Psychology 100: Final Study Guide
Psychology 100: Final Study Guide PSYC 100
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Study Guide for PSYC100 (Final Exam) Comprehensive for Chapters 12, 13, 14, 15 Dr. Ann Renken Spring 2016 Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Important People Highlight = Important Term Chapter 12: Social Psychology Pg. 2 12.1 How Does Group Membership Affect People? Pg. 2 12.2 When Do People Harm or Help Others? Pg. 4 12.3 How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior? Pg. 6 12.4 How Do People Think About Others? Pg. 10 12.5 What Determines the Quality of Relationships? Pg. 12 Chapter 13: Personality Pg. 14 13.1 Where Does Personality Come From? Pg. 14 13.2 What Are the Theories of Personality? Pg. 18 13.3 How Stable Is Personality? Pg. 27 13.4 How Is Personality Assessed? Pg. 29 13.5 How Do We Know Our Own Personalities? Pg. 31 Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders Pg. 34 14.1 How Are Psychological Disorders Conceptualized? Pg. 34 14.2 Which Disorders Emphasize Emotions or Moods? Pg. 38 14.3 Which Disorders Emphasize Thought Disturbances? Pg. 43 14.4 What Are Personality Disorders? Pg. 46 14.5 Which Psychological Disorders Are Prominent in Childhood? Pg. 49 Chapter 15: Treatment 15.1 How Are Psychological Disorders Treated? Pg. 50 15.2 What Are the Most Effective Treatments? Pg. 55 15.3 Can Personality Disorders Be Treated? Pg. 57 1 Chapter 12 Notes: Social Psychology 12.1 How Does Group Membership Affect People? I. Social psychology: the study of how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions Humans have an overriding motivation to fit with the group. Interpersonal attachments motive have evolved for adaptive purposes. A. Social brain hypothesis(Dunbar) Dunbar claimed that human intelligence did not evolve primarily as a means to solve ecological problems, but rather as means of surviving and reproducing in large and complex social group II. People Favor Their Own Groups A. Formation of ingroup (Belong groups) andutgroups(Do not belong groups) C. Security from predators and assistance in hunting and gathering food. C. Better Mating opportunities i. Two conditions appear to be critical for group formation: a. Reciprocity: “If you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours” i. Reciprocity means that if Person A helps (or harms) Person B, then Person B will help (or harm) Person A. b. Transitivity “People generally share their friend’s opinions of other people” B. Outgroup homogeneity effect: the tendency to view outgroup members as less varied than ingroup members. C. Social identity theo the idea that in groups consist of individuals who perceive themselves to be members of the same social category and experience pride through their group membership. D.Ingroup favoritism: the tendency for people to evaluate favorably and privilege Members of the ingroup more than members of the outgroup.People are more willing to do favors for ingroup members or to forgive their mistakes or errors. The power of group membership is so 2 strong that people exhibit ingroup favoritism even if the groups are determined by arbitrary processes. a. Minimal group paradigm: The basis of group membership occurred even when the participants were told that the basis of group membership was arbitrary. b. Women show a much greater automatic ingroup bias toward other women than men do toward other women. E. Various brain regions (including the fusiform face area, the nucleus accumbens, the insula, and the amygdala) are differentially active when we consider ingroup versus outgroup members. F. The medial prefrontal cortex is less active when people are members of outgroups. II. Groups Influence Individual Behavior A. Social facilitation:the presence of others enhances performance. Occurs in other animals i. Zajonc’s model: Animals are predisposed to become aroused by the presence of others of their own species. Arousal leads animals to emit a dominant response. This model predicts that social facilitation can either enhance or impair performance. The change depends on whether the response that is required in a situation is the individual’s dominant response. I.e. Crowds do not distract professional players while they will distract amatuer players due to pressure. B. Deindividuation: reduced attention to personal standards when part of a group i. Stanford prison study: This experiment demonstrate what people are willing to do when put in a situation with defined social roles. C. Group decision making: RiskyShift Effect :Groups often make riskier decision than individuals do. i.group polarization the process by which initial attitudes of groups become more extreme over time. i. groupthink: the tendency of groups to make bad decisions when the group is under pressure, facing external threats, and is biased D. Social loafing: the tendency to work less hard in a group than when alone. Occurs when people’s efforts are pooled so that individuals do not feel personally responsible for the group’s output. III. People Conform to Others 3 A. Conformity: altering one’s beliefs/behaviors to match those of other people B. Influence: i. Normative influence occurs when people go along with the crowd to fit in with the group and to avoid looking foolish ii.nformational influence occurs when people assume that the behavior of the crowd represents the correct way to respond. Autokinetic Effect: Power of conformity in social judgement. C. Social norms: expected standards of conduct influence behavior D. The Asch and Sherif studies. i. groups enforce conformity, and those who fail to go along can be rejected. Ii People tend to conform to social norms, even when those norms are obviously Wrong. iii.) When do people reject social norms? Group Size too Small Lack of unanimity (Any dissent from majority opinion can diminish the influence of social norms. Anxiety of social exclusion (actually appeared as a signal in the amygdala IV. People Are Often Compliant A. Compliance: the tendency to do things requested by others: i. footinthedoor effect: Once people commit to a course of action, they behave in ways consistent with that commitment. ii. door in the face People are more likely to agree to a small request after they have refused a large request. iii. lowballing strategy Once a person has committed to an option, then deciding to do so by spending a bit more money does not seem like such a big decision. 4 V. People Are Obedient to Authority A. Milgram’s famous study demonstrated the tendency to follow the directions of authority. (Experimentee was a teacher administering shocks to conduct a test) Some situations produced less obedience i. Nearly twothirds completely obeyed all the experimenter’s directives. 12.2 When Do People Harm or Help Others? VI. Many Factors Can Influence Aggression A. Aggression: any behavior that involves the intention to harm another. Another factor that influences aggression is heat. B. Biological factors: i. Genetic research has identified the role of the MAOA gene in aggression: a. MAOA is not a “violence gene.” b. associated with amygdala and neurotransmitters(serotonin) C. MAOA gene controls the amount of MAO, an enzyme that regulates the activity of a number of neurotransmitters, including serotonin and norepinephrine. ii. The hormone testosterone also appears to have a modest correlation with aggression. However a particular form of the gene appears to make individuals susceptible to environmental risk factors associated with antisocial behaviors. iii ) The prefrontal cortex is important for controlling emotional and behavioral reactions. C. Social and cultural factors. i. culture of honor: Men are primed to protect their reputations through physical aggression. VII. Many Factors Can Influence Helping Behavior A. Prosocial: actions that tend to benefit others, such as doing favors or helping By providing benefits to others, prosocial behaviors promote positive interpersonal relationships. 5 B. Altruistic behavior: providing help when it is needed, without any apparent reward for doing so: Natural selection occurs at the genetic level rather than at the individual level. Inclusive Fitness (Hamilton’s): The adaptive benefits of transmitting genes rather than focusing on individual survival. People are altruistic toward those with whom they share genes, also known as kin selection. i. kin selection ii. reciprocal helping: Robert Rivers: One animal helps another because the other may return the favor in the future. VIII. Some Situations Lead to Bystander Apathy A. Bystander intervention effect: failure to offer help to someone in need if other bystanders are around. i. diffusion of responsibility: Bystanders expect other bystanders to help. Thus the greater the number of people who witness someone in need of help, the less likely it is that any of them will step forward. ii. social blunders: People feel less constrained from seeking help as the need for help becomes clearer. iii. wish to be anonymous people are less likely to help when they are anonymous and can remain so. iv. How much harm do they risk to themselves by helping? v. Kitty Genovese Murder Case 38 witnesses and still none of them could do anything to stop the murder. IX. Cooperation Can Reduce Outgroup Bias A. Sherif's Robbers Cave experiment: Among strangers, competition and isolation created enemies Among enemies, cooperation created friends. B. Shared superordinate goals — goals that require people to cooperate — reduce hostility between groups. C. Jigsaw classroom 6 i. Children in jigsaw classrooms grow to like each other more and develop higher selfesteem than do children in traditional classrooms. Dependent on one another to achieve a task as a group. Each person is specialized in one thing. 12.3 How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior? A. Attitudes are evaluations of: i. objects. ii. events. iii. Ideas. And are shaped by social context and play an important role in how we evaluate and interact with people. X. People Form Attitudes through Experience and Socialization A. Negative attitudes develop more rapidly than positive attitudes. In general, bad is always a stronger motivating force than good. B. Mere exposure effe ct: greater exposure leads to familiarity and therefore more positive attitudes. Ex: When people are presented with normal photographs of themselves and the same images reversed, they tend to prefer the reversed version because the reversed versions correspond to what people see when they look in the mirror. XI. Behaviors Are Consistent with Strong Attitudes In general, the stronger and more personally relevant the attitude, the more likely it is to predict behavior. The strong and personally relevant nature of the attitude will lead the person to act the same across situations related to that attitude. The more specific the attitude, the more predictive it is. ATTITUDE ACCESSIBILITY: The ease or difficulty that a person has in retrieving an attitude from memory. A. Ease of attitude accessibility predicts behavior resistant to change. XII. Attitudes Can Be Explicit or Implicit A. Explicit attitudes: because we know we hold them, we can report them to other people. 7 B. Implicit attitudes: at an unconscious level, they influence feelings and behavior. These influence feelings and behaviors because people can access these implicit attitudes from memory quickly with little conscious effort or control. In a way, implicit attitudes function like implicit memories. XIII. Discrepancies Lead to Dissonance A. Cognitive dissonance: Dissonance is a lack of agreement, occurs when there is a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior. i. an uncomfortable mental state ii. due to contradiction between two attitudes or between behavior and attitude iii. insufficient justification:One way to get people to change their attitudes is to change their behaviors first, using as few incentives as possible. iv. postdecisional dissonance: Dissonance can arise when a person holds positive attitudes about different options but has to choose one of the options. For example, a person might have trouble deciding which of many excellent colleges to attend. Post decisional dissonance then motivates to focus on one school’s the chosen school’s positive aspects and the other school’s negative aspects. v. justifying effort: When people put themselves through pain, embarrassment, or discomfort to join a group, they experience a great deal of dissonance. After all, they would typically not choose to be in pain, embarrassed, or uncomfortable. People dissolve dissonance by inflating the importance of the group and their commitment to it. “They have sacrificed so much to join a group, people believe the group must be extraordinarily important. XIV. Attitudes Can Be Changed Through Persuasion A. Persuasion is active and conscious effort to change attitude through transmission of message. Persuasion is most likely to occur when people pay attention to a message, understand it, and find it convincing. Most importantly, the message must be memorable. Strong arguments that appeal to emotions are the most persuasive. Advertisers also use the mere exposure effect, repeating the message over and over in the hope that multiple exposures will lead to increased persuasiveness. B. According to the elaboration likelihood model, persuasive communication changes attitudes through a: 8 i. central route: When people are motivated to process information and are able to take that information. People are paying attention to the arguments, considering all the information, and using rational cognitive processes. Leads to strong attitudes that last over time. ii. peripheral route: minimal attention to information leads to impulsivity. When people are either not motivated to process information or are unable to process it. This route leads to moreimpulsive action, as when a person decides to purchase a product because of endorsement 9 12.4 How Do People Think About Others? XV. Physical Appearance Affects First Impressions First thing to notice is typically the face of a person during an initial interaction A. Nonverbal behavior, otherwise referred to abody language , the facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others: Thin slices of behavio People can make accurate judgements based on only a few seconds of observation. Thin slices of behavior are powerful cues for impression formation. i. Accurate judgments can be based on brief observations. ii. Facial expressions and body movements influence impressions. XVI. People Make Attributions About Others A. Attributions: people’s explanations for why events or actions occur They are explanations for events or actions, including other people’s behaviors. People are motivated to draw inferences in part by a basic need for both order and predictability. B. Personal attributions:xplanations of people’s behavior that refer to their internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, or efforts These explanations refer to things within people, such as abilities, mood, or efforts. For example, you might assume that a firefighter saved the kitten because he is brave. C. Situational attribution explanations of people’s behavior that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or other people’s actions Fritz Heider and Harold Kelley has described people as intuitive scientists who try to draw inferences about others and make attributions about events. But unlike objective scientists, people tend to be systematically biased when they process social information. When explaining other people’s behavior, 10 people tend to overemphasize the importance of personality traits and underestimate the expectancy that people’s actions correspond with their belief and personalities. These explanations refer to outside events, such as luck, accident or the actions of other people. D. In explaining behavior, f undamental attribution error is the tendency to: i. overemphasize personality. ii. underestimate situation. E. Actor/observer discrepancy: i. In interpreting our own behavior, we focus on situation. ii. In interpreting others’ behavior, we focus on personality. Example: People tend to attribute their own lateness to external factors such as traffic. While they tend to attribute other’s lateness to personal characteristics such as laziness or lack of organization. XVII. Stereotypes Are Based on Automatic Categorization A. Stereotypes: mental shortcuts for rapid processing of social information B. As a result of directed attention and memory biases, people may see illusory correlations. Stereotypes guide attention toward information that confirms the stereotypes and away from disconfirming evidence. *Moreover when people encounter someone who does not fit a stereotype, they put that person in a special category rather than alter the stereotype. This latter process is known as subtyping. XVIII. Stereotypes Can Lead to Prejudice A. Prejudice : negative feelings, opinions, and beliefs associated with a stereotype B. Discrimination: inappropriate, unjustified treatment of people based on prejudice C. Ingroup/outgroup bias is the tendency to: i. positively evaluate groups we belong to. ii. negatively evaluate groups different from ours D. Modern racism: 11 Subtle forms of prejudice that coexist with the rejection of racist beliefs . Modern racists tend to believe that discrimination is no longer a serious problems and that minority groups are demanding too much societal change as in too many changes to traditional values. Ex: People may condemn racist attitudes toward Latinos but be unwilling to help a Latino in need. XIX. Prejudice Can Be Reduced A. Inhibiting stereotypes. i. In everyday life, inhibiting stereotyped thinking is difficult and requires selfcontrol. B. Perspective taking and perspective giving: i . Perspective taking involves people actively contemplating the psychological experiences of other people. Such contemplation can reduce racial bias and help to smooth potentially awkward interracial interactions. Taking another group’s perspective appears to reduce negative or positive stereotypes. ii. Perspective giving , in which people share their experiences of being targets of discrimination. 12.5 What Determines the Quality of Relationships? A. Relationships are connections with friends and with romantic partners. XX. Situational and Personal Factors Influence Interpersonal Attraction and Friendships A. Relationships are promoted by: i. proximity and familiarity. a. The more people come into contact, the more likely they are to become friends. The more often people come into contact with each other because they are physically nearby, they more likely they are to become friends. 12 ii Similarity or “Birds of a Feather” matching principle and personal characteristics a. People tend especially to like those who have admirable personality characteristics and who are physically attractive. iv. physical attractiveness. a. How people rate attractiveness is generally consistent across all cultures. B. “What is beautiful is good” stereotype; the belief that attractive people are superior in most ways Some standards of beauty, such as preferences for particular body types, appear to change over time and across cultures. Nevertheless, how people rate attractiveness is generally consistent across all cultures XXI. Love Is an Important Component of Romantic Relationships A. Passionate love: intense longing and sexual desire i. generally happens early in relationships B. Companionate love: strong commitment to caring for and supporting partner i. evolves in relationships C. Love in relationships may be related to early attachment styles from childhood days. (How their parents treated them and their attachment behavior) People whose parents treated them inconsistently—sometimes warm and sometimes not—have ambivalent attachments. These people are best described as clingy. They worry that people do not really love them and are bound to leave them. About 11 percent of adults report having this attachment style. XXII. Staying in Love Can Require Work If people do not develop companionate forms of satisfaction in their romantic relationships—such as friendship, social support, and intimacy—the loss of passion leads to dissatisfaction and often to the eventual dissolution of the relationship A. Dealing with conflict: i. being overly critical 13 ii. holding the partner in contempt (i.e., having disdain, lacking respect) iii. being defensive iv. mentally withdrawing from the relationship, arguing by only seeing things from one side of the relationship. B. Happy couples also differ from unhappy couples in attributional style. Attribution Style: how one partner explains the other’s behavior. Chapter Outline: Chapter 13 13.1 Where Does Personality Come From? A. Personality: a person’s characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors Consists of people’s characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors. Gordon Allport defines the classical definition of personality as “The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine the individual’s characteristics behavior and thought. Personality is both a coherent whole as well dynamic that it is goal seeking, sensitive to particular contexts and adaptive to the person’s environment. B. Personality trait: a pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that is relatively consistent over time and across situations. These traits are dispositions to think, act or feel in predictable ways in certain situations. I. Personality Is Rooted in Genetics A. There is overwhelming evidence that nearly all personality traits have a genetic component. i. Twin studies have found that genetic influence accounts for approximately half the variance (40–60 percent) between individuals for all personality traits as well as in specific attitudes that reflect personality traits, such as attitudes towards the death penalty, abortion on demand, and enjoyment pleasures. Ii. The genetic basis of the traits has been shown to be the same across cultures. These patterns persist whether the twins rate themselves or whether friends, family, or trained observers rate them . Identical twins raised apart are often as similar as, or even more similar than fraternal twins raised together. 14 B. Further evidence for the genetic basis of personality comes from adoption studies. i. Current evidence suggests that parenting style has much less impact than has long been assumed Ii The personality of adopted children bear no significant relationship to those of the adoptive parents. HOWEVER, Children raised with inadequate parenting are not socialized properly and therefore are much more likely to become delinquent or to display antisocial behavior. Thus, a minimum level of parenting is crucial, but the particular style of parenting may have less of an impact on personality. Ii. Small correlations in personality between biological siblings, or between children and their biological parents. There correlations are still larger than for adopted children. In other words, the similarities in personality between biological siblings and between children and their biological parents seem to have some genetic component. Why are children raised together in the same household so different? The lives of siblings diverge as they establish friendships outside the home. C. Research has revealed genetic components for particular behaviors: i. television viewing habits ii. getting divorced iii. opinions about capital punishment iv. appreciation of jazz a. Initial studies have found evidence that genes can be linked with some specificity to personality traits. i. Example: a particular dopamine receptor has been associated with novelty seeking, or the desire to pursue new experiences. ii. However, any links between specific genes and specific aspects of personality appear to be extraordinarily small. Not just one, but multiple genes contribute to personality. II. Temperaments Are Evident in Infancy A. Temperament: i. biologically based tendency to feel or act in ways that can predict adult personality. Genetic tendencies to feel or act in certain ways. 15 ii. activity level, emotionality, and sociability : temperaments that can be linked to personality traits. Temperaments are broader than personality traits. B. Three types of temperament: i. Activity level: is the overall amount of energy and of behavior a person exhibits. For example, some children race around the house, others are less vigorous, and still others are slow paced ii. Emotionality describes the intensity of emotional reactions. For example, children who cry often or easily become frightened, as well as adults who quickly anger, are likely to be high in emotionality. iii. Sociability refers to the general tendency to affiliate with others. People high in sociability prefer to be with others rather than to be alone These temperaments have been linked to people’s propensities to move to new locations. C. Temperament differences exist between girls and boys: i. Girls control their attention and resist their impulses. ii. Boys are more physically active and experience more highintensity pleasure. III. There Are LongTerm Implications of Temperaments A. Classification at age 3 predicted personality structure and various behaviors in early adulthood: i. Socially inhibited children were much more likely, as adults, to be anxious, to become depressed, to be unemployed, to have less social support, and to attempt suicide. ii. Individuals judged undercontrolled at age 3 were later more likely to be antisocial, to have alcohol problems, and to be criminals than those judged either well adjusted or inhibited. Iii. that early childhood temperaments may be good predictors of later 16 behaviors. IV. Personality Is Adaptive A. We might expect that personality traits useful for survival and reproduction have been favored. B. There is the possibility that animals, across circumstances, might display consistent individual differences in behaviors, and those individual differences might reflect underlying biological bases of personality. Summary 13.1 Where Does Personality Come From? ■ Personality is a person’s characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors. A personality trait is a pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that is relatively consistent over time and across situations. ■ The results of twin studies and adoption studies suggest tha40–60 percent of personality variation is the product of genetic variation. ■ Parents play an important role in selecting the environments that shape their children’s personalities. ■ Personality characteristics are influenced b multiple genes, which interact with the environment to produce general dispositions. ■ It isdifficultto identify the influence of specific genes on personality. Some traits, such as novelty seeking, have been linked to a gene associated with dopamine levels, and emotional stability has been linked to a gene associated with serotonin levels. ■ Temperaments, biologically based personality tendencies, are evident in early childhood and have longterm implications for adult behavior. ■ Sex differences exist in temperament. G irls are more able to control attention and impulses, and boys are more active and gain more pleasure from physical activity. 17 ■ Childhood temperaments can predict adult personality trait s.Personality traits that facilitate survival and reproduction are adaptive. Individual differences in personality within a group may be advantageous to the group’s survival. ■ Research has provided evidence of basic personality traits in nonhuman animals, suggesting that some traits are biologically based. 13.2 What Are the Theories of Personality? V. Psychodynamic Theories Emphasize Unconscious and Dynamic Processes A. Psychodynamic theory: the Freudian theory that unconscious forces determined behavior. The central premise of this theory is that unconscious forces, such as wishes, desires, and hidden memories determine behavior. B. Unconscious influences: Freud believed that conscious awareness was only a small fraction of mental activity. Conscious awareness represented the proverbial tip of the iceberg 18 i. conscious level: consists of the thoughts that people are aware of. ii. preconscious level consists of content that is not currently in awareness but that could be brought to awareness. iii. unconscious level contains material that the mind cannot easily retrieve, including hidden memories, wishes, desires, and motives. unconscious forces that drive behavior could produce conflict C. Personality structure: 19 i. id(seeks pleasure and avoids pain) exists at the most basic level: completely submerged in the unconscious. The id operates according to the pleasure principle, which directs the person to seek pleasure and to avoid pain Freud called the force that drives the pleasure principle the libido, or the energy that promotes pleasure seeking according to Freud. ii. superego (internalized standards of conduct) acts as a brake on the id. Largely unconscious the superego develops in childhood and is the internalization of parental and societal standards of conduct. It is a rigid structure of morality, or conscience iii. eg (mediates between id and superego) mediates between the id and the superego The ego tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego. The ego operates according to the reality principle, which involves rational thought and problem solving. Conflicts between the id and the superego lead to anxiety The ego then copes with anxiety through various defense mechanisms: unconscious mental strategies that the mind uses to protect itself from distress. D. Defense mechanisms : unconscious mental strategies that the mind uses to protect itself from distress According to contemporary researchers, however, these mechanisms do not relieve unconscious conflict over libidinal desires. Instead, defense mechanisms protect selfesteem. For instance, reaction formation occurs when a person wards off an uncomfortable thought about the self by embracing the opposite thought 20 E. Psychosexual stages: according to Freud, developmental stages that correspond to distinct libidinal urges; progression through these stages profoundly affects personality: i. oral (birth–18 months): The oral stage lasts from birth to approximately 18 months. During this time, infants seek pleasure through the mouth. Because hungry infants experience relief when they breastfeed, they come to associate pleasure with sucking ii. anal (2–3 years old) During this time, toilet training—learning to control the bowels—leads them to focus on the anus. iii. phallic (3–5 years old) They direct their libidinal energies toward the genitals. Children often discover the pleasure of rubbing their genitals during this time, although they have no sexual intent per se Oedipus complex Freud believed that children develop unconscious wishes to kill the one parent in order to claim the other parent. Children resolve this conflict by repressing their desires for the oppositesex parent and identifying with the samesex parent. That is, they take on many of that parent’s values and beliefs. iv. latency (brief stage following phallic) During this time, children suppress libidinal urges or channel them into doing schoolwork or building friendships. 21 v. genital. (adolescents and adults) Adolescents and adults attain mature attitudes about sexuality and adulthood. They center their libidinal urges on the capacities to reproduce and to contribute to society F. NeoFreudians i. focus less on sexual forces and more on social interactions between parent and child VI. Personality Reflects Learning and Cognition A. Internal locus of control and external locus of control B. Cognitivesocial theories emphasize how personal beliefs, expectancies, and interpretations of social situations shape behavior and personality. i. cognitiveaffective personality system (CAPS) a. selfregulatory capacities :refers to individuals’ relative ability to set personal goals, evaluate their progress, and adjust their behavior accordingly. B. people’s personalities often fail to predict their behavior across different circumstances. Instead, their responses are influenced by how they perceive a given situation, their affective (emotional) responses to the situation, their skills in dealing with challenges, and their anticipation of the outcomes of their behavior Personality represents behavior that emerges from the interaction of three factors: 1.) People’s interpretations of their social worlds, 2.) Their beliefs about how they will affect their social situations, 3.) Their beliefs about how they will be affected by their social situations. People with an internal locus of control believe they bring about their own rewards. People with an external locus of control believe rewards— and therefore their personal fates—result from forces beyond their control George Kelly (1955) emphasized how individuals view and understand their circumstances. He referred to such views and understandings as personal constructs: personal theories of how the world works. Kelly believed that people view the world as if they are scientists—constantly testing their theories by observing ongoing events, then revising those theories based on what they observe. According to Kelly, personal constructs develop through experiences and represent each individual’s interpretations and explanations for events in his or her social Worlds. 22 Conflicts between theories. Freudians had believed that personality is determined by unconscious conflicts. Behaviorists such as B. F. Skinner argued that personality is based on response tendencies, which are determined by patterns of reinforcement VII. Humanistic Approaches Emphasize Integrated Personal Experience A. Humanistic approaches: approaches to studying personality that emphasize how people seek to fulfill their potential through greater selfunderstanding: Humanistic approaches emphasize personal experience, belief systems, the uniqueness of the human condition, and the inherent goodness of each person i.aslow emphasized selfactualization. ii.Carl Rogers emphasized unconditional positive regarding: a. personcentered approach emphasized people’s subjective understandings of their lives b. unconditional positive regard: parents should accept and prize their children no matter how the children behave. c. fully functioning person: Can fulfill basic functions in society VIII. Trait Approaches Describe Behavioral Dispositions Psychodynamic and humanistic approaches seek to explain the mental processes that shape personality A. Personality types: discrete categories of people based on personality characteristics. B. Trait approach: focuses on individuals’ differences in personality traits. C. Fivefactor theory (OCEAN) (AKA The Big Five): i. openness to experience ii. conscientiousness iii. extraversion 23 iv. agreeableness v. neuroticism D. The Big Five emerge across cultures, among adults and children E. The Big Five factors can be reliably discriminated based on patterns of brain activity. 24 F. Biological trait theory (Eysenck): Biological Trait Theory: proposed that personality traits had two major dimensions: introversion/extraversion and emotional stability i. introversion/extraversion: Introversion refers to how shy, reserved, and quiet a person is. Extraversion refers to how sociable , outgoing, and bold a person is. ii. emotionally stable/neurotic Emotional Stability refers to variability in a person’s moods and emotions A person who is more emotional may be considered neurotic. Psychoticism reflects a mix of aggression, poor impulse control, selfcenteredness, and a lack of empathy. iii. high constraint/low constraint 25 Arousal, or alertness, is regulated by the reticular activating system (RAS). The RAS affects alertness and is also involved in inducing and terminating the different stages of sleep. Resting levels of the RAS are higher for introverts than for extraverts. Extraverts are chronically underaroused. G. Behavioral approach and inhibition systems i. (BAS)behavioral approach system : the brain system involved in the pursuit of incentives or rewards, the “go” signal system. Extroverts are more influenced by rewards than by punishments and tend to act impulsively. ii. (BIS)behavioral inhibition system : the brain system that is sensitive to punishment and therefore inhibits behavior that might lead to danger or pain, the “stop” signal system BIS is linked to neuroticism , leading to anxiety and negative thinking 26 SUMMARY 13.2 According to Freud’s psychodynamic approach, mental activity can be c onscious, preconscious, or unconscious, with unconscious forces primarily determining behavior. Freud argued that personality consists of three structures: the id, the superego, and the ego. The ego mediates between the id and the superego, using defense mechanisms to reduce anxiety due to conflicts between the id and the superego. Freud proposed that people pass through f ive stages of psychosexual development and that these stages shape personality. In contrast to Freud, neoFreudians have focused on relationships —in particular, children’s emotional attachments to their parents. There is little empirical support for Freud’s theories. According to sociallearning theories, people learn patterns of responding that are guided by their personal constructs, expectancies, and values. Humanistic theories emphasize experiences, beliefs, and inherent goodness. Rogers’s personcentered approach suggests that unconditional positive regard in childhood enables people to become fully functioning. 27 13.3 How Stable Is Personality? IX. People Sometimes Are Inconsistent Social psychologists, who emphasize situational forces vs personality psychologists, who focus on individual dispositions. A. Situationism: the theory that behavior is determined more by situations than by personality traits B. According to situationists, behavior: i. is determined more by situations than by personality. ii. cannot be reliably predicted without understanding the situation. X. Behavior Is Influenced by the Interaction of Personality and Situations A. Interactionists: theorists who believe that behavior is determined jointly by situations and underlying dispositions B. According to interactionists, behavior is determined jointly by: i. Situations and four personality traits. XI. Personality Traits Are Relatively Stable over Time A.“Up” documentary series film i. interviewed at ages 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 Continuity over time and across situations is inherent in the definition of trait, and most research finds personality traits to be relatively stable over the adult life span B. Personality consistency is lowest in childhood and highest after age 50. C. McCrae and Costa’s model of personality: i. Basic tendencies are dispositional traits determined largely by biological processes. As such, they are very stable. ii. Characteristic adaptations are adjustments to situational demands. 28 XII. Development and Life Events Alter Personality Traits A. Individual personalities remain relatively stable over time. B. The pattern of personality changes across ages holds in different cultures. C. Personality changes occur as a consequence of the expectations and experiences associated with agerelated roles, such as becoming a spouse, a parent, or an employee. XIII. Culture Influences Personality A. The Big Five personality traits are crosscultural. B. Crosscultural personality differences do not necessarily match cultural stereotypes. C. Differences between men and women: i. largely support cultural stereotypes. ii. are greater in individualistic societies. SUMMARY 13.3 How Stable Is Personality? ■ According to Mischel’s notion of situationism situations are more important than traits in predicting behavior. The person/situation debate revolves around whether personality traits or situations are more important in predicting behavior. Research suggests that when evaluated over time, personality traits do predict behavior. ■ Interactionism maintains that behavior is determined by both situations and dispositions. Most trait theories adopt an interactionis view. ■ Strong situations, such as funerals, largely dictate behavior and mask differences in personality. Weak?
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