PSY 337, Final Exam
PSY 337, Final Exam PSY 337
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Razan Alkhazaleh on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 337 at Pace University taught by Samantha Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychological Counseling in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Razan for help in class!
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Psychological Counseling FINAL EXAM— May 4, 2016 • Transference and Countertransference: form of projection • Transference: client redirecting feelings onto the therapist • Countertransference: when therapist redirects feelings onto the client • You may be curious about your client, but your curiosity should remain to yourself if it does not beneﬁt your client— ask yourself if the statement/question is to beneﬁt your client • Building Rapport: introducing perspective without minimizing, acknowledging without exacerbating, ask LEADING questions— ex. “do you drink a lot of alcohol?” vs. “how often/ much do you drink?” • Beneﬁts: client will be more comfortable, and open • Interviewing Process: eliciting data • Invitational Skills: • nonverbal: eye contact, positive attentive silence, tone, physical distance, expressions, gestures, touch, etc. • verbal: open and closed ended questions Reﬂecting Skills: mirror the client to let them know you're listening • • Paraphrasing: brieﬂy restating facts, and thoughts in a different and nonjudgmental way (reﬂect feelings, meanings and summarize) • Challenging Skills: giving feedback/confrontation— only after rapport is developed • “We’ve been meeting for ‘x’ amount of weeks. I hear you say that you want to change ‘x’.” • “I am wondering why you turn down ideas?” • “What are some steps we can take today/this week?” • Therapeutic Road Map: • relationship building assessment • • intervention/action • evaluation and reﬂection • giving feedback/confrontation • REBT: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy— by Albert Ellis • believes that people are irrational by nature • (A)ctivating event • (B)elief • (C)onsequence Albert Ellis term: “Musterbating”— this must happen, things must go my way, etc. • Therapeutic Alliance: rational agreement between patient and therapist where expectations of the experience, relationship, outcome and goals are established • 7 Elements of a Successful Therapeutic Relationship: • The Presence of Trust • Sincerity • Humor • Accessibility • Empathy • Expertise • Empathy: ability to understand and unconditionally accept the feelings of another • Sympathy: feeling pity and sorrow for someone else misfortune • Self-disclosure: • facts about themselves (counselor) • mistakes when disclosing: • too deep • poorly times • doesn’t match clients situation • examples of too deep self disclosure: • client reacts to helper, rather than focus on what they would beneﬁt from • inappropriate: “when i was going through my 3rd divorce, i thought something was wrong with me” • appropriate: “i have been through a divorce myself, and i can relate to those feelings” • example of poor timing: • situation: clients mother died last week • inappropriate: i know how you feel because my mother died 5 years ago and it was a long time before i got over it” • appropriate: “i dont know exactly what you're going through but i do know a little of what it’s like to lose someone that close. i can guess it has been a painful time” • example of not matching: • situation: client receives sports college scholarship, but is having trouble achieving good grades to attend. no one in family has attended college.” inappropriate: once i wanted to go to a prep school that cost 20k a year but i couldn't go • because my family couldn't afford it • appropriate: i can relate to your story in that I've had goals in my life that i wanted badly. it must be frustrating • Attentive silence: • present without interference • allows client moments for reﬂection • used too much or too early can make the client uncomfortable • clients feel more positive about session if counselor talks 1/3rd of the time or less Reﬂecting Feelings: • • emotional intelligence: ability to monitor/acknowledge own feelings/emotions to take in and use as a guide towards actions and thoughts • this coveys to your client that you recognize how they are impacted by their own problems • allows client to attain deeper levels on disclosure teaches client to become aware of their emotions and to be able to report it • • Step 1: identify the feeling • Step 2: articulate underlying emotions • Understanding or Misinterpreting meaning: • counselor must be willing to go beyond facts/feelings to uncover deeper meanings • what actually happened is not as important as how the client interpreted the situation • Why reﬂect meaning: • the background of how the clients story is projected • story: perspective, not necessarily facts helps client understand the problem • • Inner Circle Strategy: challenging client to go deeper • D—C—B—A • World View: • individual view of self, others, and the world • Personal values: sources of meaning to bring to the surface • Cognitive Dissonance: inconsistencies in clients thoughts, feelings, and behaviors— creates tension that we are motivated to reduce • Constructive Goals: • speciﬁc • stated positively • simple • important to client • collaboration between client and helper • realistic • resources for identifying and clarifying • 5 Discrepancies: clients world views/beliefs • • clients previous experiences • clients verbal messages • clients nonverbal messages • clients behavior • 4 Steps to Confrontation: • understand the issue • present the challenge in a way that avoids defensiveness • observe clients response • follow up by rephrasing the challenge • Prepare client for termination: • reviewing counseling process • emphasizing client strengths/ end on a positive note • compare the clients functioning before and after address any unﬁnished work • • How to know when the client is ready for termination: (5 Questions) • Under control? • Reduced distress/coping skills • Achieved greater self awareness/relationships • Life and work more enjoyable • Client feels capable to move on • Termination: discuss a time frame— “next week we will wrap up” or “instead of once weekly, now 2x this • month until term” • Discuss relapse prevention: what can be done to avoid old habits. Role play possible future challenges • Self monitoring skills: keep records on progress after treatment (discuss a follow up?) self contracts (letter to self, as a reminder, or homework assignments for themselves) • Follow up: after termination. Brief, weeks or months later. • Ways to prevent premature termination • avoid delays in seeing the client • make contact and follow up with them between appointments make goals for the client to work on between meeting session • • stick with your client from start to ﬁnish • help orient that client in developing realistic expectations • use reminders • call your client if they don't show up for counseling • make it easy for the client to return or reschedule • talk about the therapeutic process and how it’s ﬁtting their needs • Self Efﬁcacy: feeling that depends upon the performance at hand • Self Esteem: permanent internal feeling
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