final COM study guide
final COM study guide 101- Communications
Popular in The World of Communication
Popular in Communication Studies
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by tanillemonica on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101- Communications at Boston University taught by Tammy vigil in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see The World of Communication in Communication Studies at Boston University.
Reviews for final COM study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/02/16
Ch 7- Ethics Ethics - Codes that you can be chastised or punished for breaking, adopted by society, no clear punishment, expectations for behavior, expected to abide by Meta ethics - Attempts assign meanings to the abstract language of philosophy Normative ethics - Provides the foundation for decisions making through the development of general rules & and principals of moral conduct. Applied ethics - Using these theoretical norms to solve real-world ethical problems. Kenneth Andrews - Ethical decisions require 3 qualities (1) Competence: recognize ethical issues & think through the consequences (2) Self-confidence: see different POVs & determine what is right per each situations place & time, circumstances & relationships (3) Tough-mindedness: willingness to makes decisions when being pressed for answers Categorical imperative - You never or you always Progressive relativism - (contextual) an act may be good/ right in one situation but not in another Classical ethical theory Teleological ethics - Emphasizes the consequences of an act or decisions Deontological ethics - emphasizes the nature of an action or decision Law Vs Ethics - Law: right & wrong - Ethics: good & bad Ethical egoism - Putting yourself first is ethical Best decision is the one that helps self Act utilitarianism - The act that benefits the majority Rule utilitarianism - The best rule that benefits the majority Hedging - Backing off language/ saving self-language Chapter 8- COM Law & Regulation Chilling effect - Jailing journalist & editors, silencing them, and warning/ scaring others who may be tempted to write on similar topics Alien & Sedition Acts - Prohibited spoken & written criticism of the US govt & imposed penalties, fine or imprisonment, upon conviction Clear & present danger - A test conducted by the authorizes of the criminal- law- enforcement & judicial system rather than regulatory authorizes Prior restraint - Govt has the power to suppress published or broadcast material if suspected to of libel or harmful Preferred-positon balancing - A balance must be struck between speech and other rights, but speech is given a preferred position Shield Laws - Laws intended to protect journalist from legal challenges to their freedom to report news. Censorship - Act of prohibiting certain expression or content , a form of prior restraint, instead of an prohibiting the entire publication it targets content within the publication Telecommunications act of 1996 - Curbs indecent speech online Obscenity st - Forms of speech that is unprotected by the 1 amendment & thus subject to censorship by the government FCC - Federal Communication Commission Communication regulatory body on a federal level of the USA Equal- Time rule - Broadcasters must give running political candidates equal air time Fairness doctrine - Requires broadcasters to seek out and present all sides of an issue when covering a controversy Patents - Intended to protect a specific form intellectual property, Inventions, prohibits anyone from copying the invention, pattern, or design Trademark - Images, designs, logos, words, or phases, working similarity to patents ex: the word dope on clothing 1 amendment - Congress will makes no law prohibiting nor restricting the freedoms listed with the amendment, freedom to press, speech, etc. BUT NOT WITHOUT restrictions Fair use - Copyright grants the owner the exclusive right to reproduce, distribute, perform, displace, or license that work but fair use can be used for expression legally through fair use if: (1) Purpose & nature of use is proven commercial, educational, or news (2) The character of the copyright work (3) The amount & extent of the excerpt used (4) The effect of the copyright work market potential Slander - Spoken word, statements made that are damaging to a person’s reputation. Libel - Written word, statements made that are damaging to a person’s reputation Chapter 10- mass media Convergence - When content that has been confined appears on one medium then appears on multiple media mediums Audience fragmentation - When ppl watch & find new channel, and the result is that there is less people using only one of them Mass production process - Creates the potential for reaching millions, billions, diverse anonymous ppl at the same time Media literacy - The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate ideas in a variety of forms - Interpreting media as text Emerging media -developing media and the ideas, behaviors, and communications Intertextuality - How does the text connect others Def of communication- how has it changed? Transmedia - Blending fiction & reality Ch 11- cyberspace Cyberspace - A series of symbolic definitions or tropes that constitute a network of ideas as much as the communications of bits. Internet - Network of networks, a system of hardware and software that permits connecting w/ others through wireless tranmission Big data - Research, study, analyze effects, used to understand/ guesstimate, the opinions of a society Digital divide - Only information collected for big data is those submitted by users on social media Cybernetics - The science of control theory applied to complex systems, and was defined as the science of control or communication - Cyberchase: a complex system of fields or possibilities that will adapt and change and redirect in order to continue functioning. Cyberspace & Cyberculture - Cyberculture: deals w/ themes around configurations, representations, and perceptions of bodies and identities Technological determination - Tech determines effects of society Social constructivism - Tech is not autonomous, we have agency Digital distribution Ch 13/14 TV/ film - How are new tech changing the way in which we interact w/ film/ tv/film Product integration (placement) - When shows incorporate products into their shows, most are paid advertising Warrens lawrence Syndication - Think of Re-runs, When networks buy another’s tv networks shows to fill in on their network’s tv schedule, the shows that are brought may be off air while some may still be in production. Ex: the big bang theory reruns on TBS but has new episode on CBS, and Friends. on Nick at nite Neilson ratings - A system developed that measures the trafficking of viewers to networks through ratings determining popularity and classifying public interest Sweep months - February, May, July, November - The months when networks are trying their hardest to get their viewers to watch b/c their ratings are measured and their funding is affected by it The pilot of a show wants to: - Entertain, hook, & display struggles the character may go through Components of a TV show (1) Genre (2) World of the show (3) Characters (4) Tone (5) Theme Character development: characters must be: (1) Real (2) Relatable (3) Exaggerated (4) flawed Cinematography - The study of light & shadow and how lighting affects the setting and mood Persistence of vision - The human eye perceives the individual frames as a single continuous motion Cinema - Vast knowledge of film history. Florence Lawrence th - A 20 century independent film star of the film the Biograph Girl was reported by newspapers that she killed in a car crash, but it was all a film publicity stunt Ch 9 mass media Steam - Machine generated power source: steam engine Steam engine + advertising= penny press Increase in literacy>> newspapers Advertising - Demand for goods increased the demand for advertising & subscription, audience increases Railroads - Ppl could travel across the country Telegraph - Early phone invention, a message delivered in seconds Civil war - Society demands news, newspaper readers up Urbanization -easier to dispense news to a concentrated populations Ch 15- journalism News - About an event that affects the public in some way, or has some limit of public interest Soft news - Editors feel nothing is new worthy and will turn to topics of the public interest Penny press - 1 mass produced news, news was searched for vs being brought to them James Gordon Benett - Founder of the New York Herald Objectivity - Impartialness When determining what will be in the paper editors consider: (1) Oddity/weirdness (2) Timeliness (3) Proximity (4) Prominence (5) conflict Ben frank - created one of the first newspapers in the country w/ his brother and criticized the public and officials Edward Murrow - Achieved fame by broadcasting dramatic radio newspaper reports from London Yellow journalism - Muckrakers - Journalist like Ida Tarbell, Upton Siclair , etc. pioneered investigative reporting of corrupt practices & problems in govt or businesses Agenda setting - Attention implies importance, amount of coverage, repetition, does not tell us what to think but encourages us to think about certain topics more, what we should be thinking about Beat - subject area writer/ journalist would specialize in Priming - piquing interest, establishes expectations Framing - how we talk about the presented issue, given a pov to analyze, sets parameters of discussion Electronic new gathering (ENG) - equipment allowed journalist in the field to capture and send videotaped news by satellite Cognitive dissonance - When there is two logical understandings conflicting w each other. Hypocrisy falls in line w/ it Ex: father tells his son not to smoke but he smoke a pack a day Consonance V. Dissonance - Connection/ relationship V. disconnect - We seek consonance Ch 12 Similarity attraction theory - We are drawn to ppl who seem to share our interests values, attitudes, & personality Intimate - Type of interpersonal relationship that is characterized by strong emotional bonding, closeness, interdependent, where they meaningfully influence each other Attachment theory - Development of social and emotional motivations, personality, and psychopathology, the intimacy present in one’s relationships and the role of attachment throughout one’s lifespan Halfalouge - Hearing only half of the conversation Perception theory 7 types of love (1) Liking: intimacy w/out passion or commitment (2) Infatuated love: passion w/out intimacy or commitment (3) Empty love: commitment w/out intimacy or passion (4) Romantic love: passion & intimacy w/out commitment (5) Companionate love: intimacy & commitment w/out passion (6) Fatuous love: passion & commitment w/out commitment (7) Consummate love: intimacy, passion, & commitment Connecting bids - Any attempt to engage another person in a positive transaction Knapps model (1) Initiation (1 required stage of relationship) - A very brief stage - Only includes the initial meeting - Low in amount & low in intimacy- most measures insignificant (2) Experimenting (Growth) - High amount, low intimacy, positive valance, high intent, veracity varies } information given fairly superficial disclosure - Touch is introduced (3) Intensifying (Growth) - Medium amount, increased intimacy, mixed valance, high intent, veracity varies - As we grow relationships we tend to share more honestly (4) Integrating (Growth) - Becoming one (we, us, pair= unit, 2 for 1,couple) - Medium amount, higher intimacy, mixed valence, mixed intent, higher veracity - Spending a lot of time together, know each other well (5) Bonding - Ritual &/or presentation to the society that displays that they are together - Moderate amount, high intimacy, mixed valence, mixed intent, high veracity (6) Differentiation (decline) - There is an interpersonal pair that has reached the bonding stage, recognize that the pair is disrupting the individuality – seeking their independence in self but not terminating pair - Positive; moderate amount, high intimacy, mixed valence, mixed intent, high veracity (7) Circumscribing (decline) - Actively trying to cut the other person out your life less concerned about pair more concerned w/ individual - lower amount & intimacy, more negative, valence, higher intent, lower veracity - still some effort towards the relationship (8) Stagnating (decline) - Not doing anything to actively change the relationship, doing the minimum to maintain the relationship as it is.- no more or no less - Staying in the relationship w/ no movement, no effort, nothing new - Low amount & intimacy, more negative, low intent, low veracity (9) Avoiding (decline) - Trying not to communicate w/ other - Low amount to the point where the rest doesn’t matter nd (10) Terminating (2 required stage of relationship) - Usually brief – the ending point - Sometimes not explicitly stated - Disclosure is often low in amount, veracity, intimacy, ( although this measure is highly contextual) high in intent & varies on valence (usually negative but not always) Information gathering - Passive gathering The information is not sought out, it comes to you - Active gathering You are seeking out information but do not go directly to the source, seek rd out a 3 party method - Interactive gathering Going directly to the source to find out the information Miscommunication/ compatibility - Male v. female Men default: task oriented, Women default relationship oriented 3 types of interpersonal communication based on goals (1) Task oriented- trying to do something (2) Relationship oriented: to being, end, or maintain a relationship (3) Image oriented: attempt to get someone to think of you in a particular way 6 influences in an interpersonal exchanges (Dean Barnlund) (1) Perception of self (2) Perception of the other (3) Perception of what you think the other thinks of you (4) Other’s self-perception (5) Other’s perception of you (6) Other’s perception of what they think you think of them Fundamental attribution error - Good things that happen to ppl we like or self – blame personal characteristics - God things happen to ppl we don’t like – blame external factors - Bad things to pp we like- blame environment - Bad thing happen to ppl we don’t like- blame personal characteristics Levels/measure of disclosure - Amount: how much information is shared - Intimacy: how personal is that information - Valence: is info positive or negative - Intent: did you mean to disclose - Veracity: how truthful is info shared Ch 6 Aristoloian persuasion - Persuasion is primarily conveyed using ethos, pathos, and logos Inartistic proofs - Outside pieces brought into a message to strengthen it: stats, quote Artistic proofs: - Created through the message Ethos: always created through the message Credibility/ trust Competence Topic Communicative Likeability Power Pathos Emotion/ values Logos Reasoning/ facts: stats, experts, structure of speech Relational perspective - How communication between two or more people is observed for a common communicated perspective that in the end will be understood and beneficial to all Relational approach - Examines communication form a transactional or co-orientational perspective Communibiology - Is a research paradigm that focuses specifically on the neurobiological foundations of human communication behavior Cultivation - Expectation- based- cultural norms- culturally taught to expect Rhetoric - All arguments are based on probabilities
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'