Human Growth and Development Final Exam Study Guide
Human Growth and Development Final Exam Study Guide PSY 204
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by erin_cook Notetaker on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 204 at Berkshire Community College taught by Jason Chiang in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Human Growth and Development in Psychlogy at Berkshire Community College.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
● The rate of physical growth is most rapid during the first year of life. Babies typically triple their birth weight and by the end of the first year, their height will increase by about 50 percent by the end of the first year on an average. ● Piaget’s 1 & 2 stage ○ Sensorimotor ■ Learn through senses and motor abilities ○ Preoperational ■ engage in symbolic/pretend play, do not yet understand concrete logic ● object permanence ○ Awareness that an object or person continue to exist even when out of sight ● Did Piaget underestimate or overestimate young children’s cognitive abilities? ● The 1 three stages of Erikson’s theory ○ Trust VS. Mistrust (infancy) ■ Other people, themselves, the world ○ Autonomy VS. Shame & Doubt (age 2) ■ Assert independence, making own choices ○ Initiative VS. Guilt (early childhood) ■ Assert power & control over world through social interaction ● Attachment theory’s criticisms ○ Nature VS. Nurture - parents are not always to blame for child's personality/behavior ○ Attachment - only observed stressful situations, only observed primary attachment figure (mother) excluded siblings, etc., mother is not always primary attachment figure ● Strange Situation Experiment ○ Ainsworth was observing exploration behavior, reunion behavior, stranger anxiety, separation anxiety ■ Mother, baby, stranger ■ Stranger leaves, mother & baby ■ Stranger joins mother & baby ■ Mother leaves, stanger & baby alone ■ Mother returns, stranger leaves (reunion) ■ Mother leaves, baby alone ■ Stranger returns ■ Mother returns, stranger leaves (reunion) The four types of attachment styles ○ Secure ■ Express distress when mother leaves, comforted when mother return, greet the mother ○ Anxious ■ Express distress when mother leaves, express anger when mother returns, doesn’t give chance of reconciliation ○ Avoidant ■ Doesn’t show emotion when mother leaves and when mother returns ○ Disorganized ■ Mixed avoidant and anxious behaviors ● Causality ○ Relationship between cause/effect ● Symbolic thinking ○ drawing and language as two examples ■ Shape, color, name Phonemes ● Basic sounds of infant language Babbling ● 6 month milestone Telegraphic speech ● Only transmit most important message Weight gain is mostly fat during the first 9 months During the first 3 years of life, children’s physical growth occur in spurts after periods of no growth During the first 3 years of life, boys are often slightly heavier than girls At birth, first born is usually lighter than the second born At birth, girls are usually lighter than boys ● The father of Attachment theory ○ John Bolby ■ Attachment begins at infancy and continues through life Language development ● Comprehension often goes ahead of production ● Between 10 to 12 months a child can no longer discriminate sounds not in their native language. Syntax ● Rules for putting sentences together Scale error ● Attempt to perform a task that is impossible because of extreme size differences ○ Small slide, mini car During early childhood ● Cartilage turns to bone at a faster rate, and bones become harder ● Body fat shows a steady decline and muscular growth progresses, making children stronger ● Children gradually lose their chubbiness and become thinner, and take on more athletic look ● Gross motor skills more developed than fine motor skills ● Boys show better gross motor skills compared to girls ● Boys and girls tend to prefer different types of play styles ● The number of children they play with at one time tends to increase compared to earlier stage. ● The overall interactions with peers tend to be positive. ● Because of the increased capacity of the respiratory and circulatory system, children have far more energy than toddlers. ● Children are able to change direction while running ● Children tend to have difficulty with empathy ● Children tend to have difficulty decenter ○ Consider all factors in a situation Egocentrism ● Children tend to have difficulty knowing others might not necessarily share their view Seriation ● Children tend to have difficulty putting object into order Conservation ● Children tend to have difficulty understanding that quantities remain the same, even if their appearance changes Irreversibility ● Children tend to have difficulty mentally going through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse their order Nightmare V.S. Night terror ● Nightmare - Wake up, go back to sleep, remember experience ● Night terror - Don’t wake up, no recollection of experience What is the best approach to deal with children with night terror? ● Do not wake up Symbolic function ● Think about people, places & things that are not present; use words, numbers & images to represent them Pretend play ● To have an object represent something else (stick = sword) Deferred imitation ● Remember events and repeat them in different situation Centration ● To focus on only one aspect of a situation Transductive reasoning ● Mentally link events close in time ○ Cause of rain, divorce Social aggression ● Behavior that is intended to harm friendships, social status, or self esteem Inductive reasoning ● Specific → Broad ○ Jerry is a bartender. Bartenders are friendly. Jerry is friendly. deductive reasoning ● Broad → Specific ○ All cats have keen sense of smell. Fluffy is a cat. Fluffy has keen sense of smell. Aggression tends to decrease with age overall Aggression tends to persist if children live in an environment that reinforces aggression Boys tend to show physical aggression, while girls show social aggression ● Boys - rough playing ● Girls - insults, social rejection According to Maccoby and Martin: *Warmth=Responsive ● Authoritative - high warmth, high demandingness *Demand=Control ● Authoritarian - low warmth, high demandingness ● Permissive -high warmth, low demandingness ● Neglectful - low warmth, low demandingness Baumrind only came up with three types of parental control, they are: ● Authoritative - Strict, controlling, no communication ● Authoritarian - ● Permissive - Possible outcomes of authoritarian parenting ● Difficulty expressing love, dependent personality, & low self-esteem Social class and parenting style ● Authoritative parenting is most often found among White families ● According to Chao (1994), Asian American children perceive strict control (i.e. guan) as parental love and care ● Research suggests that both Asian American children and African American children are benefited from authoritarian parenting behaviors The effects of physical punishment on children of different races ● African American children less likely to be negatively affected by physical punishment than white or Latino ○ Dangerous neighborhood: decrease in depression, delinquencies, problematic behavior; when parents practice physical punishment ⬆Children raised by permissive & neglectful parents more likely to show higher rates of delinquency, poor school performance, negative psychological well-being, higher rates of substance abuse, especially if they live in dangerous neighborhood *Remember Erikson’s idea: a person will experience difficulties/negative outcomes at next psychosocial stage if the crisis at the current stage is not successfully resolved Industry versus inferiority (5-12 years old) ● Major question: “How can I be good?” ● Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities ● children become capable of performing increasingly complex tasks. As a result, they strive to master new skills ● Encouragement = Competence ● Development of self esteem Middle childhood kids ● are motivated to accomplish more difficult tasks and master new skills ● are more self-directed in planning and carrying out activities ● are achievement-oriented Characteristics of popular children during middle childhood ● Physically attractive ● Prosocial behaviors ● Assertive ● Ability to initiate interaction Concrete operational stage (middle childhood): piaget ● Attention spans improve because of their ability to avoid distractions ● Memory improves due to enhanced ability to use memory strategies ● Only think concrete events and do not yet have the ability to hypothesize ● Cannot yet think abstractly ● Show improvement in the cognitive limitations of the previous stage (e.g. conservation) ● Cause-effect reasoning Kohlberg’ morality development theory ● Understanding of one stage up ● Most stop stage 3-4, very few stage 6 Level 1, stage 1 ● Obedience & punishment orientation ● Whatever is rewarded is good ● Whatever is punished is bad Level 1, stage 2 ● Self-interest & simple exchange ● “I'll do something for you if you do something for me” ● Fairness = treating everyone equally Level 2, stage 3 ● Interpersonal accord & conformity ● Conform to stereotype of “good” person for peer approval Level 2, stage 4 ● Law and duty to the social order ● Good is defined by laws of society ● Law should be obeyed even if unfair Level 3, stage 5 ● Societal consensus ● Unfair law should be changed ● Knows something is wrong even if unpopular opinion Level 3, stage 6 ● Universal ethics principle ● Emphasis on human rights ● Good is understood whether society agrees or not Identity versus role confusion ● Who am I, what is my purpose, etc ● The earlier this is known the better or child will be catching up Marcia’s four Identity Statuses Identity status - crisis & commitment ● Crisis ○ period of exploration ● Commitment ○ personal investment in an occupation or system of belief ● Moratorium ○ Presence of exploration, Absence of commitment ● Foreclosure ○ Presence of commitment, Absence of exploration ● Defusion ○ No commitment or exploration ● Achievement ○ Commitment after exploration Cliques ● Diminish during late adolescence ● Peer pressure & conformity decrease during late adolescence Formal operational stage (adolescent) ● personal fable ○ Belief of being special/unique leads to risk taking ● show signs of introspection ○ Ability to think about thoughts/beliefs - lead to arguing/rebelling ● abstract thinking emerged ○ What if? ● Pseudo stupidity ○ Making something more complicated than needed ● Imaginary audience ○ Think they are center of everyone's world Amygdala ● Almond shaped structure in temporal lobe ● Main function ○ Regulate aggression, fear, anxiety Adolescent physical development ● Males = good ○ Sports ○ Social status ○ Girls ● Girls = bad ○ Parent conflict (dating) Instrumental V.S. hostile aggression ● Instrumental ○ Aggression aimed @ obtaining or protecting something ● Hostile ○ Intentional physical/verbal attacks aimed @ retaliating for perceived insults or getting a victim to do what aggressor wants ○ Physical vs relational Love The eight types of love & the definition and characteristics of each ● Non-love (None) ● Liking (basic friendship) (Intimacy only) ● Infatuated love (Passion only) ● Empty love (Commitment only) ● Romantic love (early relationship) (Passion & intimacy) ● Companionate love (best friend) (Intimacy & commitment) ● Fatuous love (Passion & commitment) ● Consummate love (All) The 4 explanations of child aggression ● Biological ○ 50% of variability in aggression can be attributed to genetic makeup ○ Higher testosterone = more aggression ○ Two types of temperament ■ Sensitivity - over stimulation ■ Greater need for regularity ● Frustration / aggression ○ Aggression caused by frustration ○ Different ideas of frustration ● Distorted perception ○ Thinking that someone is being mean when not actually ● Learning explanation ○ Men & women treated socially different ○ Women are discouraged from showing aggressive behaviors ○ More socially accepted for girls to manipulate & sabotage another person's self- esteem & social status Social learning theory and Physical Punishment ● Attend, remember, repeat, reinforce ● Physical punishment ○ teach child not to get caught next time ○ Models aggressive behavior ○ Aggression is only option to handle frustration
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