CDAE 002: FINAL STUDY GUIDE
CDAE 002: FINAL STUDY GUIDE CDAE 002
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This 42 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly Skrable on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
World, Food, Population, and Sustainable Development FINAL Development and Capitalism Development “A process of improvement” - Improve quality of life - Promote higher standards of living - End poverty and hunger - Sustainable Development- 3 ways o 1) Economic Growth o 2) Human Development (through education, health, gender) o 3) Environmental Objectives Capitalism “An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state” - Encourages the production and sale of commodities - People of Capitalism o Capitalists: accumulation of profit o Laborers: accumulation of wages o Consumers: accumulation of goods - How to make a profit o Labor is considered a commodity to be purchased or rented o To make a profit, keep the money spent on input as low as possible (minimize production costs) Fashion: Consumption and Production Commodity Chain “Linkages connecting the many places of production and consumption in a system, in order to make a commodity in the end” (gather resources, transform them into goods, distribute them to consumers) - Externalities: “a side effect or consequence of an industrial or commercial activity that affects other parties without this being reflected in the cost of goods or services” o Can cause market failure if the price mechanism does not take into account the full social and/or environmental costs/benefits of production and consumption § Positive externalities: extra money going to ipads for kids in school § Negative externalities: pollution (not taking into account environmental benefits) - Globalization: development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked by free trade, free flow of capital, and having access to cheap foreign labor markets o Interdependence: sense of equality in the markets § “I depend on you, you depend on me” o Interconnectedness: impacts on different societies § Global relations are asymmetrical § Everything affects everything else • Human and cultural activities have an impact on the Earth and the environment § Produces winners and losers Development and Globalization Maquiladoras Assembly plants in developing countries, often involving textiles, electronics, and auto parts that can be assembled with low skilled workers - Mexico - What are the advantages of developing/globalizing the textile industry for developing countries? o There is job creation for low skilled workers o The pay is higher than traditional agriculture o There is potential to learn new technical skills - What are the disadvantages? o Advancement opportunities are limited for many workers o There is NO accounting for environmental, mental, and physical health costs o Cost ownership is foreign and the plants are mobile, they want the workers to move the second they are asked - Working Class Laborer Necessities o Mobility (be able to move whenever) o Discipline (subject to new kinds) o Resistance o Segmentation (divided by race, ethnicity, age, and gender) - Averages for Maquiladoras Workers - Worker Segmentation o Segmented by Race, Religion, Ethnicity, Age, Gender o Ex) Segmentation by Race § Filipino migrant workers came to Hawaii for many reasons, but began to take Hawaiians’ jobs because Hawaii sugar planters preferred Filipinos over Hawaiians • Pitted the two peoples against each other • Factories could pay Filipinos less, also cheaper to import them to Hawaii § Ex) Segmentation by Gender • Factories tend to hire women over men o Men tend to be the managers o “More likely to be rebellious, restless, more likely to unionize” so need position of power • Women are “biologically suited for assembly work” o More docile and willing to comply o Girls below 30 are easier to train and adapt quicker (older and married women have too many obligations) • Don’t have to pay women and children as much as men Shaping Human Behavior Structure vs. Agency - Structure: Recurrent patterned arrangements which influence or limit the choices and opportunities available o Individual lives are shaped by: § Economic policies, trade agreements, job opportunities, the quality of education, family, values, and culture - Agency: Capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices o Based on individuals thoughts, actions, and power Globalizing Industries Bangladesh: labor costs: $0.22…US: $7.47 Workplace conditions in a sweatshop: low wages, long work hours, health and safety hazards, bad discipline, no job security, physical abuse, no voice in government, child labor Cotton Environmental Impacts - Water o Needs 7,000-29,000 liters of water per kg of cotton, compared to wheat that only needs 900 l/kg o Channel Irrigation (taking from rivers) or Overhead Irrigation o Top cotton producing countries are all going through fresh water withdrawal - Pesticides o Cotton pesticides are 25% of the global insecticide market o Impact of freshwater ecosystems § Drift and Soil Contamination lead to surface water contamination § Runoff and drainage water lead to groundwater contamination Uzbekistan & Cotton Production - Economic Impacts o Unemployment o Loss of fishing industry leads to no jobs § Leads to no reinvestment into the society - Social Impacts o Children being forced into labor rather than going to school o Many are affected with diseases caused by pesticides - Political Impacts o Government controls the market (dictatorship) o Concentration of wealth in the elite of business and government o No freedom of press or information - Environmental Impacts o ARAL SEA!!! Completely dried out § Contaminated water, air o Pesticides lead to birth defects Critical Thinking and Paradigms of Development Paradigms - A set of simplifying assumptions and informal theories that describe how the world works and which provides the frame of reference through which the world is viewed - “A frame of reference, A world view” Critical Thinking: Essential for understanding, evaluation, and evolving paradigms - Interpretation - Analysis - Inference - Evaluation - Explanation - Self-Regulation - Difference between Fact and Opinion o Fact: can be proven true o Opinion: a statement of a person’s feelings (can come from the facts) § Doesn’t have to be true - What are we doing with critical thinking? o Considering fundamental questions and problems o Gathering and accessing relevant information o Coming to well-reasoned conclusions o Promoting open-minded questioning (also assessing other viewpoints) - Critical thinking does not mean that we all come to the same conclusions! - When critically evaluating… o What is the author’s POV? o What is the basis for the argument? o Are there alternative views? o What are the language and sensory elements? Who is controlling our information? - Misinformation: false information that is often deliberately intended to deceive someone o Ways to misinform: fabrication, oversimplification/demonization, manipulation, questioning - 90% of our media is controlled by 6 companies o GE: Comcast, NBC, Universal Pictures, Focus Features o NEWSCORP: FOX, Wall Street Journal, New York Post o DISNEY: ABC, ESPN, Pixar, Miramax, Marvel Studios o VIACOM: MTV, Nick JR, BET, CMT, Paramount Pictures o TIME WARNER: CNN, HBO, TIME, Warner Bros o CBS: Showtime, Smithsonian Channel, NFL.com, Jeopardy, 60 Minutes - Filter Bubble o http://www.ted.com/talks/eli_pariser_beware_online_filter_bubbles o When you are online, you are being tracked 24/7 o We don’t get exposed to information that isn’t tailored to us and what the computer thinks we like § Therefore, don’t get both sides of an argument § Impacts your paradigm Important things to know about Paradigms - Within a paradigm, it is hard to see the other views - They strongly influence our decisions - They can change over time o “A paradigm shift” § Often caused by crisis Examples of Paradigms and Paradigm Shifts - 9/11 o War on terror o Politics of fear o How did the government respond and how did we judge the government for that? o Shifted our thinking about first responders and how well we care about them § Needed a bill to cover health care costs for 9/11 first responders…finally passed after 14 years - Hurricane Katrina o Proved the importance of Wetlands and Restoration (every 40 minutes, Gulf Coast loses a football field of land) o Shifted the paradigm from reducing risk à BETTER PLANNING § People left Louisiana on buses without names written down, after the fact families and friends couldn’t find each other § Better Planning seen in Boston Bombing • Google Tracker instituted immediately to see if people were okay and where they were o Families and friends could find eachother - 1929 St. Valentines Day Massacre o North Side Irish (Bugs Morgan) gang vs. South Side Italian (Al Capone) fighting to take control of crime in Chicago o Many murdered o Led to gun control outcry § National Firearms Act (NFA): statutory excise tax on manufacture and transfer of certain firearms - 2008 Presidential Race o First African American President § How does America feel about this? How will we react? - Ray Anderson o Owner of interface Carpets o Environmental effects of carpets: petroleum based products, not sustainable o Customers would ask him what he was doing to help the environment, he couldn’t give an answer, led to his Paradigm Shift § Began creating sustainable products § By 2020, wants zero carbon footprint - So, what leads to paradigms changing? o Family, Peers, Friends, Personal experience, Educational systems, Economic opportunity, Literature, Art, Religion, Culture, Geography, Government, Crisis, Technology Sustainability and Resilience Resilience: How to help vulnerable people, organizations, and systems persist (ways to manage the imbalanced world) Sustainability: aims to put the world back in balance The world has gone through a paradigm shift…Sustainability à Resilience 1980 Economy, Environmental, Society Issues are non overlapping (can be working on one, but not the other) Next: Venn-Diagram View: NOW: SYSTEMS VIEW Coexistence, but not all Simultaneous Development! Systems View shows Resilience - Ability to adapt, recover from shocks in a manner that reduces vulnerability and facilitates growth o Persist, Adapt, Transform Ways to be resilient… Economic and Human Development - GNL: Gross National Income: sum of a nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) plus net income from overseas o GDP: monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period - Income per Capita: measures the amount of money that’s earned per person in a defined area - Distribution of Wealth o Low: 60% 85% of the world’s population o Middle: 25% lives in low and middle-income o High: 15% countries - Human Development Index (HDI): measures and ranks countries’ levels of social and economic development based on o Life expectancy at birth o Mean years of schooling o Expected years of schooling o Gross national income per capita - Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index: uses different factors to determine poverty beyond income-based lists - Gender Development Index: measures gender gaps by accounting for disparities between women and men in three dimensions o Health o Knowledge o Standard of Living - Inequality o Equality: Sameness § Giving everyone the same thing…it only works if everyone starts from the same place o Equity: Fairness § Access to the same opportunities…must first ensure equity before we can enjoy equality - Income Inequality o How evenly or unevenly income is distributed in society o Gini Coefficient: measure of statistical dispersion intended to show income distribution of a nation’s resident § Most common use to measure inequality § Shows the gap between the rich and the poor - Impacts of Inequality o Decreased levels of trust o Increased rates of mental illness o Decreased life expectancy o Increased infant mortality o Decreased children’s education o Increased teen births o Increased homicide o Increased imprisonment rates o Decreased social mobility (ability to move up the ladder) - Minimum Wage vs. Living Wage o Minimum Wage: minimum hourly wage an employer can pay (lowest amount you need to keep your family from slipping) o Living Wage: income needed for a family’s basic needs…enables the working poor to achieve financial independence while maintaining housing and food security - US Restaurant Industry o 980,000 locations o $660.5 billion in sales in 2013 o 13.1 million employees (10% of the workforce) § 12.3 million of these use food stamps 2x more than ‘normal’ US workers, and are 3x more likely to be below the poverty line - Trying to Help this Inequality o Warriors: Resistance § Protect and contest/challenge inequality o Builders: Reconstruction § Seek alternative approaches and models o Weavers: Connection § Build links for social movements Eras of Development Basic Definitions - Race: a group of people who have differences and similarities in biological traits deemed to be socially significant by society - Sex: biological identity as male or female - Gender: social differences based on definition of masculinity and femininity - Ethnicity: shared culture and way of life (language, religion) - Class: education, income, and occupation Era 1: Gatherer/Hunter Societies Characteristics - Small bands of people - Low population densities (people/unit of land) - Highly mobile and nomadic - Ecological knowledge - Wide diet (but a few sources of food are disproportionally important) - Community Interconnectedness - Dominant Culture o Individual autonomy o Non-directive child rearing methods § Self directed play and exploration o Reverse dominance and nonviolence o Sharing and cooperation o Consensual decision making o Equality of individuals - Egalitarian: shared food and land resources o There is no concept as food as a commodity o Land resources are occupied based on use o Redistribution of wealth Indigenous Peoples (in general) - Descended from pre-colonial/pre-invasion inhabitants - Close tie to land culturally and economically - Suffer from economic and political marginalization as a minority - Groups are considered Indigenous if they define themselves that way! Land was IMPORTANT - SOIL! o “Don’t treat your soil like dirt!” o Basis for food, feed, medicines, ecosystem services, fuel… o It’s alive § Organisms don’t just live in the soil, they are a component of it • Alter the appearance of soil as a result of their biochemical and physical processes § Antibiotics come from soil fungus o One cup of coil holds as many bacteria as there are people - Soil leads to the shift into agriculture… Era 2: Early Agriculture “The Rise and Fall of Civilization” Food Foraging: oldest type of human adaptation - Residence: requires people that move their residence according to changing food sources - Group sizes were kept small - Carrying Capacity: the number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting techniques Pastoralism - Relying on raising and managing herds of domesticated migratory animals - AKA “Animal Husbandry”: the care, tending, and use of animals - Usually nomadic, moving as needed to provide for the animals Horticulture (Crop Cultivation) - The art or practice of garden cultivation and management - Gardeners working with simple hand tools - Ex) Swidden Farming o Shifting cultivation o Technique of rotational farming in which land is cleared for cultivation (by burning) and then left to regenerate after a few years) Agriculture - Practice of farming that includes the cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food and other products - Cultivation that involves using technology other than hand tools o Irrigation, fertilizers, eventually pesticides - Grows a surplus of food rather than providing for only what you need at that time - Why would hunter and gathering societies transition into agriculture? o Theories of Emergence § Ratchet Effect: one thing leads to another § Increased population à abuse of less favorable habitats § Less favorable habitats à increased effort to get food § Increased effort to get food à increased effort to intensify locally available food (easier) § Increased food production effort à environmental modifications, selection of the best-suited species…Agriculture! o Plants and animals domesticated à Food surplus and food storage à Large, dense and sedentary people (Stratified societies) à New technology (ocean going ships, steel, guns) - Three Core Areas of Agricultural Development o Mesopotamia “The Fertile Crescent” & The Sumarians § By 6,000 BC settled agriculture was the norm in the region § Wild, Ancient Grains • Wheat and barley grew in high densities § Large legumes, large domesticated mammals § Early domesticated crops • Able to germinate easily • Produced large seeds • Quick growing • Dry season tolerance • Self-pollinating § Had a difficult environment • Low rainfall, high summer temperatures, many drylands and swamps, irregular flooding § 5,000 BC-2,370 BC • Developed agricultural surplus • Large Cities • New technologies o Irrigation, written language, wheeled carts • Social Stratification became depended upon o Elites, artisans, farmers, Armies o Power determined wealth • Efforts to maintain surplus of food o Brought more land under cultivation § Led to erosion and siltation, waterlogging and salinization o Switched from wheat to barley (because barely is more tolerant) • Sumarians fell to an invading army in 2370 BC (European agriculture developed from the Fertile Crescent, so it was not one of the core areas. Settled agriculture here began around 3,000/2,000 BC) o China § Millet § domesticated 6,000 BC: Rice domesticated 5,000 BC § 4,000 BC wet rice varieties developed (paddy rice) § Later • Aquaculture • Soybeans (1,100 BC) o MesoAmerica & The Mayans § Settled Communities around 2,000 BC, agriculture 4,500 BC § Region was slow to develop agriculture • Leads to lots of variation § What is MesoAmerica? • Southern Mexico • Guatemala • Belize • Parts of Honduras • El Salvador § MAIZE (Corn) • Developed from teosinte • Wild Vs. Domesticated § Chinampas • Small, rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds • Opposite of monocultures o Multiple crops between each raised bed o RESILIENT - Domesticated Animals o Selectively bred in captivity and modified from wild ancestors o Used by humans who control the animal’s breeding and food supply - Seed Saving o “Heirloom seeds”: any garden plant that has a history of being passed down within a family o Centuries ago, there were many varieties of each vegetable, now there is less than 20 for each • Of the 7,000 crop species domesticated by humas: o 30 species provide 90% of the global caloric intake o 3 provide more than 50% of the intake (wheat, rice, and corn) o Why do seeds matter today? o Cultural connections o Agricultural biodiversity o Food security o Population o Hunger o Production Systems o Food Access - World Population Growth o How are we going to feed everyone? o In 2008 the world went from majority rural to majority urban - Agriculture o Subsistence Agriculture § Farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families § Small scale sustainable farms o Farming for the Market § Growing to sell Era 3: Colonialism & Plantation Agriculture Colonialism: the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically China - 1400s China was the richest in the world - Epicenter of trade à social, economic, political systems o Pottery and silk - Don’t have high levels of consumption - 1400s-1500s…Europe’s economic power grew and China declined (power shift) Europe - Columbus o Explorer or Merchant Sailor? o Working for the Spanish, went on the expedition in order to bring back gold for the King and Queen st o 1 found land: Hispaniola § Now known as Haiti/Dominican Republic § Indigenous people: Arawaks • Helped when ship came, “never said no” –Columbus § Couldn’t find gold, but needed to bring something back to King and Queen • Enslaved the Arawaks • Sold 10-11 aged girls to the sex trade o Second Expedition: Back to Hispaniola § Sent the Arawaks into mines to find gold, had a quota each day and if it wasn’t reached, their arms/legs were cut off § Arawaks had to stop having children because they didn’t see their spouse for 8-10 months, too tired to procreate when together, and decided that mass suicide and aborting children would be better than living in torture o His Impact § 1496: 2-8 million people § 1514: 27,000 people § 1542: 200 people § In one century, 95-98% of the indigenous population died - How do we know all of this? o Bartolome de las Casas § Witnessed Hispaniola § Started as a plantation owner, realized how horrible what he was doing was, freed his slaves - European Colonialism o (policy and practice of a power extending control over weaker peoples or areas) o 1500s: Spain and Portugal o 1600s: British and French o Tendencies during this period § Grab for land § Movement of people • Slaves, indentured servants § Transfer of wealth • Natural resources o Spanish in Americas (all they want is silver and gold) • Economic Transformation o Dutch East India Company Plantation Agriculture: large area of land that is privately or government owned and employs resident labor to cultivate a single commercial crop - Plantation: big field of a monocrop o Need large acreage o Reliance on one export crop o Cheap and abundant labor - Sugar o Sugar Cane Sugar Beets § 80% 20% o Why was sugar desirable? § Could use unskilled labor § Can be gorwn on a large scale § Lucrative and growing markets in Europe, so why not? § Used in addictive things! (Coffee, deserts…) o Who benefits from sugar? § Planters, slavers, shippers, bankers, refiners, grocers, government officials Sugar led to the Triangle Trade - Middle Passage: “Slaves to the Americas” o Slaves held 23 inches apart o Takes 6 weeks to 3 months - Slavery AFRICA EUROPE Seen as subordinate family members Seen as private property Land was common, so the more family Needed people to work the land members, the more land to make money Colonialism’s Lasting Impacts on Indigenous Peoples Colonialism - The policy and practice of a power extending control over weaker peoples or areas - Example: Industrial Revolution o 1900 developed spheres of dominated fueled by § Nationalism, racism, xenophobia (irrational dislike of people from other countries) • Turns economic competition into political and military conflict o Everyone wanted Africa, had lots of natural resources § Known as “Footprint of the Imperial Boot” because left a trace, changed: • Educational systems • Legal systems • Food provisioning systems • Social Systems § Caused: • Cultural alienation • Cultural imperialism o Reference Groups (“at least we’re not them…”) • Destruction of indigenous food systems • Destruction of indigenous industries o British prohibited Indian textile industry • Institutionalization of racism o Selection of favored groups § Impact on Native Americans • Doctrine of Discovery a.k.a. General Allotment Act o Whoever discovered land unknown to other European countries first gained the rights and claimed title to those lands, despite the Native Americans living on it • Trail of Tears o 1838/1839: part of Andrew Jackson’s Indian Removal Policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and migrate to an area in Oklahoma § Horrible soil, ruined culture • Ration Ticket o Europeans took away all of the buffalo, so they gave the Indians ration tickets, which would ration out food for 9ish people § Bad food: coffee, sugar, beef, bacon, lard • Self-Determination Era 1965-Present o 1968: Indian Civil Rights Act passed o 1975: Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act § Tribal governments oversee own social services o How did the Government shutdown affect Native Americans? § Majority of Native Americans live in poor, rural isolated reservations • Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations • Government Employees Furloughed • Government Services Cut • All of this pulls aid away, deepening distress Nation State A form of political organization in which a group of people who share the same history, traditions, or language live in a particular area under one government - Constructing the Nation State o Creating the Other § A group used to distinguish yourselves by • Native Americans, Indigenous Peoples (explained above) o Language, Bureaucracy, & Education § Language of our Ancestors • Ex) When France was emerging, if you didn’t speak French, you were beaten up • Ex) New Orleans losing Creole § Education • “Instrument to achieve order, social stability, national identity, defense, economic expansion” • Industrial societies require: o Division of labor o Ability to shift from task to task and area to area o Precise communication o Universal Literacy § Bureaucracy • “A system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives” • Military service required in some countries o Violence and Genocide § Cambodia: 1975-1979 • 1.7 million died under Khmer Rouge (gorilla army led by Pol Pot) o Starvation, medical neglect, overwork, execution • Goals o Unify the nation o Elevate the status of the peasants • Tools used: o Purification of city people § By hard labor and shock o Torture § Physical and psychological o Fear • Who was targeted? o Lighter skinned people (assumed that they weren’t working outside) o Creating the other § The Shock Doctrine- Naomi Klein • Explains how America’s free market policies have come to dominate the world through the exploitation of disaster-shocked people and countries • “Disaster Capitalism” o Large scale shocks are used to put forward large changes in policy Peasant Protest, Rebellion, & Resistance What is a peasant? “A member of the class constituted by small farmers, tenants, etc.; the main labor force of this social class” - Land Tenure o The relationship, whether legally or customarily, among people with respect to the land o Defines how access is granted to § Use rights, control rights, transfer rights o Relationships may be formal or informal § Private § Communal § Open Access § State - Peasant Societies o General production systems § Rent funds (land lords-feudal system) § Replacement funds (for next years crop) § Ceremonial funds (social cohesion-pot luck) § Production for self o Land based system § Production depends on the amount and the quality of the land § Peasant protests struggles for land - Peasant Resistance o Goals of most is not to overthrow a system, rather just to survive o Weapons used (“Weapons of the Weak”) § Peasant folklore • Robin Hood (Stole from the rich, gave to the poor) § Avoided confrontation • Gossip • Wouldn’t show up to work • Threatened to work for the enemy (Dwight Schrute working for Staples) - Resisting Colonial Rule o Ex) Kenya § Many ethnic groups in Kenya, largest being the Kikuyu § When Britain colonized, they tried taking everything • Took more and more power away from the Kikuyu o Kikuyu changed from landowning peasants to squatters o Britain even taxed their earnings § Implemented Kipande • Document that Kikuyu were forced to wear identifying who they were o White people were able to write whatever they wanted on the document § Ex) if they wrote that the person was lazy, that person would not be hired anywhere • Full control § Reserves became overpopulated • Overplanted • Soil erosion • Hunger • Forced Kikuyu to move to cities § Mission schools • British forcing their culture on the youth of the Kikuyu § So the Kikuyu began to RESIST • Individual resistance o Failed to show up to work, killed settler’s livestock, fled to reserves or cities • Collective resistance o KAO: Kikuyu Oath Kenyan African Union § Pledged allegiance § Now became a more formal resistance § Rebellion began- The MauMau Rebellion “Land and Freedom Movement” • British were scared because the indigenous people were normally gentle • British never wanted to admit to their wrongs o Spin in the British news § Never acknowledged their mistakes • British rounded up MauMau suspects, wanted to get rid of the KAO o Brought to detention camps § HORRIBLY TREATED § Independence: December 12, 1963 • After Europe saw a case of 11 deaths by beating in a camp o Reparations § “Compensation for past wrongs” § Cash § Grants, credits § Acknowledgements (apologies) § Trade agreements § Institutional Change § Changing colonial names Development Paradigms Capitalist Approach - Individuals freely acting out of rational self interest - Maximize pleasure (by consuming goods), minimize pain (by lowering the amount of work required to make goods) - All about the free market o Prices reflect scarcity o Prices must be right to ensure efficient production o Restricts government role Keynesian Approach - Believes that the free market is: o Prone to instability (Great Depression) o Exploitive o Can’t price accurately because the externalities are not taken into account o Leads to monopolies - Has a need for enlightened government - President Roosevelt o Under him, the government promoted wealth, growth, power (exactly what this approach wanted) - Bretton Woods 1944: o World Bank § International bank for reconstruction and development § Provides loans to developing countries o International Monetary Fund (IMF) § Short term economic needs for countries o General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) § Free trade of commodities across countries o World Trade Organizations § Makes sure trade policy is fair Development and Modernization Approach (40s, 50s, 60s) - This leads to capitalism and liberal democracy o Large scale infrastructure development projects § Hydroelectric dams Dependency Theory (70s, 80s) rd st - 3 World underdevelopment is a direct result of 1 world development (those roots lie in colonialism) - Periphery Countries: countries less developed than Core Countries o Requires periphery countries to be dependent on the core countries for markets for their own raw materials § As a result, the country as a whole remains poor since little production investment is undertaken o Believed there needed to be a conflict between owners and workers § This is always leading to radical change - Wallerstein World Systems Theory Radical Political Economy (70s, 80s) - Revolutionary change in society can transform society to be more socially responsible - Power o Inherent conflict between rich and poor o Key to development is challenging those in charge of the capitalist system - Good Society o Consumer society (equal access to material benefits) o Access to meaningful and fulfilling work o Citizen sovereignty (people can determine the type of community they live in) o Ensure equality and equity Then the 1971 Debt Crisis… - Changes the meaning of money o Devalues dollar from gold à no limits to printing money § Rise of credit, interest on loans à Debt Money o Loans to peripheral countries to industrialize were needed § Bigger the project, the more the bank could lend § Borrowers pay more on loan repayments than receiving § To reschedule debt or lane payments, governments have to alter fiscal policies • Impacts individuals and the environment Neoliberal Theory (1990s and today) - “Liberal” in the sense of no controls - “Neo” (new) - “Magic of the markets” o Reduce government intervention in the markets - Main Elements o Rule of the market o Cuts public expenditure for social services o Deregulation o Privatization o Replacing the idea of “The Public Good” with “Individual Responsibility” Jamaica “Life & Debt” - Which theories of development do you see in the film? - How does the mission of the IMF, World Bank, and WTO relate to what you see in the film? - Who is affected by the IMF’s loans to Jamaica? - What structural adjustment policies do you see? Malthusian Approach - Overshoot and Collapse o Carrying Capacity § Maximum population that a given habitat can support over a given time o Overshoot § Condition where population size exceeds the carrying capacity of it’s environment; leads to a decrease in population (called dieback) o Ex) St. Matthew’s Island § 1944: US Coast Guard introduces 29 reindeer § 1957: 1,350 reindeer § 1963: 6,000 reindeer § 1966: 42 female, 1 male - Belief that humans will not be able to offset their consumption of resources - The good life is not attainable for all - “Lifeboat” strategy o Rationing o Immigration o Population - Hunger is because of the mass population Famine, Hunger, and Food Access 842 million people do not have enough to eat Vast majority of those live in developing countries 1 of 6 children are underweight 1 of 4 of the world’s children are stunted - Stunting o Below the median height for age of the reference population st o Results from a child having a nutritional deficiency in the 1 1,000 days o Consequences § Impaired cognitive developing § Body conserves energy by limiting social/physical growth § Bad immune system § Apathetic and incurious § Does poorly in school, therefore earns less as an adult o International Response § Improvement in diet after 2 can restore child to nearly normal mental development - Causes of Famine and Hunger o Biological § Crop Failure o Social § More likely - Common Misconceptions o World Hunger is not the result of insufficient food production o Famine is not the most common form of hunger o Famine is rarely caused by food insufficiency o Hunger is not caused by overpopulation - Irish Potato Famine o Population in Ireland increased, potatoes were a great way to feed the growing population o Blight § Disease from Mexico § Caused potatoes to rot post-harvest § Ireland only had one variety of potatoes, so all were susceptible to blight o People began to starve § Ireland still exporting food • 30-50 shiploads a day to England o British Rule at the time § Irish Catholics prohibited from purchasing land (could only rent) § Farmers unable to pay o Migration and Mortality § Over 10 years, 750,000 Irish died § 2 million left for Great Britain, Canada and the US § Within 5 years, the population reduced by ¼ o Legacy § Deep and lasting feeling of distrust towards Great Britain - Bengal Famine 1943 o “A Man-Made Holocaust” o Caused by starvation and malnutrition o 1942: Burma taken over by the Japanese o Cyclone in October 1942 o Panic that the Japanese would take over the Bay of Bengal § “Scorched Earth Policy”: destroyed food stocks in case of a take over o At the same time, rice exports to British troops § War time inflation plus increase in income for war-time production § Price Increase § Increase in demand for food o Wages don’t follow the price trend § Laborers become destitute § 30% died § Migration to cities o Government mismanagement § Prevented trade between states (prevented food supplies) o Finally ends in 1943 § Government in Bengal finally imports food - War and Hunger in 2016 o Madaya, Syria § Food can’t come in, surrounded by land mines o Yemen § 14 million are food insecure § Trouble accessing food, water, fuel - DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD IS THE KEY - Famine and high prices reflect: o Supply and Demand o Commodity Price Speculation o Hoarding - Hunger is not caused by a lack of food, but by some peoples lack of ability to purchase food - Hunger and Famine cause: o Political unrest o Bad governance o Disruption of systems - Poverty that causes hunger is a consequence of global economic forces… o Focus on exports rather than feeding the local population o Financial debt that peripheral countries accumulated in the 1970s o Low wages - Assessment of Climate Change o Climate change is projected to create more negative impacts than positive impacts for agriculture o Connected to rising food prices and political instability o Climate change and crop failure combined with growing inequality will make hunger worse - Belo Horizonte o 1990s o 11% of the population living in absolute poverty o City of 2.5 million people o Belo Horizonte’s government implemented a constitutional right to food as a right to citizenship § If you are too poor to buy from the market, you are no less of a citizen o Government’s Zero Hunger program § Incentive for families to send kids to school because they have food there for free o Focuses on the rural aspect § Appreciates land tenure (citizens have an access to land) • Farmers don’t have to move around § Food goes to direct markets or straight to food programs o People’s restaurants § Feeds 12,000 people/day § Locally grown food § 50 cents/meal § Families save money and time • Working parents really benefit § Low and middle class o Shifting the paradigm to “Food as a Right” § Infant malnutrition dropped 50% § Consumption of fruits and veggies increased § Costs 10 million annually, but that is only 2% of the cities’ budget § New social mentality § Not a public handout • Gives people jobs • Government facilitates and creates opportunities International Community Development Top Down Approach - Budget based planning - Macro-perspective - Equitable distribution of resource - Suitable for forming policies (no child left behind) - Boss tells you what to do - Ignorance of community needs and resources - May create dependency - Misuse or possibility of corruption - People’s voice is not heard Bottom Up Approach - People’s empowerment - Micro-solutions - More innovative ideas - Community ownership - May lead to sustainability - Transparency and flexibility - Mobilization of local resources Demography: Population Growth, Migration, and Urbanization Determinants of Population Growth and Decline - World Population Growth o Population Policy: strategy for achieving a particular pattern of population change § Direct • Aims specifically at changing the demographic behavior • Ex) Increase social services, legalize abortion, limit number of children, improve healthcare § Indirect • Influences population change but wasn’t specifically designed to do so • Ex) Trade agreements with NAFTA, climate change, conflict and war o Demography: scientific study of human population, its size and composition, life course processes that change the composition (birth, death, marriage, migration), and relationships of population composition and change within the environment § Birth Rate: total number of births per 1000 of a population each year § Fertility: Number of live births (per 1000) § Total Fertility Rate: Average number of children a woman could bear § Death Rate/Mortality Rate: total number of deaths per 1000 of a population per year § Life expectancy: estimate of the average number of years a person can expect to live § Factors affecting mortality rate • Degeneration o Biological aging and degeneration of the body o Chronic illnesses § Heart disease • Infections and parasitic diseases o HIV/AIDS o Malaria • Products of social and economic environments o Work place hazards o Warfare • (Food insecurity can increase the mortality rate in all three of these areas) § Exponential Growth • Constant rate of growth applied to a continually growing base over a period of time § Doubling time • Time it takes for a population to double § Global goals to: • Reduce population and fertility • Increase wellbeing and growth § Families • How they differ o Size, traditions, lifestyle § Demographic Transition Theory • Population vs. poverty • Economic development leads to a lower fertility rate • Ignores that fertility rates are a factor of social and economic factors that people (mostly women) are subject to § Wealth Flows Theory • Two types of reproductive strategies o 1. No economic gain to restricting fertility § (Big families) § Occurs in periphery countries § Wealth flows from the children to the parents o 2. Economic gain to restricting fertility § Occurs in the core countries § Wealth flows from the parents to the children § Relationship between family structure and fertility • Importance of kinship o Nuclear family (mom, dad, kids) § Independence and individualism o Extended family § Group collective, resource sharing • Fertility will cause a shift from Extended family to Nuclear family § Population • Women can and do adjust fertility in response to local economic and social conditions • Why does demand for children in developing countries remain high? o Cost of raising children is low in rural areas o Children provide for labor; serve as an economic net gain o Cultural reasons o Children serve as security for parents in old age § Neo-Malthusian approach and Population • Economic development requires a lower fertility rate • Masks other reasons for poverty, environmental destruction, disease, and social unrest § Age dependency ratio • Ratio of people in the labor force v. not in the labor force • Dependents=people of age lower than 15, and greater than 64 • Productives= ages of 15-64 (working age) § China’s Policy • Mandatory retirement age o 60 for men o 55 for female white collar workers o 50 for female manual laborers • One child act More developed countries have an aging population Less developed countries have a young population Young and old are outside the labor force § Urban slums • High poverty • Lack of infrastructure and stability • Community • Vulnerable § Four Population Megatrends • Creates a shift in power dynamics • 1. Majority of population growth will occur in less developed countries • 2. Most developed countries will get older • 3. Most world population will be in countries with the youngest and the poorest population • 4. Most of the worlds population will live in urban areas Gender Equality & Development 1994 Cairo Population Conference - Established that population is a women’s issue - Rallied support to help women deal with it - Confronted and controlled combined consequences of o Growing population o Growing poverty o Growing affluence Women’s Triple Burden - 1. Household o Cooking, cleaning, collecting water - 2. Childcare - 3. Work outside the home UN Women - Gender equality and empowerment of women - What are the issues? Results? o Only 20% of politics are women § Change the norms, get them elected o Lack basic rights; can’t own land § UN Women got them ID cards- could get married, gives them mobility, can get their kids to school - Barefoot Power o Teaches women how to install solar panels § Gives them job and light • Children can study longer, healthcare, gives women jobs Violence Against Women - Physical Abuse - Psychological Abuse - Economic Discrimination o No loans o Lower pay for the same work - Political Disenfranchisement Advancing Gender Equality requires strengthening - Economic and political autonomy - Full citizenship - Freedom from all forms of violence - Sexual and reproductive autonomy Core vs. Periphery Countries - Sisters in Islam, Indonesia o Don’t condemn Islamic beliefs even though they lead to anti-feminism § Instead they use the Qur’an to identify Women’s rights • Said that the Qur’an says that male sex drive makes men adulterous by nature o Argued that by saying that polygyny was used to alleviate problems of war orphans and widows by allowing widows to remarry men - Current Feminism o Shift away population control o Targeting quality of life § Increased funding for pre/post natal care § Access to wider contraceptive methods o More economic opportunities - Maternity and Paternity leave o Many countries require it (Scandanavia) Indigenous Group and Ethnic Conflict How do women experience conflict? Genocide Deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, or cultural group - RWANDA o Germany was the original occupier, then to Belgian o Coffee and tin was the major export § 1980s the price of coffee dropped • Income of small farmers was significantly affected o Large scale famine began o Elites depended on foreign aid § IMF structural adjustment program • Devalued the money • Price of necessities increased • Collapse in education and health system o Malnutrition and malaria • Military attacks from Tutsis o Fleeing o Warning sides of genocide § Assassinations § Hate Propaganda § Demonization § Stockpiling weapons § Civilian militias § Rape as a weapon o Who was responsible? § Was not simply tribal warfare § Legacies of colonial past § World Bank and IMF • Their adjustments didn’t help anything § France • Armed the Hutus o For a long time the US and France didn’t use the term genocide because if they did, they would have to intervene § Didn’t do that until 800,000 tutsis were killed - YUGOSLAVIA (1945-1980) o Was formed after WWI by 6 Republics o 1991 the Soviet Union starts breaking apart § Yugoslavia was hard to hold together because Republics were tearing apart § Causes economy to go down, they seceded o Bosnians start to target Muslims and Croats § Ethnic Cleansing o Ended 1995 with president clinton
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