FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE, BIO 102
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE, BIO 102 Biol 102
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Klein on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Benjamin Keck in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Intro Bio:Biodiversity/Ecology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Biology 102 Final Exam Study Guide Dr. Keck, Spring 2016 Dr. Keck studies ichthyology, the study of fish. 5 major learning objectives described 1.! Evolution- populations of organisms have changed through time, selectively and non-selectively 2.! Structure and function- all living things are made of structural components 3.! Information flow and storage- information and signals are used within and among organisms to direct their functioning 4.! Transformation of energy and matter- all living things acquire, use, and release matter/energy for cellular functioning 5.! Systems- living systems are interconnected and interact on multiple levels Origins of Life •! How are bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes related? 1.! They are the 3 main groups of life 2.! Bacteria- simplest cell organization 3.! Archaea- a medium complexity, sort of in between the 2 4.! Eukaryotes- more complex cell organization, •! 7 criteria for life 1.! Organization: more than 1 cell 2.! Metabolism: energy and material flow 3.! Growth 4.! Homeostasis: able to maintain a relatively constant state internally 5.! Response to stimuli: change of actions to maintain homeostasis 6.! Adaptation: change over time 7.! Reproduction: production of offspring similar to parents •! Timeline of early Earth 1.! Earth formation: ~4.5 billion years ago 2.! First single celled organisms: ~3.5 billion years ago ! ! ! 1 •! 4 steps leading to cellular life 1.! Inorganic molecules: inorganic molecules became organic due to a force of energy (could have been lightening, UV radiation, volcanos, etc.) 2.! Organic molecules: these molecules form cells, RNA exists during this time !! RNA: contained information, self-replicated, packaging evolves (RNA was free floating), DNA begins to form from RNA 3.! Cellular organization: continues to grow more complex, RNA becomes DNA 4.! Protobionts: complexity increases, still lacks evidence for this step •! Early experiments for 4 steps of life 1.! Oparin and Haldane- abiotic synthesis of organic molecules in the lab, 1920s 2.! Miller and Urey- lab where they created organic molecules from inorganic molecules; due to environmental changes, this doesn’t happen naturally now •! Where 4 steps of life occur? 1.! Panspermia •! RNA world 1.! Contains information- nucleotide bases 2.! Catalytic- RNA can do some chemical reactions •! Protobionts 1.! Organic molecules are said to have a tendency to form membrane-like structures 2.! Systems that are considered to have been the ancestors of prokaryotic cells •! Endosymbiosis 1.! For mitochondria and chloroplasts: different cell types would have lived in communities; under co-evolution their interactions became extremely interconnected to the point that they needed each other to survive 2.! Still occurs now in protists and invertebrates •! Viruses and life: are they alive? 1.! Often debated, current answer: no 2.! They do not reproduce on their own ! ! ! 2 Archaea and Bacteria •! Characteristics of Prokaryotes 1.! Unicellular 2.! Lack internal organelles 3.! DNA is not contained in nucleus 4.! Found in almost every environment 5.! Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotes •! Characteristics of Eukaryotes 1.! Larger 2.! Nucleus with nuclear membrane and nucleoid 3.! No cell wall 4.! Undergoes mitosis •! Cell structure of bacteria 1.! Flagellum, capsule, DNA, ribosome, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall 2.! More simple structure •! Bacteria’s methods of DNA replication 1.! Single origin of replication on a circular chromosome •! Cell structure of archaea 1.! Cytoplasmic membrane with ether-linked lipids 2.! Organelles lack a membrane; no nucleus •! Gram straining bacteria 1.! 2 types of cell walls: gram positive or gram negative 2.! Gram negative are more resistant to hose immune defenses and antibiotics •! Differences between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria 1.! Gram positive cell wall: bacteria have simple, thick cell walls composed of a relatedly large amount of peptidoglycan 2.! Gram negative cell wall: bacteria have layered cell walls with a smaller amount of peptidoglycan ! ! ! 3 •! Bacterial movement 1.! Secrete sticky substances that form a capsule and enable them to adhere to substances 2.! 3 types !! Flagellum- basal apparatus rotates the flagellum and propels the cell !! Corkscrew movement of spirochete !! Glide over jets of slimy secretion •! Bacterial reproduction 1.! Binary fission: cell elongates and replicates DNA, cell wall and plasma membrane divide, cross-wall forms across DNA 2.! * Asexual reproduction •! Why is it difficult to identify species of bacteria and archaea? 1.! Limited morphology, hard to sample, hard to culture, lots of gene flow •! Archaea’s methods of DNA replication 1.! Single origin of replication on a circular chromosome •! Environments of Archaea 1.! Originally thought they only lived in extreme environments 2.! Recently discovered not always true •! Why might microbiomes differ between regions on a body and between individuals? 1.! Different niche spaces on different body parts 2.! Individuals are exposed to different micro biomes given different behaviors Plants and Fungi •! Organisms attempt to grow and reproduce in a given environment as efficiently as possible •! Major characteristics of plants 1.! Producers !! Photoautotroph: uses photosynthesis to make food 2.! Multicellular eukaryote: mitochondria, cell wall, chloroplast ! ! ! 4 •! Benefits of transitioning from aquatic " terrestrial environment 1.! Nutrients 2.! Support 3.! Predators- there weren’t any animals on Earth yet 4.! Competition- there weren’t any other organisms yet to compete with •! Problems with transitioning from aquatic " terrestrial environment 1.! Soil- they had to evolve roots 2.! Air- had to evolve a stem •! Major traits and dominant generation of Bryophytes 1.! Gametophyte- haploid, long generation 2.! Non-vascular, no roots, no leaves; example: mosses •! Major traits and dominant generation of Pteridophyes 1.! Gametophyte and sporophyte equal amount of time 2.! No seeds, need water for reproduction; example: ferns •! Major traits and dominant generation of Gymnosperms 1.! Sporophyte almost immediately 2.! Seeds have embryo with a food source, flowers; example: pine trees •! Major traits and dominant generation of Angiosperms 1.! Sporophyte almost immediately 2.! Pollination, improved vascular tissue, fruits; example: maples •! Which group of plants is most diverse? 1.! Angiosperms •! Function of vascular tissue 1.! Xylem and phloem transport nutrients and water •! Types and functions of flowers 1.! Functions !! Pollination: plants need flowers to attract birds/bees to pollinate seeds 2.! Types !! Monocot- parallel veins, fibrous root system, floral parts in multiples of 3 !! Dicot- netlike veins, taproot usually present, floral parts in multiples of 4 or 5 ! ! ! 5 •! Functions of fruits 1.! Functions !! Provide protection: think of a walnut !! Aid dispersal •! Basic traits of fungi 1.! No chloroplasts, able to absorb nutrients 2.! Mycellum and hyphae present •! Ecological roles of fungi 1.! Decomposers- mycellum breaks down food for organism !! Not always dead tings •! Why fungi would produce antibiotic substances 1.! Fungi and bacteria compete for resources (they’re both decomposers) 2.! Production of antibiotic substances " kills/inhibits bacteria growth •! Fungal mutualisms 1.! Mychorhizae and roots: mutual symbiotic behavior !! Promotes growth !! Reduces competition Invertebrates •! Characteristics of animals 1.! Eukaryotes 2.! Multicellular with differentiated cells (have a specific purpose) 3.! Heterotrophic 4.! Internal digestion not always true, but usually is 5.! Lack cell walls 6.! Most are diploid 7.! Most have developmental stages •! What can you tell about an organism based on length of its intestines? 1.! Long digestive track = herbivore (think of a cow) 2.! Short digestive track = carnivore/omnivore (think of a human) ! ! ! 6 •! Animal body plans 1.! Not always symmetrical, but sometimes !! Bilateral symmetry: lamb !! Radial symmetry: jellyfish !! Neither: sponge •! Types of body cavities 1.! Pseudo coelom- only partially lined by mesoderm (the middle tissue layer) 2.! True coelom: filled with fluid, completely lined by mesoderm •! Percentage of animals that are invertebrates 1.! 95% •! Basic characteristics of sponges 1.! Stationary 2.! Can be asexual or sexual reproduction 3.! Cell differentiation present, lack tissues •! Basic characteristics of cnidarian 1.! Radial symmetry 2.! Can be asexual or sexual reproduction 3.! Have larva stage 4.! Digestive track, neural system, epidermis, tentacle, etc. 5.! Mouth and anus are 1 tissue •! Basic characteristics of mollusks 1.! Bilateral symmetry 2.! Increasing complexity 3.! Sexual reproduction 4.! Some can filter water (oysters) •! Basic characteristics of flatworms 1.! Bilateral symmetry 2.! Asexual reproduction think of the lab with planarian regeneration or Sexual reproduction 3.! 50-80% are parasitic ! ! ! 7 •! Basic characteristics of annelids 1.! Bilateral symmetry 2.! Segmented 3.! Asexual or sexual reproduction •! Basic characteristics of roundworms 1.! Found in nearly every environment, very abundant 2.! Many are pathogenic or parasitic 3.! Most biomass than any other thing on Earth •! Basic characteristics of arthropods 1.! Specialized body segments and exoskeleton 2.! Extremely abundant 3.! Example: spiders, centipedes •! Basic characteristics of echinoderms 1.! More extinct than extant 2.! Dominant group in the seas; water based vascular system 3.! Example: starfish Fishes and Early Vertebrate Evolution •! Percentage of vertebrates that are fishes 1.! More than 60% •! What is the smallest vertebrate? 1.! Fish: P. progenetica •! Characteristics of chordates 1.! No skull, vertebrae, or jaw 2.! Bilateral symmetry 3.! Filter feeders, must swim (not buoyant) 4.! Example: lancelet •! Characteristics of craniate 1.! SKULL, no vertebrae or jaw 2.! Scavengers of dead/dying fish, must swim (not buoyant) 3.! Example: hag fish ! ! ! 8 •! Characteristics of fishes 1.! Organisms that live in water, have a backbone, and lay eggs = dependent on water for reproduction •! Characteristics of amniotes 1.! Organisms that have a shelled egg with an amniotic membrane 2.! Allowed first fish/amphibians to move onto land- no longer rely on water for reproduction •! Characteristics of tetrapod 1.! Organisms with four legs that moved on land 2.! Came from fish, so in phylogeny, the first tetrapods are “fish-looking” •! Early relatives of vertebrates 1.! Tunicates " lancelets " hagfishes " lampreys : first vertebrate •! Why were tunicates only recently identified as being more closely related to vertebrates than amphioxus (lancelets)? 1.! Pre-DNA sequencing relationships were based on morphology of adults 2.! Tunicate adults look less like vertebrates than adult amphioxus 3.! DNA sequencing supported hypothesis that tunicates were more closely related to vertebrates •! Which group of fishes is most diverse? 1.! Ray-finned •! Which fish has chemical camouflage? 1.! Pirate Perch 2.! Chemical camouflage: releasing different chemicals to mimic a different animal; examples of released chemicals: sex hormones, scented chemicals •! An example of a fish that is endothermic 1.! Tuna 2.! Endothermic: warm-blooded, dependent on or capable of the internal generation of heat •! An example of fish with parasitic males 1.! Anglerfishes ! ! ! 9 2.! Parasitic males: these male fish spend their entire lives to find a mate, then they become a parasite inside the female where they live forever •! Closest living relative of tetrapods 1.! Lungfish •! Groups of extant lobe-lined fishes 1.! Lungfish 2.! Coelacanths •! Story of the Coelacanth discovery 1.! 1938 Latimera chalumnae found still living in South Africa by Marjorie Courtney Latimer 2.! Second species found not long after 3.! 1998- new population discovered in Indonesia •! Traits that enabled tetrapod invasion of terrestrial environments 1.! Lungs 2.! Limbs 3.! Rib cage to protect internal organs from being crushed 4.! Larval stages of eggs Amphibians and Reptiles •! Traits of amphibians, links to aquatic habitat, patterns of diversity 1.! Aquatic reproduction- sperms germinate eggs in water where eggs grow 2.! Short∫ if any parental care 3.! Larval stage- metamorphosis 4.! Ecothermic- match temperature of their environment 5.! Several are venomous or sure aposematic pigmentation or camouflage •! 3 major groups of amphibians 1.! Frogs and toads 2.! Salamanders 3.! Caecilians •! Are reptiles monophyletic? 1.! No: tuatara is the ancestor for both snakes and lizards ! ! !10 2.! Monophyletic: when there is one common, unique ancestor •! Traits of reptiles, patterns of diversity 1.! Amniotic tetrapods- there is a protective covering over an embryo 2.! Viviparous- bring forth live young that have developed inside body of mother 3.! Ectoderms 4.! Thicker skin for reduced water loss, allowing them to spend more time out of water •! 4 major groups of reptiles 1.! Tuatara 2.! Lizards and snakes 3.! Turtles 4.! Crocodiles and alligators •! Paleontology 1.! The study of ancient life, mostly interested in fossils, evidence of ancient life •! Fossils 1.! Body fossils- direct evidence; petrified wood, teeth, bones, amber, tar 2.! Trace fossils- indirect evidence; footprints, imprints, feces •! How fossils form 1.! Unaltered- when fossils are preserved in something like amber, less common 2.! Altered- original organic tissue is replaced by mineral, typical fossil •! What can be inferred from fossils 1.! Determine the evolutionary history of life and macro-evolutionary patterns 2.! Determine relative geologic ages 3.! Determine ancient climate and environments Dinosaurs and Birds •! What are dinosaurs? 1.! Reptiles that walked upright on 2-4 legs •! How long dinosaurs were around 1.! ~180 million years ! ! ! 11 •! 2 major groups of dinosaurs 1.! Bird hip and lizard hip 2.! Trait used to differentiate between 2 groups: hips •! Which sized dinosaurs tend to survive mass extinctions? 1.! Small ones •! Did non-avian dinosaurs have feathers? 1.! Yes •! Traits of arboreal dinosaurs that made transition to flight possible 1.! Simple feathers all over body 2.! Better climbing skills 3.! Elongated arms and legs 4.! Larger brain and eyes 5.! Better aerobic capacity •! 2 main hypotheses as to evolution of flight 1.! Ground Up Theory !! Cursorial !! Animals began to run faster and faster; imagine an airplane taking off !! Why do birds have feathers? •! Made it easier to capture prey !! Problem with this theory: not likely feathers were used to capture prey as it wastes energy 2.! Top Down Theory !! Arboreal !! Started with gliding and continued to advance !! More likely theory •! Major characteristics of birds 1.! Feathers 2.! Endothermic 3.! Modified skeleton to increase strength and decrease weight 4.! No lungs 5.! Internal fertilization with brood care ! ! !12 •! 3 particularly informative parts of birds that tell you about their ecology 1.! Beak- keratinized with no teeth 2.! Wing shape 3.! Foot morphology •! Monogamy vs. polygamy in birds 1.! Both are common in birds 2.! Polygamy polygyny- most common !! One male, multiple females !! Best chance for good offspring •! Reproductive behaviors of birds 1.! Care for eggs- nests 2.! Brood parasitism- mother bird goes to nest of another species and takes out bird from that egg and replaces it with her own offspring 3.! Monogamy and polygamy common •! What group of birds is most diverse? 1.! Passerines Mammals •! Were there mammals alive when dinosaurs were alive? •! Skull changed between reptiles and mammals 1.! Brain size 2.! Jaw musculature – mammals have fused jaws 3.! Ear bone arrangement – reptiles have bones that connect the jaw to the ear bone •! Were the mammals diverse before last major mass extinction? 1.! No •! Characteristics of mammals 1.! Lactation – young born less developed 2.! Glands in skin •! 3 major lineages of extant mammals (and their identifying traits) 1.! Monotremes – mammals that lay eggs 2.! Marsupials – short gestation (time between conception and birth) and long lactation; have a pouch ! ! ! 13 3.! Placentals – long gestation, short lactation, well developed young at birth •! Patterns of mammal diversity 1.! Greatest diversity is in Tropics 2.! Bergmann’s Rule – body mass increases with latitude •! Are mammals relatively successful among major organismal clades? 1.! Yes – if we only use number of species as the metric Anthropocene and Biodiversity •! The Anthropocene is the period of time during which humans have modified the environment, but it’s controversial as to the actual beginning of this epoch •! Major human modifications to: 1.! Agriculture- deforestation 2.! Mining- greatly changes the habitat 3.! Water works- changing the flows of rivers (damns) and reducing sizes of lakes 4.! Transport of species •! How have these modifications changed ecosystems and influence evolution? 1.! Led to a growth in human population 2.! Changed ecosystem/environment •! How are we protecting biodiversity? 1.! Promoting helping the environment 2.! Helping wildlife 3.! Research QUIZLET Link: https://quizlet.com/_297kw4 Password: icecream ** Note that if you try this Quizlet on Monday, I may not have it completed yet, but it will definitely be done by Monday night. Remember for MWF 11:15 KECK class, our final is Thursday the 5 at 10:15 till 12:15 in our normal room. ! ! !14
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