Sociology Exam 4 Final Study Guide
Sociology Exam 4 Final Study Guide Soci 20213
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Machuga on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soci 20213 at Texas Christian University taught by Michelle Edwards in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Courtney Hartwell Intro to Sociology Dr. Edwards Exam #4 Study Guide ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY Capitalism: economic system in which property and goods are primarily privately owned o Development has been heavily influenced by globalization (from colonialism to contemporary globalization) and technology (agricultural revolution, large scale factory production) Adam Smith: father of modern economics individual self interest (with others acting similarly/some system of basic laws) leads to competition/ eventually produce economic prosperity, sees free-market economics as the most productive Karl Marx: believes capitalism is doomed & will self-destruct, it causes alienation from the product, from the process, from other people, and from one’s self o Chicken farms no control, big company runs farm Max Weber: new world of rationalized efficiency has turned into a monster that threatens to dehumanize its creators o Said capitalism eats at the soul o Bureaucracy and rationality associated with capitalism create an “iron cage” we can’t escape Marx & Weber both thought as capitalism as a negative Weber’s Theory of Rationality: o Modern society uses universally-applied laws, regulations, and rules to make decisions “I’m sorry I’m just doing my job” Bureaucracy: o the consequence of rationalization o Characterizations: Hierarchical structure Specialized positions/clear division of labor Well established formal rules Impersonality (detachment- lack of personal responsibility) Merit based hiring/promotion Ritzer’s McDonaldization Theory of Rationalization: o Formal rationality is now best exemplified not by bureaucracies but by fast food restaurants o Efficiency choice of “optimum” means to an end o Calculability emphasis on quantity rather than quality o Predictability no surprises o Control through substituting humans with technology technology provides greater control Ways for corporations to increase profits: o Keep costs low with efficient production (possibly bypassing environmental concerns) o Lower labor costs (offshoring labor = move company’s operations abroad) POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY Political sociology: o Study questions related to power and authority o Examine the relationship between the “state” (governing body) ad civil society (the people) Power: o Ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others Paradox of authority: o States derive authority from implicit threat of physical force, but resorting to coercion strips the state of legitimate authority ultimately more effective Coercion: o Practice of persuading someone to do something by using force or threat Legitimate Authority: the justifiable right to exercise power o Charismatic authority: based on the personal appeal of an individual leader (Hitler) o Traditional authority: based on appeals to the past or traditions (British Royal family) o Legal-rational authority: based on legal, impersonal rules (Government, police officers) Routinization: clear, rule-governed procedures used repeatedly for decision making Rationalization: ever-expanding process of ordering/organizing Attached to roles not individuals Democracy: o System of government where in power theoretically lies with the people (citizens vote, speak freely, participate as legal equals) Dictatorship: o Restricts to small group or individual Trust in government: o American public trust in the government has dropped o More trust in local/state officials than federal Two-Party Political System: o Parties are well established (have good leadership, financial networks, etc.) o Use resources to stay in power o Dominate media coverage Political polarization: o Our political leaders (party elite) have become more polarized o Democrats and republicans are more ideologically divided than ever before o Makes a middle course less likely o Right/left more likely to vote and donate to campaign in comparison to those who are in between Voter turnout: o Ages 45-64 are the highest o Age 18-29 are the lowest ENVIRONMENT Environmental sociology: o Study of the relationship between the society and the environment Human impacts environment: o Ecological footprint o Food/water o Pollution o Use (cutting wood, cement, etc) Environment impacts humans: o Where people chose to live o Environmental goods and services o Survival o Protection Environmental benefits: o Wealthy usually get these: Area good weather Parks, trail systems Yard with trees Green grass Environmental burdens: o Poor usually get these: Lead poisoning Air pollution Exposure of asthma Pesticide exposure Occupational health/safety issues Decaying house conditions Location of hazardous waste/landfills Unequal enforcement of environmental laws Lack of access to quality health care Classical sociological theory is overly anthropocentric (human-centered approach) Environmental inequality: o Began in 1970s and 1980s o People began documenting patterns of sociological inequality and environmental harm o Disproportionate environmental harms and hazards experienced by marginalized people Economic explanations: o Polluting corporations do not intentionally discriminate but instead find places where land/labor are cheap Race-based explanations: o How racism causes decision-makers to see people of color as already less valued or “polluted” or the “path of least resistance” Disparate siting: o Hazardous waste sites, polluting industrial facilities, and other environmental bads are placed near where minorities and poor people live Post-sitting demographic changes: o After siting, increasing numbers of minorities and poor move to these areas Evidence supporting each of the arguments: o Methodical approach Did researchers focus on zip code, census tract, city, county, state? Did researchers look at one time period or over time? Environmental Justice Movement: o Calls for the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people (regardless of class, race, sex, etc.) with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies o Fair treatment: no group should bear a disproportionate share of negative environmental consequences resulting from industrial, governmental, and or commercial operations or policies o Meaningful involvement: people have an opportunity to participate in decisions about activities that may affect their environment and or health (public concerns will be considered in decision making process by regulatory agencies) o Lack of representation: people of color and low-income individuals tend to have low representation in the decision- making and staff positions of environmental agencies and regulatory bodies SCIENCE o Sociological views of science: o Science is constantly influenced by political & social factors, these biases are manifested through the type of research that scientists decide to pursue o Normative views of science: o The notion that science should be unaffected by the personal beliefs or values of scientists but rather follow objective rules of evidence, the way science ought to be conducted o Political party affiliation & public trust in scientific community: o President’s position empowers him to make decisions about funding for science: George W. Bush’s allowing funding for embryonic stem cell research o Manhattan Project: WW2, US leaders researched atomic weapons under leadership of US Army Corps of Engineers because Nazis o Perceptions of global climate change: o Some disagreement in scientific community about causes of global warming, but vast majority of scientists acknowledge that it traces back to human activities o Environmental countermovement: o Main tactic = environmental skepticism o Challenge environmental policies by questioning the seriousness of the problems & the validity of environmental science o Try to make it seem like there isn’t a consensus, make people think there is doubt & question about issues o Climate change as global problem: o Extreme weather patterns like prolonged heat waves & more hurricanes portend drastic consequences for society o Drivers waste millions of gallons of gas in traffic, adding CO2 to atmosphere
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