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History Exam Final

by: Emily Beasley

History Exam Final HIST 112 009

Emily Beasley
GPA 3.775

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Notes for the Final
United States History since 1865
Study Guide
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Popular in United States History since 1865

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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Beasley on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 112 009 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views.


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Date Created: 05/02/16
1.   Eisenhower  and  Modern  Republicanism   o   Modern  Republicanism -­  resisting  federal  intervention  in  the  economy  and  social  aspects   for  American  life   o   Did  not  want  complete   “laissez  faire”  but  wanted  less  government  control     o   Eisenhower  increased  the  Tru man  loyalty  program  but  did  not  buy  into  the  anti -­ Communist  fervor       o   Believed  that  government  should  be  left  up  to  the  states  and  private  business     o   However,  he  increased  the  number  of  workers  under  Social  Security,  increased   minimum  wage,  and  created  the  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,   and  distributed  a  polio  vaccine   o   Interstate  Highway  and  Defense  System  Act  of  1956-­  made  highways  to  connect  the   country  and  paid  for  by  increased  fue l  and  vehicle  taxes     o   While  it  was  helpful  it  led  to  air  pollution,  energy  consumption,   and  declining   railroads.       2.   Kitchen  Debate   •   Nixon  and  Khrushchev  (Soviet  Premier)  met  at  an  American  Exhibit  in  Moscow     •   While  in  the  “kitchen”  exhibit  they  discussed   the  pros  of  capitalism  and  communism  in   the  contest  of  postwar  prosperity   •   Showed  a  cultural  exchange  in  the  middle  of  the  Cold  War   •   It  was  a  civil  encounter  and  a  friendly  discussion   •   Opened  up  the  communication  between  Soviet  Union  and  US     3.   Betty  Friedan   o   Helped  found  the  Nation al  Organization  for  Women  (NOW)  in  1966   o   Wanted  equal  treatment  of  women   o   Supported  Feminism       4.   Cuban  Missile  Crisis   Background:   o   Fidel  Castro  led  a  revolution  against  the  Cub an  government   o   Soviets  became  interested  in  Cuba       o   1962  Soviet  Union  tried  to  establish  a   nuclear  outpost  in  Cuba   o   Kennedy  ordered  CIA  to  invade  Cuban  to  aid  the  stop  of  the  revolution   o   1961  at  the  Bay  of  Pigs  in  Cuba,  CIA  agents  fel l  to  Castro’s  forces  after  refusing  to   provide  support  to  the  uprising               What  happened:   o   1962  Khrushchev  installed  nuclear  missiles  in  Cuba  to  support  Castro ’s  forces  and   protect  them  from  US   o   CIA  found  out  about  them  through  surveying  the  land   and  taking  pictures  of  the  missiles   o   Kennedy  said  that  any  Soviet  ship  believed  to  have  more  missiles  on  board  for  Cuba   would  be  turned  away  and  that  any  attack  would  trigger  a   “nuclear  assault”     o   Kennedy  and  Khrushchev  came  to  an  agreement   o   Soviets  removed  missiles  and  promised  not  to  bring  new  weapons  to  Cuba     o   US  promised  not  to  invade  Cuba       5.   Voting  Rights  Act  of  1965   o   Banned  literacy  test  (they  were  impossibly  complicated  to  disqualify  black  voters)   o   Authorized  federal  intervention  so  that  black  could  access  the  voting  booths.       6.   Phyllis  Schlafly   o   Author  of  “A  Choice  not  an  Echo”     o   Organized  STOP  ERA   o   Aka  stop  taking  women’s  privileges     o   Wanted  women  the  same  as  men   o   There  are  God  given  differences  between  the  two   o   Almost  made  it  possible  for  women  to  be  drafted  and  fight  on  the  frontline   o   ERA  was  dangerous  because  they  supported  unisex  bathrooms,  it  undermined  the  role   of  the  homemaker   o   She  was  against  the  feminist  movem ent     7.   Black  Power  Movement   o   Economic  self-­determination  of  the  Afric an  Americans   o   Black  ownership  of  governing   institutions   o   Urban-­focused   o   Rejection  of  nonviolence   o   Increased  value  of  African  heritage   o   “Black  is  Beautiful”     o   Black  Panther’s  wanted:   o   Full  employment   o   End  to  economic  exploitation   o   Housing   o   End  to  police  brutality  and  oppression   o   Fair  trials  for  black   defendants     o   Arrest  of  Huey  Newton  energizes  and  divides   o   Movement  prompted  considerable   backlash     8.   Presidential  Election  of  1968   o   Nixon  verses  Humphrey     o   Nixon’s  Southern  Strategy     o   Busing   §   Black  students  are  “bused  in”  to  predominantly  white  community  schools   and  white  students  are   “bused  in”  to  predominantly  black  community   schools  to  enforce  “defacto”  desegregation  where  it  exists   §   Unpopular  with  white  parents   •   They  didn’t  want  their  kids  to  move  to  black  schools   §   Triggers  property  rights  arguments  and  ends  up  in  courtrooms     o   In  exchange  for  their  endorsement  in  the  south  Nixon  promises  Strom  Thurmond   and  Jesses  Helms  that  he  will  not  nominate  supreme  court  judges  who  would   block  busing  cases   o   Prompts  many  southerners  to  vote  republican  for  the  first  time     9.   Détente   o   Instead  of  focusing  on  containment,  focusing  on  arms  control  and  trade   o   The  new  strategy  of  Nixon  for  US -­Chinese  relations   o   Made  little  process  after  1974     10.  Pentagon  Papers   o   A  secret  study  of  war  that  had  begun  in  1967   o   The  New  York  Times  published  parts  of  the  Papers     o   The  papers  revealed  pessimism  from   officials  on  the  Vietnam  war     o   Only  confirmed  the  public ’s  fear  that  it  was  a  mistake  to  go  to  Vietnam   o   Release  of  the  Papers  decreased  military  morale     11.  Reagan  Doctrine   o   Reagan  supported  military  build  up     o   “Peace  through  strength”     o   US  supported  third  world  countries  militaries  in  an  effort  to  cripple  the  Soviet  Unions   economy  (Soviet  Union  lost  money  because  they  couldn’t  keep  up  with  US)   o   US  gave  money  and  weapons  to  “freedom  fighters”  in  these  third  world  countries   o   Strategic  Defense  Initiative  started  nuclear  buildup   o   Causes  US  debt  to  go  from  $994  billion  to  $2.4  trill ion  in  9  years     12.  Iran  Contra  Scandal   o   Iran  Contra:  It  was  a  conspiracy  to  sell  weapons  to  Iran  to  ransom  US  hostages  and  fund   the  anti-­communist  fighters  in  Nicaragua   o   Sandinistas  vs.  Contras   o   Sandinistas  rebelled  against  the  Dictator  of  Nicaragua,  Somoza   §   Soviet  Union  was  friendly  with  them   §   US  was  against  them   §   For  communism   §   Wanted/  encouraged  communism  in  neighboring  countries   o   Contras   §   US  supported  financially   §   Were  counter  revolutionaries     §   US  gave  them  weapons   §   1982  Media  leaded  the  contra’s  human  violations  (mad e  the  US  look  bad   but  they  still  supported)   o   Boland  Amendment  (Congress  passed)     o   US  could  not  use  fund  for  overthrowing  the  Nicaraguan  government   o   Reagan  ignored  and  found  “loop  hole”     §   Sold  weapons  to  Iran  and  used  the  money  to  fund  Contras     §   Lebanese  newspaper  broke  story  about  the  diversion  of  money   §   US  stopped  selling  weapons   o   Boland  II   o   US  cannot  help  the  Contras  IN  ANY  WAY     13.  Mikhail  Gorbachev   o   Took  power  in  the  Soviet  Union  in   1985   o   Wanted  to  stimulate  production  and  streamline  consumer  needs   o   Allowed  elections   o   People  were  allowed  to  freely  challenge  communism  in  the  Soviet  Union   o   Came  to  an  agreement  with  Reagan     o   Intermediate-­range  nuclear  forces  agreement   §   HUGE  change  in  US -­Soviet  Union  relationship   §   Got  rid  of  all  missiles  in   Europe     §   First  time  both  countries  agreed  to  get  rid  of  weapons  they  already  had     o   Gorbachev  withdrew  his  troops  from  Afghanistan     o   An  agreement  with  US,  Soviet  Union,  and  Cuba  over  the  civil  war  in  Angola  ended  the   Cold  War    


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