MGMT 301 Exam 4 Notes
MGMT 301 Exam 4 Notes MGMT 301
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Thein on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 301 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Ronald Johnson in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
MGMT Exam 4 Chapter 9 – Culture and Innovation Change Zappos and Culture with Tony Hsieh o Core values – guidelines for how to run their company o Culture is intentional Only agreed to sell to Amazon if they could maintain their own culture and not adopt Amazon’s Google/Amazon Hits o Culture – 1,680,000,000/487,660 o Innovation – 485,000,000/73,241 o Change – 253,000,000/182,869 Managers Must: o Develop culture o Encourage innovation o Manage change Culture is personal, organizational, corporate, and global Culture is Personal o Cultural Fit – high impact on people leaving their job Culture is seeing and saying Examples of subculture – celebrities o Definition System of shared beliefs/values guiding behavior (internal) The way we do things around you Set of signals of what is considered appropriate vs. inappropriate (external) Culture is Organizational Culture is Corporate o Shape attitude o Reinforce beliefs o Direct behavior o Set expectations o Ex: Disney Traditions with Mickey KPMG Study – Mergers and Acquisitions o Analysis of 700 deals over 2 years o 83% failed to produce any benefit o 50%+ destroyed shareholder value o Only 17% added value – why? Bankers Lawyers Consultants Gov. officials o Example of lack of cultural fit Culture is Global Societal Culture Examples Or Sub-Cultures o Academic (type and level)/Functional (ex: marketing) Geographic Ethnic Club Political Fitness Religious Style Urban/rural Culture – Above and Below The Waterline o Observed Culture o Core Culture Penn State’s Culture o Observed o Core Campus Academics Dress Grades International Code of Sports/fitness conduct Leaders Integrity actions We Are…Penn Classes State Technology What focus on Dating Quality Career stuf education Speakers Accreditation Orgs Rules THON Alma mater Corporate Culture Levels o Iceberg Visible – dress, office, symbols, signals Invisible – expressed values Observed & Core Culture o Stories -> heroes -> symbols -> rites and rituals -> o Core culture – values or beliefs about right ways to behave o Observed - Represent, communicate, and carry the culture over time, keeping it visible and clear in all member’s eyes Heroes o Cultural benefits Shared knowledge of hero stories Establish or represent core values o Ex: Sam Walton, Ken Frazier, Walt Disney, Sharyl Sanberg, Indra Nooyi, Ursula Burns o Best Heroes – ones we tell stories about Employees, customers, leaders Rites and Rituals o Cultural Benefits Creates connections – people and org Builds morale and engagement Shared hands on experience o Ex: Pixar and Culture Created central atrium to force people to interact Get to pick and design their own office Symbols o Cultural Benefits: Common understanding of culture Easy to recognize (you and others) Company logos o Ex: Thurl Ravenscroft -> voice of Tony the Tiger o Ex: Nitanny Lion Stories o Cultural benefits: Easily remembered and passed on Instills deeper cultural understanding o Ex: Harland Sanders (KFC), Dave Thomas (Wendy’s) -> company asks what would they do? Fortune Magazine Best Places To Work o Where performance and culture intersect o Financially sound o Google is #1 Alternative Cultures (p.212) o Team culture Authority shared, distributed Teams and teamwork rule Collaboration, trust value Emphasis on mutual support o Entrepreneurial culture Authority goes with ideas Flexibility and creativity rule Change and growth valued Emphasis on entrepreneurship o Hierarchical culture Authority runs the system Traditions, roles clear Rules, hierarchy valued Emphasis on predictability o Rational culture Authority serves the goals Efficiency, productivity rule Planning, process valued Emphasis on modest change Values Based Management o Managing with a commitment to actively help develop, communicate, and represent shared values within an organization Ex: Tom’s of Maine – pulled product from shelf and reimbursed customers when they didn’t like it Symbolic leader Innovation (lifeblood of a business) o Staying the same means going backwards o Taking a new idea and putting it into practice o The process of translating an idea or invention into a good or service that creates value or for which customers will pay o Ex: Star Trek Replicator 3D printing – additive Benefits and side efects Always remember what are the unintended consequences Innovators today – totally into the function and monetizing it, but not into ethics o 3 forms Process Product Business Model Process Innovation – better ways of doing things o Lean principles = reduction of waste o Six sigma = process improvement o Reduction in cost o Increased turn around (cycle time) o Increased output o Better customer satisfaction o Ex: Toyota – everyone should look for the smallest changes to make our process better o Ex: Vending Machine and Credit/Debit Individual machines jumped 20-30% in sales Product Innovation – creation of new/improved products/services o Ex: DJI Phantom Vision Plus –Drones Benefits – mapping, search and rescue, police Side efects – spying, where is it appropriate to fly? Business Model Innovation –new ways to make money for the firm o Create, deliver, and capture value o Media – decline of print o Retail – online shopping o Education – online classes o Music – physical to owning to leasing o Ex: Instagram – example of a business model innovation for Instagram and FB Looking at problems and then deciding how to solve them (beauty, speed, distribution) o Ex: Nick D’Aloisio – Innovator 2013 sold app to Yahoo! Summly – text online gets summarized o Ex: Uber Sustainability Innovation o Ex: Toyota and Subaru o Ex: Terra Cycle CEO Tom Szaky – use waste as raw material Reuse Upcycle – value what garbage is made from but not its intention Recycle – only value what its made from Selling Innovation o Commercialization – how do you take an innovation to the marketplace Initial experimentation, feasibility determination, final application, idea creation Ex: Post it Notes Launched as peel and stick Didn’t try to understand customers Relaunched as post it notes and it was a success Ex: super soaker, terra cycle Organizational Protocols Supporting Innovation o Strategy – includes innovation o Culture – values innovation o Structure – supports innovation o Staffing – builds talent for innovation o Leadership/management – drives innovation o Ex: 3M Corp – 30% revenue comes from new products Innovation is something every company is trying to do Change o Personal and organization o Elizabeth Kubler-Ross (1969) Dealing Grief Denial Anger Bargain Depression Acceptance Move on (business only) o Ex: Moneyball trailer Example of the change process Saber metrics -> use analytics to build a winning team o Defined “To make the form, nature, content, future course, etc., (of something) diferent from what it is or from what it would be if left alone” 2 basic drivers Significant opportunity Great threat Ex: Facebook buys Instagram 2 types of Change o Transformational Reacting to threat or opportunity that alters the way you do things Results in major and comprehensive redirection of the organization o Incremental Day to day process improvements Kaizen – continuous improvements A Burning Platform o IBM CEO Lou Gerstner (1993 – 2002) “A burning platform” – metaphor; whenever you’re in a difficult position in a company and you’ve got to make a change Story – make the jump and possibly live or stay and die for sure o In the 80s they were one of the top companies in the world o Gerstner’s job was to break up the company and sell it, but instead he started going to customers and hearing their problems: cut costs; changed culture to more informal and customer centric o Strategy o Cost o Culture Hostess Brand Example o Got to a place where their business model was making it unsustainable (because of all the union contracts) o Liquidate o Change process that needed to happen but didn’t and the company went under o Other companies bought brand and continue making them Change Process o 1. Unfreeze – create a need for change Motivation Done by: Establishing a good relationship with people involved Helping others realize that present behaviors aren’t efective Minimizing expressed resistance to change o 2. Change – implement and manage the process of change Biggest issue is timing and 2 ndis communication Done by: Identifying new, more efective ways of behaving Choosing changes in tasks, people, culture, technology, structures Taking action to put these changes into place o 3. Refreezing – stabilize the change and scan for the future Done by: Creating acceptance and continuity for the new behaviors Providing any necessary resource support Using performance-contingent rewards and positive reinforcement Change Leadership and Approaches to Change Change Drivers Status Quo Holders Confident of Ability Threatened by change Willing to Take Risks Bothered by uncertainty Seize Opportunities Preferred Predictability Expect Surprise Support status quo Make things happen Wait for things to happen Ex: IBM Ex: Hostess A Change Allegory by Spencer Johnson o Who moved my cheese o When you change what you believe, you change what you do Change happens Anticipate change Monitor change Adapt quickly Change Enjoy change Be ready Why People Resist Change o Fear of the unknown o Disrupted habits o Loss of confidence o Work overload o Poor timing o Lack of purpose o Lack of face o Loss of control Chapter 17 – Global Business Global business bottom line o Developing and selling products and services to all 7 billion people currently on the planet o Figuring out how to provide for 9 billion by 2043 Globalization: Personal and Corporate o Personal is hugely important for global business What are you doing personally to demonstrate that you are a global leader Studying a language; study/live/travel abroad Definition o Globalization – the increased mobility of goods, services, labor, technology, and capital throughout the world OR the process of growing interdependence among elements of the global economy Reasons to go global o TO INCREASE EARNINGS o New markets (customers/profits) o Sourcing (suppliers of goods/services) o Financing (capital to expand ops) More money outside your company than inside World economy - $78 trillion; US economy - $18 trillion o Labor (low cost and skilled) o Risk (business, natural, country) If one economy is in recession other economies probably aren’t o Technology (communication, data) Global strategic forms a business may take (know axes) o People tend to use these terms equally to refer to any global company Global o Invested and present in many countries o Coordinated brand image globally o Single corporate office strategy direction o Ex: McDonald’s International o Focus on importing and exporting o Strategic direction from home country o Low to moderate investment outside of home country o Exporter o Ex: Xerox Multinational o Substantial investment other countries o Focus on adapting products for local needs o Strategy more home/host country directed o Ex: Toyota o Fairly standardized product o Local content regulation – certain percent locally sourced Transnational o Substantial investment globally o Decision-making, R&D, and marketing distributing locally o Competitors complete globally o Ex: Nestle o Difers from multinational because their assets are distributed all over the world Integration Responsiveness Grid How Global Business is Done o Ways to enter a market – from home country (where you’re incorporated) Global sourcing Exporting Licensing Franchising o Ways to enter a market – in host country (the country you’re in) Joint venture Foreign subsidiaries Global Sourcing st o Importing is the 1 step. The sourcing of materials or services from around the world for local use Local use – use it to make products here; will sell the product o Ex: Boeing 787 Dreamliner Parts from 19 major suppliers; Rolls Royce engines; went all over the world to find the best suppliers for their craft Advantages Disadvantages Lower cost Hidden costs Global learning Supplier quality Access to skills and Risk (financial/political) resources Increase supply Lost intellectual property Expand your capacity Transportation cost Exporting o Selling local (home) country products outside of the home country o Ex: Gulfstream G650 plane Licensing o A form of business by which the owner (licensor) gives rights to buyer (licensee) for specific use of intangible or tangible property (a license) o Ex: StarWars, licensing expo o Renting or leasing an intangible or tangible asset Advantages Disadvantages Low to no cost Potential loss of control Royalty stream Damage the brand Extend profit potential Getting paid Expand the brand Lower margins Attracts new customers Franchising o A form of business by which an owner (franchisor) of a product, service, or method obtains distribution through affiliated dealer (franshisee) o Ex: Yum! Brands – owns Pizza Hut, KFC, Taco Bell o International Franchise Expo o Global Franchising Advantages Disadvantages Capital expansion Quality control Continuing revenue stream Understanding local culture Global brand building Legal/regulation Economies of scale Potential loss of control Managerial talent Supply chain complexity development o #1 reason – capital expansion o Master franchise agreement (for going global) Joint Venture o Operating in a foreign country through co-ownership with local partners Involuntary – you can come into my country except you MUST have a partner Voluntary – go into a country and look for partner o Ex: GM and SAIC – won’t get back to 50/50 but if they help develop business in south America they’ll give them equal say in hiring managers o Ex: Xerox and UAE – ‘Xerox services’ managers all documents for you Advantages Disadvantages Access to new markets Loss of technology Leverage local talent Sharing profits Understand culture Imbalance in contributions Shared risks Conflict – cultural misunderstandings May be only option Political risk Potential cost advantages Subsidiary o Company “A” known as the “parent” fully or partially owns a local enterprise o Ex: Budweiser, Anheuser-Bush InBev is now the parent of AB Advantages Disadvantages Profit Cultural issues Market expansion Legal risks Control Political risks Protects technology Global Structure – Option #1 (global area) o CEO – area mgr. Americas, area mgr. Africa, area mgr. Europe, area mgr. Asia Global Structure – option #2 (global product) o CEO – manager product A, manager product B, manager product C, manager product D Planning/Controlling & Risk o Currency risk Profit loss due to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates Scenario 1: Weak dollar (good for US companies abroad) 1 $US = .75 euro Euro sales = €100,000 U.S. take-home revenue = #133,000 Scenario 2: strong dollar (bad for US companies abroad) 1 $US = 1.25 euro Euro sales = €100,000 U.S. take-home revenue = $80,000 o Political risk Potential losses because of instability and political changes in foreign countries Terrorism, civil, war, armed conflicts, new laws FCPA & MNC/Host country complaints o MNC – extensive international operations in many foreign countries and derives a substantial portion of its sales and profits from international sources o Host country complaints about MNC Excessive profits Economic domination Interference with government Hires best local talent Limited technology transfer Disrespect for local customs o MNC complaints about host countries Profit limitations Overpriced resources Exploitative rules Foreign exchange restrictions Failure to uphold contracts o Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Makes it illegal for U.S. firms and their representatives to engage in corrupt practices (bribes, gifts) overseas Chapter 14 – Teams Team/teamwork – collection of people who regularly interact to pursue common goals while holding each other mutually accountable Synergy – when the whole is greater than the sum of the individual parts Most companies don’t use team as organizational structure, but almost all utilize teams Benefits of Teams o More resources to put on problems o Improved creativity and innovation o Improved quality of decision making o Greater commitment to tasks o Increased motivation of members o Better control and work discipline o More individual need satisfaction Common team problems o Cultural miscommunication o Personality conflicts o Power struggles o Participation (slackers or drivers) o Lack of focus o Group think o Poor follow through o Definition of quality o Maturity o Free riders – social loaf o Workload imbalance o Personal vs. professional o Conflict on roles o Work styles o Need to attend the process of developing team skills Organizations are Teams of Interlocking Networks o Formal Set up by company for specific organizational purpose o Informal Set up by each other based on similar interest/work style Natural or spontaneous – support, friend, etc. o Employee and Manager Supervisor – Directs Facilitator – Coordinated activities Participants – Works on the team Ex: IT world Coach - Assists Cisco Cross-Functional o Video to introduce the important of a cross-functional approach to teamwork Type of Teams o Committee Ongoing Brings together people outside their daily job assignments o Cross-functional Bringing people from multiple departments together (similar to matrix) o Project team/task force Has an end point come together to start something o Self-managing teams Create teams and have the team manage the team o Virtual team Distributed team across nation or world Ex: General Electric and Cisco Telepresence Benefits – real time global experience, streamlines their business; 40% less travel and leisure expenses Team Building Blocks o Inputs (1 step, recruit team - #1 reason teams fail – wrong people) Members: Abilities Values Personalities Diversity 3 C’s of a Great Team Member o Character Do what you say you will o Competence Skills and abilities o Consistency Nature of Task Clarity Complexity Ex: Singapore Dragon Boats and Burma o Strong inputs creating synergy within team situation Org. Setting Resources Technology Structure Rewards Information Team Size # of members Even/odd # Ex: Jef Bezos Amazon o 2 pizza team rule 4 – 6 people o Throughputs Team process Norms Cohesion Roles Comm. Decisions Conflict Team efectiveness = quality of inputs + (process gains – process losses) Bruce Tuckman’s Life Cycle of Teams Group dynamics – interactions among group members both positive and negative 1. Forming – a stage of initial optimism and interpersonal testing o Uninformed optimism – put on good face 2. Storming – a stage of conflict over tasks and working as a team o Drop your guard to be real -> bad days, weaknesses informed pessimism 3. Norming – a stage of consolidation around task and operating agendas o Informed optimism - learn to adapt to each other o Adequate performance at beginning of experience of success 4. Performing – a stage of teamwork and focused task performance o Informed optimism plus – superior quality work, work easily and quickly o High performance work teams 5. Adjourning – a stage of task completion and disengagement o Outputs Team Efectiveness Task performance Member satisfaction Team viability Managers and Teamwork o Ex: Conflict Resolution Water Boy Style Intro to conflict showing the definition of conflict creatively in a movie o Conflict management Substantive – involves disagreements over such things as goals and tasks Emotional – results from feelings of anger, distrust, dislike, fear, and resentment, and relationship problems Two Components of Conflict for Team Leaders o Functional About the issue at hand (okay) o Dysfunctional Goes away from the issue and drops on the person o Team leaders discourage Aggression Blocking Competing Withdrawal Seeking attention Horsing around o Diagnose and intervene!!! Lencioni – 5 Dysfunctions o 1. Absence of trust o 2. Fear of conflict o 3. Lack of Commitment o 4. Accountability Unwillingness o 5. Inattention to Results Team Building and Team Training o Team training – developing team member skills – i.e. facilitation, productivity, tools o Team building – any group activity, objective/goal driven, and focused on team process Games Adventure Social Simulation Work projects Alternative Cohesion and Performance Norms o Performance norm Defines the level of work efort and performance that team members are expected to contribute Build teams with right norms Act as positive role model Reinforce the desired behaviors with rewards Control results by performance reviews and regular feedback Train and orient new members to adopt desired behaviors Recruit and select new members who exhibit the desired behaviors Hold regular meetings to discuss progress and ways of improving Use team decision-making method to reach agreement Cohesiveness The degree to which members are attracted to and motivated to remain part of a team Each of us should be aware of what can be done to build both positive norms and high cohesiveness in our teams Communication Networks o Decentralized All members communicate directly with one another Interacting team – members actively work together and share information Member satisfaction on successful interacting teams is usually high o Centralized One member collects information from and distributes information to all others Coacting team – members work independently and pass completed tasks to the hub Hub member often experiences the most satisfaction o Restricted Teams break into subgroups because members are experiencing issue-specific disagreements Counteracting team – environment can deteriorate to the point where subgroups fail to adequately communicate with one another and even engage in outwardly antagonistic relations Groupthink o Tendency for members of highly cohesive groups to lose their critical evaluative capabilities o Avoid anything that might detract from feelings of goodwill o Symptoms Illusions of invulnerability Rationalizing unpleasant and disconfirming data Belief in inherent group morality Stereotyping competitors as weak, evil, and stupid Applying direct pressure to deviants to conform to group wishes Self-censorship by members Illusions of unanimity Mind guarding Decision-making o Lack of response o Authority rule o Minority rule o Majority rule o Consensus Full discussion leads to most members favoring one alternative o Unanimity Chapter 10 – HR Management Human Resource Management o When you look at people in the workplace what do you see A cost to reduce An asset to develop o Human capital – economic value of employee skills and knowledge o People expense is largest expense a company has o Most companies look at people in terms of numbers Strategic HRM o Aligns human capital with organizational strategy SHRM – Society for Human Resource Management o Professional organization dedicated to keeping its membership up to date in all aspects of HRM from fundamental practices to current events and issues o Provides education, thought leadership, certification, community, and advocacy to enhance HRM o Video: developing people is the best way to adapt to change Term “next” is important o How do we look out for our company Three Functions of HRM o Attracting – recruiting and selecting o Developing – training, orienting o Keeping – retention things, work-life balance, career development o The building and maintaining of a quality workforce = HRM Discrimination Law Attracting Talent 3 steps o Assess need and define job o Recruiting strategy and implementation Interview, job preview o Candidate selection ofer process Employment, personality, or ethics tests; assessment centers; work sampling o Ex: J&J Assess talent need define job requirements Gold leadership program How companies recruit o All external – 35% Looking at job postings, LinkedIn, social media o Internal referral – 65% People hire people we know and like Job and Organization Fit Foundational to HR Attracting Candidates o Screening interview – do they have the basic things to make them a good fit for the job o Organizational fit – culture fit o Person-job fit – match of individual skills, interests, and personal characteristics with the job o Person-organization fit – match of individual values, attitudes, and behavior with the organizational culture Career Builder Recruiting o Resume flip – loads the resume into a viewer so you can see them and go through ones that have words you searched for o 2 recruiting factors Personal – hire people they like Technical Selection Methods o In depth interviewing – screening o Technical and personal testing o Real time or simulated actual work o Background checks (credit checks, drug tests) o Assessment centers o Ex: P&G – screen resumes, screening interviews, technical test, personality test Testing has to be something reliable and valid Assessment center – hiring center which brings in managers and recruits and you go through many team exercises, group/panel interviews Developing talent o 1. Orientation/socialization Onboarding o 2. Training and experiences o 3. Coaching/mentoring o 4. Performance mgmt. Experiences o What are the experiences you need to have to advance in your career o Ex: 2 year rotations American Society for Training & Development o ASTD 2010 state of industry report US training spending = $171.5 Billion Average/employee = $1,228.00 Average/hours = 32 hours/employee o Top 10 training subjects: Managerial Information tech Industry specific Customer service Business practices Orientation Compliance Interpersonal skill Other – product, quality Sales o Premier companies spend significantly more on training Mentoring and coaching o Mentoring – process of assigning an early career employee to a senior manager for career guidance Mentoring used to be very informal, but now they have more formal programs o Coaching – working with a manager to develop personal and business competencies in a holistic manner Ex: 360 degree evaluation – superiors, subordinated, peers, and even internal and external customers are involved in the appraisal of a jobholder’s performance o Both can be formal or informal Performance Appraisal o Two-fold purpose Measures and documents work performance Used developmental tool to enhance work performance o Feedback – balanced and specific o Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) Keeping – video: SHRM India Conference – making sure employees are ramped up to do their job; happiness Keeping Talent – 3 Steps o 1. Compensation and benefits in line with market Foundational; huge impact on whether they want to stay; companies re-norm their compensation and benefits o 2. Clear career path identified o 3. Work-life balance focus Career development o 1. Career planning – matching individual career goals, capabilities to opportunity Create talent pools of people o 2. Career development – managing how a person progresses in a career Succession planning o 3. Career path – providing structure, flexibility, and direction for a person to achieve greater work responsibility Develop clear paths Ex: P&G – promote from within policy Ex: GE – has very clear career paths Google and Retention o Luxury bus to work; free breakfast; gym; massages; pools; places to rest; laundry; volleyball court; paid 8 month maternity leave; day care o When employees have ideas, the company listens o Given freedom, people will surprise you with what they come up with o Strong work life balance o Most flexible countries Finland, Sweden, Australia, Thailand, new Zealand, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, Ireland o Least Flexible countries Japan, Greece, Armenia, Malaysia, turkey, Poland, Taiwan, UAE, Russia, Singapore A Big HRM Issue – Age o 16-24 is declining o 25-54 is declining o 55+ is increasing Labor relations o Labor unions – organizations to which workers belong and that deal with employers on the workers’ behalf o Labor contracts – typically specify the rights and obligations of employees and management with respect to wages, work hours, work rules, seniority, hiring, grievances, and other work conditions o Collective bargaining – process that brings management and union representatives together in negotiating, administering, and interpreting labor contracts o Two-tier wage systems – pay new hires less than more senior workers already doing the same jobs o Independent contractors o Work for an agreed-upon period or for an agreed-upon task, and without becoming part of the permanent workforce o No job security o Contingency workers – supplement full-time workforce by working as needed and part time Chapter 16 Culture shock and stages o Culture shock – feeling of confusion and discomfort when in or dealing with an unfamiliar culture o Stages: Confusion – first contacts with the new culture leave you anxious, uncomfortable, and in need of info and advice Small victories – continued interactions bring some “successes” and your confidence grows in handling daily afairs Honeymoon – this is a time of wonderment, cultural immersion, and even infatuation, with local ways viewed positively Irritation and anger – this is a time when the “negatives” overwhelm the “positives” and the new culture becomes a target of your criticism Reality – this is a time of rebalancing; you are able to enjoy the new culture while accommodating its less- desirable elements Cultural intelligence o Person’s capability to function efectively in situations characterized by cultural diversity o High CQ – high cultural self-awareness and are flexible in dealing with cultural diferences; willing to learn; sensitive to cultures Understand context and types of culture o High-context cultures – what is actually said or written may convey only part, sometimes a very small part, of a message o Low-context cultures – most communication takes place via the written or spoken word o Monochronic culture – people tend to do one thing at a time o Polychronic culture – more flexible about time and who uses it o Proxemics – how people use space to communicate Know Hofstede’s 5 values differences among National cultures o Power distance – the degree to which a society accepts or rejects the unequal distribution of power in organizations and society High power distance – great respect for age, status, and titles o Uncertainty avoidance – the degree to which a society tolerates or is uncomfortable with risk, change, and situational uncertainty High uncertainty avoidance – preference for structure o Individualism-collectivism – the degree to which a society emphasizes individual accomplishments and self-interests, versus collective accomplishments and the interests of groups High individualism-collectivism – using “I” and “me” o Masculinity-femininity – degree to which a society values assertiveness and materialism, versus feelings, relationships, and quality of life o Time oriented – degree to which a society emphasizes short-term or long-term goals and gratifications Ecological fallacy – assumes that a generalized cultural value applies equally well to all members of the culture Intercultural competencies o Skills and personal characteristics that help us function successfully in cross-cultural situations o Perception management Person must be inquisitive and curious about cultural diferences and be flexible and nonjudgmental when interpreting and dealing with situations in which diferences are at play o Relationship management Person must be genuinely interested in others, sensitive to their emotions and feelings, and able to make personal adjustments while engaging in cross- cultural interactions o Self-management Person must have strong sense of personal identity, understand their own emotions and values, and be able to stay self-confident even in situations that call for personal adaptations because of cultural diferences.
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