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BU / Communications / CM 101 / When determining what will be in the paper editors consider?

When determining what will be in the paper editors consider?

When determining what will be in the paper editors consider?

Description

School: Boston University
Department: Communications
Course: The World of Communication
Professor: Tammy vigil
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: final COM study guide
Description: i put important terms and concepts we have learned from ethic until interpersonal communiction. I wish you the best of luck :)
Uploaded: 05/02/2016
13 Pages 60 Views 4 Unlocks
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Ch 7- Ethics


When determining what will be in the paper editors consider?



Ethics

- Codes that you can be chastised or punished for breaking, adopted by  society, no clear punishment, expectations for behavior, expected to abide by

Meta ethics

- Attempts assign meanings to the abstract language of philosophy  Normative ethics

- Provides the foundation for decisions making through the development of  general rules & and principals of moral conduct.  

Applied ethics

- Using these theoretical norms to solve real-world ethical problems.  Kenneth Andrews

- Ethical decisions require 3 qualities

(1) Competence: recognize ethical issues & think through the consequences  (2) Self-confidence: see different POVs & determine what is right per each  situations place & time, circumstances & relationships


How are new tech changing the way in which we interact w/ film?



(3) Tough-mindedness: willingness to makes decisions when being pressed for answers  Don't forget about the age old question of What was the primary reason for the rise in importance of the axum kingdom?

Categorical imperative

- You never or you always

Progressive relativism

- (contextual) an act may be good/ right in one situation but not in another Classical ethical theory

Teleological ethics

- Emphasizes the consequences of an act or decisions

Deontological ethics

- emphasizes the nature of an action or decision

Law Vs Ethics

- Law: right & wrong  

- Ethics: good & bad

Ethical egoism

- Putting yourself first is ethical

Best decision is the one that helps self


How lighting affects the setting and mood persistence of vision?



Act utilitarianism

- The act that benefits the majority

Rule utilitarianism

- The best rule that benefits the majority

Hedging

- Backing off language/ saving self-language

Chapter 8- COM Law & Regulation

Chilling effect

- Jailing journalist & editors, silencing them, and warning/ scaring others who  may be tempted to write on similar topics We also discuss several other topics like Who does bulimia nervosa affect?

Alien & Sedition Acts

- Prohibited spoken & written criticism of the US govt & imposed penalties, fine or imprisonment, upon conviction

Clear & present danger

- A test conducted by the authorizes of the criminal- law- enforcement &  judicial system rather than regulatory authorizes

Prior restraint

- Govt has the power to suppress published or broadcast material if suspected  to of libel or harmful

Preferred-positon balancing  

- A balance must be struck between speech and other rights, but speech is  given a preferred position

Shield Laws

- Laws intended to protect journalist from legal challenges to their freedom to  report news.

Censorship

- Act of prohibiting certain expression or content , a form of prior restraint,  instead of an prohibiting the entire publication it targets content within the  publication Don't forget about the age old question of Which functional assessment technique involves outlining a child’s typical day and planned activities?

Telecommunications act of 1996

- Curbs indecent speech online

Obscenity

- Forms of speech that is unprotected by the 1st amendment & thus subject to  censorship by the government

FCC

- Federal Communication Commission

 Communication regulatory body on a federal level of the USA Equal- Time rule

- Broadcasters must give running political candidates equal air time  Fairness doctrine

- Requires broadcasters to seek out and present all sides of an issue when  covering a controversy  

Patents

- Intended to protect a specific form intellectual property, Inventions, prohibits  anyone from copying the invention, pattern, or design

Trademark

- Images, designs, logos, words, or phases, working similarity to patents ex:  the word dope on clothing

1st amendment

- Congress will makes no law prohibiting nor restricting the freedoms listed  with the amendment, freedom to press, speech, etc. BUT NOT WITHOUT  restrictions

Fair use

- Copyright grants the owner the exclusive right to reproduce, distribute,  perform, displace, or license that work but fair use can be used for expression legally through fair use if: If you want to learn more check out What is social surplus?

(1) Purpose & nature of use is proven commercial, educational, or news (2) The character of the copyright work

(3) The amount & extent of the excerpt used

(4) The effect of the copyright work market potential  Don't forget about the age old question of What it means to be part of the west today?

Slander

- Spoken word, statements made that are damaging to a person’s reputation.  Libel

- Written word, statements made that are damaging to a person’s reputation  

Chapter 10- mass media

Convergence

- When content that has been confined appears on one medium then appears  on multiple media mediums

Audience fragmentation

- When ppl watch & find new channel, and the result is that there is less people using only one of them  

Mass production process

- Creates the potential for reaching millions, billions, diverse anonymous ppl at  the same time

Media literacy  

- The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate ideas in a variety  of forms

- Interpreting media as text

Emerging media

-developing media and the ideas, behaviors, and communications Intertextuality

- How does the text connect others

Def of communication- how has it changed?

Transmedia

- Blending fiction & reality  

Ch 11- cyberspace

Cyberspace We also discuss several other topics like What is cell shape determined by?

- A series of symbolic definitions or tropes that constitute a network of ideas as much as the communications of bits.

Internet

- Network of networks, a system of hardware and software that permits  connecting w/ others through wireless tranmission

Big data

- Research, study, analyze effects, used to understand/ guesstimate, the  opinions of a society

Digital divide

- Only information collected for big data is those submitted by users on social  media

Cybernetics

- The science of control theory applied to complex systems, and was defined as the science of control or communication

- Cyberchase: a complex system of fields or possibilities that will adapt and  change and redirect in order to continue functioning.

Cyberspace & Cyberculture

- Cyberculture: deals w/ themes around configurations, representations, and  perceptions of bodies and identities  

Technological determination

- Tech determines effects of society  

Social constructivism

- Tech is not autonomous, we have agency

Digital distribution

Ch 13/14 TV/ film

- How are new tech changing the way in which we interact w/ film/ tv/film

 Product integration (placement)

- When shows incorporate products into their shows, most are paid advertising  Warrens lawrence

Syndication

- Think of Re-runs, When networks buy another’s tv networks shows to fill in on their network’s tv schedule, the shows that are brought may be off air while  some may still be in production.  

Ex: the big bang theory reruns on TBS but has new episode on CBS,  and Friends. on Nick at nite

Neilson ratings

- A system developed that measures the trafficking of viewers to networks  through ratings determining popularity and classifying public interest

Sweep months

- February, May, July, November

- The months when networks are trying their hardest to get their viewers to  watch b/c their ratings are measured and their funding is affected by it

The pilot of a show wants to:

- Entertain, hook, & display struggles the character may go through Components of a TV show

(1) Genre

(2) World of the show

(3) Characters

(4) Tone

(5) Theme

Character development: characters must be:

(1) Real

(2) Relatable

(3) Exaggerated

(4) flawed

Cinematography  

- The study of light & shadow and how lighting affects the setting and mood Persistence of vision

- The human eye perceives the individual frames as a single continuous motion Cinema

- Vast knowledge of film history.

Florence Lawrence

- A 20th century independent film star of the film the Biograph Girl was  reported by newspapers that she killed in a car crash, but it was all a film  publicity stunt

Ch 9 mass media

Steam

- Machine generated power source: steam engine

 Steam engine + advertising= penny press

∙ Increase in literacy>> newspapers

Advertising

- Demand for goods increased the demand for advertising & subscription,  audience increases  

Railroads

- Ppl could travel across the country

Telegraph

- Early phone invention, a message delivered in seconds

Civil war

- Society demands news, newspaper readers up

Urbanization

-easier to dispense news to a concentrated populations

Ch 15- journalism

News

- About an event that affects the public in some way, or has some limit of  public interest

Soft news

- Editors feel nothing is new worthy and will turn to topics of the public interest Penny press

- 1st mass produced news, news was searched for vs being brought to them James Gordon Benett

- Founder of the New York Herald

Objectivity

- Impartialness  

When determining what will be in the paper editors consider:

(1) Oddity/weirdness

(2) Timeliness

(3) Proximity

(4) Prominence

(5) conflict

Ben frank

- created one of the first newspapers in the country w/ his brother and  criticized the public and officials

Edward Murrow

- Achieved fame by broadcasting dramatic radio newspaper reports from  London

Yellow journalism

-

Muckrakers

- Journalist like Ida Tarbell, Upton Siclair , etc. pioneered investigative reporting of corrupt practices & problems in govt or businesses

Agenda setting

- Attention implies importance, amount of coverage, repetition, does not tell us what to think but encourages us to think about certain topics more, what we  should be thinking about

Beat

- subject area writer/ journalist would specialize in

Priming  

- piquing interest, establishes expectations

Framing

- how we talk about the presented issue, given a pov to analyze, sets  parameters of discussion

Electronic new gathering (ENG)

- equipment allowed journalist in the field to capture and send videotaped  news by satellite  

Cognitive dissonance

- When there is two logical understandings conflicting w each other. Hypocrisy  falls in line w/ it Ex: father tells his son not to smoke but he smoke a pack a  day

Consonance V. Dissonance

- Connection/ relationship V. disconnect

- We seek consonance

Ch 12

Similarity attraction theory  

- We are drawn to ppl who seem to share our interests values, attitudes, &  personality

Intimate

- Type of interpersonal relationship that is characterized by strong emotional  bonding, closeness, interdependent, where they meaningfully influence each  other

Attachment theory

- Development of social and emotional motivations, personality, and  psychopathology, the intimacy present in one’s relationships and the role of  attachment throughout one’s lifespan

Halfalouge

- Hearing only half of the conversation

Perception theory

7 types of love

(1) Liking: intimacy w/out passion or commitment

(2) Infatuated love: passion w/out intimacy or commitment

(3) Empty love: commitment w/out intimacy or passion

(4) Romantic love: passion & intimacy w/out commitment

(5) Companionate love: intimacy & commitment w/out passion

(6) Fatuous love: passion & commitment w/out commitment

(7) Consummate love: intimacy, passion, & commitment

Connecting bids

- Any attempt to engage another person in a positive transaction Knapps model

(1) Initiation (1st required stage of relationship)

- A very brief stage  

- Only includes the initial meeting

- Low in amount & low in intimacy- most measures insignificant

(2) Experimenting (Growth)

- High amount, low intimacy, positive valance, high intent, veracity varies }  information given fairly superficial disclosure

- Touch is introduced

(3) Intensifying (Growth)

- Medium amount, increased intimacy, mixed valance, high intent, veracity  varies

- As we grow relationships we tend to share more honestly

(4) Integrating (Growth)

- Becoming one (we, us, pair= unit, 2 for 1,couple)

- Medium amount, higher intimacy, mixed valence, mixed intent, higher  veracity

- Spending a lot of time together, know each other well

(5) Bonding  

- Ritual &/or presentation to the society that displays that they are together - Moderate amount, high intimacy, mixed valence, mixed intent, high veracity  

(6) Differentiation (decline)

- There is an interpersonal pair that has reached the bonding stage, recognize  that the pair is disrupting the individuality – seeking their independence in  self but not terminating pair

- Positive; moderate amount, high intimacy, mixed valence, mixed intent, high  veracity  

(7) Circumscribing (decline)

- Actively trying to cut the other person out your life

 less concerned about pair more concerned w/ individual  

- lower amount & intimacy, more negative, valence, higher intent, lower  veracity

- still some effort towards the relationship

(8) Stagnating (decline)

- Not doing anything to actively change the relationship, doing the minimum to maintain the relationship as it is.- no more or no less

- Staying in the relationship w/ no movement, no effort, nothing new - Low amount & intimacy, more negative, low intent, low veracity

(9) Avoiding (decline)

- Trying not to communicate w/ other  

- Low amount to the point where the rest doesn’t matter

(10) Terminating (2nd required stage of relationship)

- Usually brief – the ending point

- Sometimes not explicitly stated  

- Disclosure is often low in amount, veracity, intimacy, ( although this measure  is highly contextual) high in intent & varies on valence (usually negative but  not always)

Information gathering

- Passive gathering

 The information is not sought out, it comes to you

- Active gathering  

 You are seeking out information but do not go directly to the source, seek  out a 3rd party method

- Interactive gathering

 Going directly to the source to find out the information

Miscommunication/ compatibility  

- Male v. female

 Men default: task oriented, Women default relationship oriented 3 types of interpersonal communication based on goals

(1) Task oriented- trying to do something

(2) Relationship oriented: to being, end, or maintain a relationship (3) Image oriented: attempt to get someone to think of you in a particular way

6 influences in an interpersonal exchanges (Dean Barnlund)

(1) Perception of self

(2) Perception of the other

(3) Perception of what you think the other thinks of you  

(4) Other’s self-perception

(5) Other’s perception of you

(6) Other’s perception of what they think you think of them

Fundamental attribution error  

- Good things that happen to ppl we like or self – blame personal  characteristics

- God things happen to ppl we don’t like – blame external factors - Bad things to pp we like- blame environment

- Bad thing happen to ppl we don’t like- blame personal characteristics

Levels/measure of disclosure

- Amount: how much information is shared

- Intimacy: how personal is that information

- Valence: is info positive or negative

- Intent: did you mean to disclose

- Veracity: how truthful is info shared

Ch 6

Aristoloian persuasion  

- Persuasion is primarily conveyed using ethos, pathos, and logos Inartistic proofs

- Outside pieces brought into a message to strengthen it: stats, quote Artistic proofs:  

- Created through the message

 Ethos: always created through the message

∙ Credibility/ trust

 Competence

 Topic

 Communicative

 Likeability

 Power

 Pathos

∙ Emotion/ values

 Logos

∙ Reasoning/ facts: stats, experts, structure of speech  

Relational perspective

- How communication between two or more people is observed for a common  communicated perspective that in the end will be understood and beneficial  to all

Relational approach

- Examines communication form a transactional or co-orientational perspective Communibiology  

- Is a research paradigm that focuses specifically on the neurobiological  foundations of human communication behavior

Cultivation

- Expectation- based- cultural norms- culturally taught to expect

Rhetoric

- All arguments are based on probabilities

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