Study guide for the final
Study guide for the final Geog 1250
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Goble on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geog 1250 at Bowling Green State University taught by Marius Paulikas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Geography at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
EXAM #3 TOPIC 10 Forces: PGF – Always points toward the low, away from the high Coriolis – force resulting from turning motion of winds Centrifugal – outward pulling sensation from turning motion of winds Friction – only applies to the winds on the surface level, NOT the winds in the upper atmosphere Winds: Surface winds o Geostrophic No turning involved = isoheight lines are parallel Wind is moving at a constant speed PGF initiates wind flow Coriolis will fall to the right Forces involved: PGF, Coriolis, friction o Gradient Higher altitudes cause higher pressure Wind flow is not in a straight line like geostrophic wind is. It has curves throughout its path Forces involved : PGF, friction, Coriolis Upper atmospheric winds o Supergeostrophic Upward arc of warmer air advancing North Wind turns to the right PGF points away from the high, Coriolis points the opposite of the PGF Coriolis force is greater in magnitude than the PGF because it falls left and works its way right to turn Warm air intruding from warmer latitudes to higher altitudes o Subgeostrophic Downward arc of cooler air advancing Southward PGF points towards the low, Coriolis falls to the right because it makes a left turn PGF is greater in magnitude than the Coriolis Surface vs. upper level winds o Wind will naturally want to flow from the equator to the poles o Northern hemisphere Wind will typically flow Westerly o 500 mb map = UPPER atmospheric winds, not surface TOPIC 11 Severe threshold hazards: Flash flood (#1 thunderstorm killer) – cannot drain water fast enough and water is continuously supplied to the area, causing a large flood o Often underestimated, vehicles try to drive through water when it is too deep and they get stuck Tornados Straight line winds/microbursts o Downdraft "splashing" effect next to the storm on the side o Microburst smaller feature of downward splashing wind on side of the rain storm (80100 mph) o Macroburst larger version of the above ^ o Squall lines and supercells o Hazardous to air crafts Ingredients needed to form a thunderstorm (SLIM): Shear (wind shear) o Vertical wind shear causes intense thunderstorms o Change in wind speed with height – updraft vs. downdraft in the thunderstorm Updraft – Upward moving air currents Downdraft – Downward moving air currents Lifting – All the different types discussed in topic 7 (frontal lifting, orographic lifting, convergence, etc) Instability Moisture o Moisture is gained through maritime air masses o Moisture gained feeds into thunderstorms 3 types of thunderstorms: o Single cell (air mass) thunderstorms Most dangerous thunderstorms in summer time Lightening danger Time duration/intensity o Multicell thunderstorms (gust front) Consists of a group of "cells" Shelf cloud horizontalwedge cloud associated with thunderstorm gust front Squall lines Edge of rain cooled air gust front Hazards Straight line winds Hail Low intensity tornado o Super cell Usually holds the most severe weather Mesocyclones Hazards Heavy rain Hail Tornados Wall cloud Low LCL Tornado development o Classic supercells Precipitation patterns are separated from the tornado o HP supercell (high precipitation supercell) Visibility is very unclear and difficult to see due to heavy precipitation around the tornado Tornado myths and vulnerability Myths o Overpass is a good place to take shelter o The larger the tornado, the stronger o Tornadoes avoid downtown areas Southwest corner of basement is the best area to be in o o Mobile homes attract tornados Vulnerability o Oklahoma – “Tornado alley” largest frequency of tornados in the “plains states” (OK, TX, KS) o May is the most favorable time for tornados to occur in the U.S Precautions o Go into basement or interior closet if there is no basement o Away from windows o Have a weather radio nearby if possible o Do not be in vehicle unless there is no other option Lightning #2 thunderstorm killer Cloud to cloud lightning o Ice particles clashing with supercooled water droplets this is the PRIMARY source that causes the charged particles o Lighter particles vs. heavier particles o Atmospheric resistance Cloud to ground lightning o Stepped leaders negatively charged particles that drop from the storm cloud o Streamers positively charged particles that work their way upward from a tall point on the ground (working to meet the lightening striking down from the cloud) They will take the shortest path to meet the corresponding lightning from cloud o Return stroke main lightning bolt we see when the streamer and stepped leaders meet into one bolt Florida is the lightning capital of the US Precautions o Be in enclosed shelters during thunderstorms o Don’t be next to tall objects (they’re likeliest to get hit) o Wait 30 mins before last clap of thunder to assume you are far enough away from lightning risk Hail formation Ice crystal collects frozen water droplets and increases in size The hail will fall due to gravity, but if there is an updraft, the hail will be lifted back up into the atmosphere and it will continue to grow in size Usually falls right next to the updraft when it is heavy enough to fall Destroys crops, property, etc TOPIC 12 Cyclones: Midlatitude cyclone o Cooler air to the North, warmer air in the South o When these happen in cold months, it produces ice and snow o When these happen in warm months, it produces severe weather like thunderstorms and cool air/warm air fronts o "Comma shape" Comma head Comma tail Squall line of strong thunderstorms Dry slot (black area between head and tail) continental polar on ground and sinking air from upper altitudes get ingested into the circulation of the cyclone o When it occludes, it dissipates Formation of cyclones 2 main occurrences causing them o Surface temperature gradients causing a clash in air masses warmer air bottles up in lower altitudes, colder air bottles up in higher altitudes o Strong jet stream Anticyclone o Surface HIGH pressure Not much variation in temperature gradients. The temperatures stay the about the same across the board Pressure gradient conditions: Surface low (mid latitude cyclone) has a higher pressure gradient than the anticyclone (surface high) because it has clashing air masses in it Weather conditions less wind circulations Anticyclones are usually found West of the trough, where the surface high is located o Air masses Anticyclone provides favorable conditions for air mass development Air has more time to circulate Upper winds steer the air masses (if they shift, it may cause air masses to be steered down South) Winds make stagnant air and air pollution because it does not get absorbed into anything and causes evaporation of pollutants over a long period of time o Hazards of the anticyclone Droughts Air pollution stagnate air sitting over an urban environment causes the air over this environment to become more polluted Upper level patterns o Zonal flow patterns westerly winds on left hand side o Meridional flow Large up and down flow on right hand side (Northward and Southward winds) More favorable pattern for cyclone development o Ridges Pocket of warm air advancing North into higher altitudes o Troughs Area of colder air sinking from higher to lower altitudes (low pressure) o Upper air convergence and divergence Upper air movement patterns relative to the earth's rotation may creating locations for both convergence and divergence o Significance of upper level winds 500 mb winds steer the surface weather upward winds Meridonial flow: Divergence Cyclone movement patterns o Surface convergence and upper divergence will be located in the same place on map together. Similarly, surface divergence and upper convergence will be located in the same place on the map together TOPIC 13 Hurricanes: Hurricane season is June – November 30th Hurricane prime month is September Hurricane formation ingredients: Surface o 80 degrees F is most favorable for development o Surface convergence of rising air along the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) ITCZ – warmest air masses on the planet converge near the equator o Forms 520 degrees latitude from the Equator due to the coriolis force o coriolis force responsible for generating circular motion Higher altitudes o Diverging upper level winds o Weak upper level winds are favorable because they keep the moisture in place o Minimal wind shear Ocean temp patterns o Warmer waters are favorable (which is why LA, Western Europe, and other colder water places do not get hurricanes often water is too cold) Vocabulary for hurricanes and their stages o Hurricane structure Eye wall strong winds with constant updrafts Hot towers strengthen the hurricane because they boost the speed in winds as they travel up the wall and out Hot towers move with the hurricane Eye calm conditions with calm winds due to low pressure If pressure falls in the eye, then the hurricane is intensifying Many planes fly into the middle of the eye to see if the pressure is increasing or decreasing Air is sinking in the eye Cyclone Anticyclone working its way from the top down o 4 hurricane development stages 1Tropical disturbance a mass of thunderstorms with a slight cyclonic wind circulation 2Tropical depression occurs when winds are 2034 knots (38 mph). Here is where it is initially assigned a number 3Tropical storm Cyclonic winds strenghten to between 3564 knots (3973 mph). Here it is assigned a name (Hurricane Katrina, etc) 4Hurricane Cyclonic wind speeds exceed 64 knots Hurricane intensity system 15 (5 is worst damage, 1 is minimal damage) Numbers 35 are considered major Naming hurricanes Assigned when the storm reaches tropical storms Alternate between male and female names If there is a notorious storm like Katrina, the name is to never be used again If English names in alphabet are all used, Greek alphabet is used (Hurricane Alpha, Hurricane Beta, etc) o Weakening of hurricanes Move over cooler waters or land causes lower moisture supply, weakening the hurricane o Destructive elements of a hurricane High winds Northeast section of the hurricane will be most deadliest section of the hurricane because the storm surge threat is high Northwest storm surge threat is not as high Inland flooding from rainfall after the hurricane passes Storm surge onshore rush of sea or lake water caused by the high winds associated with a land falling cyclone Historically, it is thdeadliest hurricane hazard world wide Can be enhanced during high tide Tornadoes can be spawned (not frequently, but it is possible) by hurricanes due to the circulation of winds TOPIC 14 Weather forecasts are less precise as they predict farther into the future because the patterns they originally noted will not always be the same to predict off of Shortterm forecasts Forecasts for 72 hours or less Often modified for local areas to account for geographic conditions and other features (mountains, high sea levels, etc) Medium range forecasts Forecasts for 72 hours 1 week Spaghetti model lines connecting similar anticipated heights: red line reflects the overall average of atmospheric pressure Long range forecasts Forecasts broader conditions (strays away from exact numbers and looks at overall conditions like dew point, pressure, etc) Predicts for a month or longer (seasons) Provides temp and precipitation estimates for an entire period Estimates large scale variables Chaos Theory Change in what's predicted vs. what happens grows and grows over time this is why short term forecasts are most precise Climate models long term weather conditions (up to 100 years, and therefore least precise) Large scale patterns of natural features and occurrences Ice cover, fossil fuel consumption, population of humans Do not try to predict each day, but rather large patterns over large periods of times Accounts for anthanogenic and astronomic elements The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Releases large reports every 5 or 6 years
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