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Soc 101- Exam 4 Review

by: Gabriela Beraja

Soc 101- Exam 4 Review SOC101

Marketplace > University of Miami > Sociology > SOC101 > Soc 101 Exam 4 Review
Gabriela Beraja
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About this Document

Soc 101- Exam 4 Review Study Guide for chapters 6,11,&13
Introduction to Sociology
Katelyn Rozenbroek
Study Guide
health, medicine, deviance, family
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriela Beraja on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC101 at University of Miami taught by Katelyn Rozenbroek in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
SOC 101- Exam 4 Review Guide Gabriel1 Beraja Chapter 16 - Health and Medicine  Health o Extent to which a person experiences a state of mental, physical, and social well-being o Excellent health can not be achieved in purely physical terms  Medicine o Institutionalized system for the scientific diagnosis of, treatment, and prevention o Focuses on identify and treating physiological and psychological conditions that prevent a person from achieving a state of normal health  Preventative Medicine o Medicine that emphasizes a healthy lifestyle that will prevent poor health before it occurs  Sick Role o Culturally determined accepted behaviors to being sick o Rights excused from social responsibilities and not held responsible for illness o Obligations  to get better by seeking medical help o Talcott Parsons— (fundamentalist perspective) the role of a “sick person” includes the right to be excused from social responsibilities and other “normal” social roles  Medical Deviance o Put a medical label on deviance  Ex: RLS  restless leg syndrome, ADHD 11% of kids between ages of 4-17 years old are diagnosed and boys are diagnosed more than girls are  Health Care o All those activities intended to sustain, promote, and enhance health o An adequate health care system includes:  More than the provision of medical services for those who need them  Policies that minimize violence and chance of accidents  Nontoxic environment  Ecological protection  Availability of clean water, fresh air, and sanitary living conditions o US government money to construct safe highways, provide clean drinking water, and eliminate or reduce air and ground pollution o Laws regular working conditions with the aim of promoting healthy and safe workplace environments  Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration  responsible for enforcing stringent regulations intended to guard lives and health of US workers o Local health inspectors visit restaurants and grocery stores to check food handled in sanitary manner and agricultural inspectors check the quality of US and imported food products o States require seat belts, motorcyclists to wear helmets, and children to be strapped into car seats  reduce fatalities and injuries in road accidents 1 SOC 101- Exam 4 Review Guide Gabriela2 Beraja o US violence  more than other modern countries o Efforts to protect victims of domestic violence  fall short because batterers often given a pass by those hesitant to interfere and because victims lack resources to leave their abusers or fear comebacks o Black Americans  more likely to be victims of homicide o Women  more likely to be killed by intimate partners  Social Inequalities in Health o Social class curve: poor people are more likely than their better-off counterparts to suffer chronic illnesses and die earlier o Recessions and economic slumps  straining ability to afford quality food and health care o Lower-income people  live in areas with high levels of air pollution  risk of asthma, heart disease, and cancer rise o Greater probability of exposure to violence and the mental and physical health problems that entails o Work  involve physical and health risks than is the work of middle- and upper-class people o Less healthy diets than higher-income counterparts  inexpensive foods may be highly processed, fatty, and higher in sugar o Children in poor communities lack of access to safe places for active outdoor play and exercise o Less likely to perceive symptoms of illness as requiring attention from a physician o Poor mothers are less likely to have access to prenatal care  Fundamental Cause Theory (1995) o Causes multiple disease outcomes  Socio-economic status is a cause allows you to navigate your health better  (1) Knowledge: health literacy (higher SES, more involved)  (2) Money: better insurance, better options  (3) Power and Prestige: ability to create change  (4) Social Networking: better doctor-patient interaction between intra-racial groups o Herbert Gans  because poverty is positively functional for the nonpoor, its elimination could be costly for more economically well-off and powerful groups  Ex: unapproved antibiotic was tested by a major pharmaceutical company on sick children during meningitis epidemic in Nigeria  disease victims were treated as test subjects rather than patients o Tuskegee Study  1930s Black males with syphilis were intentionally left untreated so researchers could study the progress of the disease  Access to health care o As SES increases, outcomes rise o Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)  Established by President Barack Obama in 2010  Expand insurance coverage to broader people  Many of whom had been locked out of the insurance market due to preexisting conditions or unaffordability of individual insurance policies  Requires everyone to buy insurance and that private insurance offer coverage under new terms  people say US government is overstepping limits of its power 2 SOC 101- Exam 4 Review Guide Gabriela3 Beraja  Permit young people up to age 26 to remain on their parents’ health insurance policies if they do not have other coverage o In 2010 (3 years after start of the Great Recession and shortly before the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act)  US Census Bureau reported more than 16% of people in the US were without health insurance (highest figure in 23 years)  Key source of decline  economic crisis & rise of unemployment because US adults get health insurance coverage from their employers o Medicare  elder insurance program that covers most of those ages 65 and over & some younger residents with disabilities o Medicaid  shared federal and state insurance program that provides coverage for many poor adults and children but must meet stringent financial qualifications o State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)  cover more uninsured children o Working poor and lower-income employees who are shut out of insurance coverage altogether  work in fast-food restaurants, retail establishments  provide few or no insurance benefits to employees, while earning too little to afford self-coverage but too much to qualify for government health coverage  Public heath o Science and practice of health protection and maintenance at a community level  Educate public about hazards of tobacco use, smoking, teen pregnancy and obesity o Second hand smoking  exposes 88 million nonsmokers to measurable levels of toxic chemicals associated with cigarette smoke o Tobacco is #1 cause of death in US  claiming more than 443,000 lives each year and surpassing the toll from alcohol, homicide, suicide, drugs, auto accidents, and AIDS combined  Life expectancy o In US 2010  Overall  78.7 years old  White woman  81.3 years old  Black women  78.2 years old  White men  76.6 years old  Black men 72.1 years old  Morbidity o Rate of illness  Mortality o Rate of death  Obesity and BMI o Major cause to mortality, second to smoking o Black > American Indians > Hispanic > White > Asian/Pacific Islander o More prone to have health problems which include heart attacks and type 2 diabetes o Agricultural advances have led to an abundance of cheap food, availability of junk food risen, and food advertising has expanded o Driven by biological, genetic, environmental, social and economic factors 3 SOC 101- Exam 4 Review Guide Gabriel4 Beraja Chapter 6 – Deviance and Social Control  Deviance— reaction against something; any behavior, action, practice, or condition, including those that violate cultural norms or societal laws, that results in disapproval, hostility, or sanction if it becomes known o Ex: tattoos might be deviant, but not criminal  not all deviances are criminal  (1) Noncriminal attitudes usually  (2) Not restricted to specific groups, genders, or age ranges (no class bounds)  (3) Include things that are not consciously chosen  medical conditions, mental or physical illnesses, physical defects and abnormalities  (4) Relative, subjective concept  Crime—an act defined in the law as punishable by fines, imprisonment, or both  Strain theory (Merton) o Argues that societal pressures inhibit the ability of people to fulfill their needs, causing them to experience stress, or strain, and turn to crime to satisfy those needs Goals Means Conformity + + Innovation + - Ritualism - + 4 SOC 101- Exam 4 Review Guide Gabriela5 Beraja Retreatism - - Rebellion +/- +/-  Labeling Theory (societal reaction theory) o Symbolic interactionist approach holding that deviance is a product of the labels people attach to certain types of behavior o Influence how people conduct themselves  Types of Deviance (by Edward Lemert) o (1) Every day deviance  Recognize pluralistic nature of US society  Brood spectrum of acts from plagiarism to underage alcohol consumption, spitting, shoplifting, smoking, etc. o (2) Sexual deviance  Choices we make in terms of those with whom we begin intimate relationships with and where they are carried out o (3) Deviance of the powerful  Most powerful people in public life engage in many of the same types of deviances as ordinary men and women  Fraudulent reporting of corporate profits, misleading of investors, bribery, corruption, misuse of public trust, etc. o (4) Criminal deviance  Acts that are sometimes considered deviant and are defined under the law as punishable by fines, imprisonment, or both  Primary Deviance o Occurs at the moment an activity is labeled as deviant by others  Secondary Deviance o Occurs when a person labeled deviant accepts label as part of his or her identity and begins to act in conformity with the label  UCR v NCVS – FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports and the collection of survey data from individuals and households across country via National Crime Victimization Survey 5 SOC 101- Exam 4 Review Guide Gabriela6 Beraja Chapter 11 – Families and Society  Family—two or more individuals who identify themselves as being related to one another, usually by blood, marriage, or adoption, and who share intimate relationships and dependency  Marriage—a culturally approved relationship, usually between two individuals, that provides a degree of economic cooperation, emotional intimacy, and sexual activity  Monogamy—form of marriage with one spouse at a time  Polygamy—form of marriage with more than one spouse at a time  Polygyny—form of marriage in which a man may have multiple wives  Polyandry—form of marriage in which a woman may have multiple husbands  Endogamy—limited to partners who are members of the same social group or caste  Exogamy—custom of marrying outside social group  Nuclear family—social groups consisting of one or two parents and their biological, dependent children, living in a household with no other kin  Extended family—social groups consisting of one or more parents, children, and other kin, often spanning several generations, living in the same household  Fictive kin—a term used to describe kinship or social ties that are based on neither blood ties nor by marriage; fictive = not-real  Cohabitation—living together as a couple without being legally married  Changing family compositions o In US composition of families and the roles within families are shifting  Age at first marriage has risen  Rates of marriage have declined (less educated)  Non-marital births account for more than 40% of all births 6 SOC 101- Exam 4 Review Guide Gabriela7 Beraja  Divorce has leveled off but remains at a high level  Same-sex marriage has growing public support o Family may be site of violence such as spousal, child, and elder abuse o Effects of globalization include changes in household income and employment opportunities. Women from developing countries often leave their homes and children to work for families in the developing world. 7


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