doesn’t require deep mining, early stages of formation, strip mining. This was also being used for power in the black triangle further polluting it. This also produced acid rain which contributed to massive death of wildlife, fish, and destroyed rock buildings and structures in surrounding areas. Dissident: to disagree. Someone who dissented or disagreed with the ruling communist party. To be dissident is a very brave thing and they were regularly arrested. Economic Dissatisfactions leading to the end of the cold war: 1. Command economies, 2. Very lousy economies (lack of motivation to produce goods), 3. Produce shortage economies (lack basic consumer goods), and 4. Gave attention to heavy industry in Black Triangle not consumer good production (coal, iron, steel). Burqa: an article of clothing fundamentalist women must wear; this covers their whole bodies like a sheet/ body veil. Shows how women have no rights, not even to their own bodies. Kibbutz: collective or communal farms. Jewish people who moved to Palestine started buying farm land and turning them over to a Kibbutz and feeding it to the Jewish newcomers. This displaced the Palestinian population. 8 P ROMISE Q UESTIONS 1949: PRC began Imre Nagy: Hungarian revolution leader November 9, 1989 : end of cold war WWI and WWII dates 1994 9 V IDEO A NSWERS “Freedom’s Fury” 1. Occupied by Nazi Germany then liberated by soviets in 1945. Many were arrested, killed and deported. 2. It was very important. It also gave them a rare sense of freedom. 3. Technical university and university of Budapest students. They crafted reform lists. They wanted democratic elections and freedom from soviets. 4. They tore it down. Thousands of people helped. This was a huge relief to them. 5. Americans encouraged them to fight on and told them they’re coming to help. 6. That is an insane amount. But Hitler had the same amount in the 40s to defeat the powers. 7. Before this, they hadn’t been in a pool in a month so they decided on new strategies. Started Nov 28 . On Dec 6 , the finals were against the soviets. The 2 captains clash in the first quarter. Very intense. Everyone started fighting after a soviet hit a Hungarian. The crowd got pissed when another Hungarian got hit and was bleeding like crazy and were ready to jump down and fight the Russians. Hungary won. “Kandahar” 1. She records things; it’s a tape recorder. 2. It came off of a dead body and it was a ring. 3. Nothing really. He gave the woman bread after looking at her mouth and eye through a hole in the curtain. 4. He is a black American. 5. They’re running after fake legs.
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