PSY 3101 Introduction to Personality Exam 4 Study Guide (14pages)
PSY 3101 Introduction to Personality Exam 4 Study Guide (14pages) PSY3101
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY3101 at University of Minnesota taught by Rachael Grazioplene in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Intro to Personality in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Psychology 261: Personality & Cultuthl Context Study Guide for Exam 4, April 28 , 3:00PM-5:00PM Week 13: Creativity, Intelligence, Neuroscience, & Personality What is a basic definition of creativity? What kinds of things can be called creative? - Not a single phenomenon - Can refer to individuals, groups, behaviors, environments, processes - Not just originality; must also be appropriate - Simple definition: Creativity is something both novel and useful/valuable in a given context What is Divergent Thinking? Is it the same thing as creativity? What is the most common set of measurement tools that are used to measure divergent thinking? - Tapping into the brains ability to generate many different/original ideas - A thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions Most common set of measurement tools: (common use for a Brick) - Paperweight - Doorstep - Brick wall, house, fireplace (Know definitions of components of the Torrance Test) Torrance Test for Creative Thinking: - Fluency= number of relevant responses . Wall, building, table, weigh things down, paper weight - Flexibility= number of different categories . Heavy sandals, terrible pillow, weapon, anchor, writing tablet - Originality= statistical rarity of responses . Crumble and use as pieces in a gam , S&M toy, use for juggling - Elaboration= amount of detail . Glue to roommate’s pants to weigh her down, use for sanding a giant’s toenails What is the relation of creativity to intelligence? Intelligence & Creativity are correlated with one another, ~0.3 - Most studies suggest that intelligence is necessary for creativity, but not sufficient . In other words: There are many people who are intelligent but not creative, but it is unlikely to find a creativity successful individual with relatively low IQ . Most studies indicate that divergent thinking scores are more strongly associated with real-life creative achievements compared to intelligence - Intelligence may not be related as much to the ‘novel’ aspect of creativity, but the ability to evaluate usefulness/value/appropriateness of ideas What is the relation of creativity to personality? (according to the slides—not the chapter) - Associations between creativity/divergent thinking and personality vary across studies Difference between artistic and scientific creativity? (personality associations) Personality traits associated with creativity in scientists and artists: - Openness/Intellect - Extraversion (primary orderliness) - Lower Conscientiousness (primary orderliness) - Norm-doubting/non-conformity - Self-Acceptance Personality traits associated with creativity in artists, but not in scientists: - (Low) agreeableness - Neuroticism What is latent in inhibition and how is it related to divergent thinking performance? (including the findings from the Carson et al. 2003 study) - Latent= ‘hidden’ or ‘underlying’ - Inhibition = restriction of something - Cognitive mechanism - The automatic process that filters irrelevant details out of consciousness - Associated with creativity in high-functioning people What is the creative achievement questionnaire and what do scores on it predict? Creative Achievement Questionnaire (CAQ): - Visual Arts (e.g: painting, sculpture) - Music - Dance - Architectural Design - Creative writing - Inventions Scores on the CAQ are associated with: - IQ - Openness/Intellect - Divergent thinking - Insight problem solving ability - Decreased latent inhibition - & artists’ rating of collages made in the laboratory from standardized materials H-creativity: (Big ‘C’) (Creativity involves generation of new ideas) H-creativity: a new idea historically - Novel inventions are h-creative - H-creativity can be studied historically, but not in a lab setting . You do not know when a creative event will happen p-creativity: (little ‘c’) - In order to understand creative invention better, use general population samples - P-creativity can be studied in much detail (cognitive process, everyday utility, an so on) Big C & little c: (Distinction) - Allow scientists to distinguish between rarer forms of creative output and the type pf creative thought s/processes that can exist in virtually anyone You should know pretty much everything that was covered on the slide regarding right brain/left brain associations Left Hemisphere: - Serial logical operations - Language - Semantics (meaning) Right Hemisphere: - Remote associations - Global/holistic pattern recognition - Imagery - Spatial information/relations Dominance: - Typically, left hemisphere is somewhat dominant (esp in right handed people) - Divergent thinking associated with reduced left hemisphere EEG dominance Creativity may not be ‘in the right brain’, but there does seem to be a role for decreased left hemisphere dominance in loose associated thinking What is resting state fMRI (i.e. what is the Default Mode Network) - Network of brain regions that are particularity active when the individual is not focused on the outside world and the brain is at wakeful rest - People differ in the ‘coherence’ of this network Be familiar with the findings described in the 2 Takeuchi fMRI experiments. Default Mode & Divergent Thinking : - Study 1 (Takeuchi 2010) - Looked at Task-Induced Deactivation during a difficult task - People with higher creativity scores didn’t deactivate their DMN as much when they switched their attention to a task - May indicate that: . Individual creativity is related to less efficient reallocation of attention (e.g: ability to focus) . Congruent with the popular idea that diffuse attention might be associated with individual creativity Default Mode Activity & Divergent Thinking: - Study 2 (Takeuchi 2012) - Higher creativity= higher Default mode network strength Conclusion—Default Mode Activity & Openness/Intellect: - Two studies have examined personality and the Default mode network - Both showed clear positive associations between openness and coherence (none of the other big five traits were associated with the DMN) What is diffusion tensor imaging, and what does it appear to measure? - Connections between many nodes = white matter pathways Diffusion Imaging: Tensor Model (DTI) - Allows for the reconstruction of white matter organization - Also allows for an estimate of how linear or coherent that organization is at any given location in the brain What are some phenotypes (traits or conditions) that high white matter integrity and low white matter integrity are linked to? Lower integrity: - Disease/Damage: . Injury . Lupus, Alzheimers . Psychotic-spectrum disorders - Crossing Fibers Higher integrity: - Healthy Controls - Intelligence . FA predicts Intelligence - Problematic Connectivity? . PTSD . Synaesthesia . Autism What is the association between creativity (and openness) and Fractional Anisotropy? - Tensor model: Higher fractional anisotropy (FA) implies more linear/ coherent microstructure - Higher openness and creativity were associated with reduced white matter connectivity . (Reduced FA) in frontal-thalamic/frontal-temporal white matter regions - This effect was independent of intelligence - Suggests that (at least in the presence of sufficient intelligence), creativity is associated with a more diffuse (less linear) pattern of connectivity in frontal brain regions involved in cognitive control and attention Terms Fractional Anisotropy (FA): is a scalar value between zero and one that describes the degree of anisotropy of a diffusion process. Task-induced deactivation: These regions tend to deactivate during externally focused tasks (i.e. DMN is suppressed) [[[Lecture 2 starts approximately here]]] What is the paradox of schizophrenia, as discussed in lecture? Schizophrenia: - Breakdown of thought processes - Deficit of typically emotional responses - Auditory hallucinations - Paranoid and/or bizarre delusions - Disorganized speech and thinking - Significant social or occupational dysfunction - Extended/Lifelong illness (in many people) What is the continuum perspective of mental illnesses? - Schizophrenia (and related psychotic-spectrum illnesses, like Bipolar) represents extreme levels of traits that are common in the normal population . Clinical diagnosis is an artificial cutoff What traits are associated with risk for psychosis? - Eccentricity - Perceptual dysregulation - Cognitive Disorganization - Unusual beliefs and experiences Understand the construct of positive schizotypy (and how it is different from negative schizotypy) Positive Schizotypy = Apophenia: - Apophenia is the tendency to perceive meaningful pattern s and causal where none in fact exist Positive Schizotypy= - Magical ideation (supernatural, aliens) - Perceptual aberration (seeing/hearing things) - Overinclusive thinking (conceptual/categorical loosening) How do creative professionals tend to score on measures of positive and negative schizotypy? - Positive schizotypy (apophenia) is positively related creativity - Professional creative types tend to have high scores on both Postive schizotypy and Openness/Intellect - They also have more ‘mates’ Understand that all of the neurobiological findings we discussed as related to creativity also appear in people who score high in positive schizotypy and in some cases, people who have full blown schizophrenia Terms Magical ideation: the attribution of causal or synchronistic relationships between actions and events which seemingly cannot be justified by reason and observation Unusual perceptual experiences: Odd thinking and speech (e.g: vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate or stereotyped), including bodily illusions. Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation. Inappropriate or constricted affect. Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar. Overinclusive thinking: The individual is unable to think in a precise manner because of an inability to keep irrelevant elements outside perceptual boundaries Apophenia: Is the experience of seeing meaningful patterns or connections in random or meaningless data. The term was coined by neurologist Klaus Conrad and defined as the ‘unmotivated seeing of connections’ Week 14 What is the basic definition of a psychological disorder? - Psychological Dysfunction - Indicated by a set of psychologically abnormal behaviors What are the four aspects of abnormal behavior? 1) Exaggeration of normal behavior - E.g: Being naked all day - E.g: sleeping all day 2) Behavior is distressing to the individual - Not always the case 3) Behavior is dysfunctional, either for the individual or for others/society 4) Behavior deviates from society’s judgment concerning ‘normal’ behavior Understand what the DSM is and what it’s for (in very basic terms) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5): - Standardized tool for diagnosing psychological disorders - Diagnoses based on objective questions about observable behavior Know the basic problems that are associated with the DSM-IV categorical Personality Disorder diagnostic system - A persistent pattern of emotions, cognitions and behavior that results in enduring emotional distress . For the person affected . And/or for others . May cause difficulties with work and relationships - Dysfunctional/extreme personality traits + issues for other people - People with personality disorders are frequently unaware or unwillingly to admit that they are dysfunctional …in a related issue, why are labels good and useful, and when do they become problematic? Be careful with terms/labels: - It is important to discuss people with a disorder; we do not let the disorder define the person . ‘He is struggling with depression’ , ‘she is a person with avoidant personality disorder’ - This is especially important in the context of PDs because it can be hard to separate the person from the PD symptoms in some cases - Society has adapted a lot of terminology from the PD literature, most noticeably . Borderline, Narcissistic Understand all of the general criteria for personality disorders (list of 6; in other words, the six criteria for when something is categorized as being the personality disorder domain as opposed to some other disorder/circumstance) know the slides that have the heading “General Criteria for Personality Disorders” …they are more important than the slides with the heading “Defining Personality Disorders” General Criteria for Personality Disorders: (Prevalence: 10-15% of adults in US have at least one personality disorder) 1) An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviated markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture. This pattern is manifested in two (or more) of the following areas: - Cognition (i.e. ways of perceiving and interpreting self, other people and events) - Affectivity (i.e. the range, intensity, liability and appropriateness of emotional response) - Interpersonal functioning - Impulse control 2) The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations 3) The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations 4) The pattern is stable and of long duration and its onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or early adulthood . ‘Stable instability’ in some cases 5) The enduring pattern is not better accounted for as a manifestation of another mental disorder 6) The enduring pattern is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g: a drug of abuse, a medication) or general medical condition (e.g: head trauma) What are the various methods clinicians use to diagnose personality disorders? - Clinical impression . Unstructured interviews, clinical impressions, clinician experience . Open and flexible . Unreliable - Self-report scales . Advantages: inexpensive, easy to obtain, scores can be easily compared with other information, valid (same as S data) . Disadvantages: Lack of insight about symptoms or unwillingness to respond accurately - Structured interviews: . Advantages: series of questions designed to maintain objectivity while zeroing in on relevant characteristics; often seen as the gold standard for diagnosis E.g: ‘Do you often have days when your mood is constantly changing—days when you shift back and forth from feeling your usual self to feeling angry or depressed or anxious?’ . Disadvantages: rigid structure may not be flexible enough to account for a problem that the question don’t directly ask about - Informant report . Advantages and disadvantages of I data . Consensus about symptoms . The most information, from the widest possible number of sources, will lead to the most accurate diagnosis Know everything we discussed about the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders what are the three clusters what are the symptoms of each disorder how are some alike, how are they different? what is the most frequent personality disorder diagnosis? know if it’s more common in males/females; you do NOT need to know the overall prevalence rates of disorders, i.e. the percentages)) Cluster A: Odd/Eccentric Disorders - Schizotypal personality disorder (at least 5 of 9) . Ideas of reference . Magical thinking, bizarre fantasies, believing in odd phenomenon . Strange perceptual experiences . Odd speech or thinking . Suspiciousness or paranoia . Inappropriate or flattened emotions . Odd, peculiar, or eccentric actions or appearance . Failure to develop friendships and a lack of social ties other than to one’s immediate family . Anxiety being around other people that does not go away . ‘ … he believes that Earth is about to be overtaken by alien species. They are already here, scouting the land and choosing who will be “lifted” ad who will be “perish”. Many adepts have defected to “their” side and are collaborating with the aliens in the subjugation of Mankind and the ultimate conquest of our planet.’ . May or may not be ego-syntonic . Slightly more common among men - Schizoid personality disorder . No pleasure from social interaction . Indifferent to the opinions of others . Rarely experiences strong feelings . Ego-syntonic . Slightly more common among men - Paranoid personality disorder . Assume the worst of everyone Bear grudges . Highly suspicious of others ‘everyone out to get me’ . Alert for signs of betrayal . Reluctant to trust or confide in anyone . Ego-syntonic . Equally affects men and women These disorders are often comorbid; common construct= Negative symptoms of schizophrenia Cluster A: odd and eccentric patterns of thinking Mnemonic: A is closet to Schizophrenic A Cluster B: Impulsive/Erratic Disorders: (Cluster B: problems in regulating emotions, behaviors, and thinking – impulsive and erratic behavior) - Histrionic personality disorder . Goal is to always be the center of attention . Express strong opinion without basis . Strong emotions that suddenly change or disappear . Not taken seriously by others, difficult to get along with, serious difficulties in relationships without understanding why . Commonly described as: vivacious, exhibitionist, dramatic, fickle, attention- seeking, shallow, highly sensitive to disapproval, sexually inappropriate . Slightly more common in women - Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) . Excessive self-love . Belief that one is exceptional . More extreme than the trait of narcissism . Needs the admiration of others . Exploits others . Lack of empathy . Extreme arrogance . Ego-syntonic May brag about diagnosis! . Can be very dangerous . Slightly more common in men - Antisocial personality disorder . Illegal activities . Risky behaviors . Irritable, aggressive, and irresponsible . Are not bothered by harm caused to others . Much more prevalent in incarcerated populations . Essentially a milder form of psychopathy, even though ‘psychopath’ isn’t in the DSM In other words, those scoring high in psychopathy probably meet criteria for ASPD, but not necessarily vice versa . More common in men - Borderline personality disorder (BPD) . Most severe personality disorder Hospitalization common . Rapid mood shifts . Uncontrollable anger . Self-destructive acts . Self-damaging behaviors . Identity disturbance Chronic disorders Unstable relationships (black & white thinking) Fear of abandonment Confusion and feelings of unreality . High % of clinical population meets criteria . Equally common in men and women . Gender differences in manifestations Men often misdiagnosed with depression . Treatment: Dialectical behavioral behavior therapy Teaches skills for emotional self-control Is currently the only PD with clear treatment guidelines Cluster C: Anxious/Avoidant Disorders (Excessive anxiety, avoidance of social contract and relationships, behavioral patterns driven by anxiety) - Dependent personality disorder . Submissive interpersonal style . Fear disagreeing with others . An extreme pattern of replying on others to take care of one’s needs and make decisions (codependence) . More common in women - Avoidant personality disorder . Expect the absolute worst from others . Need constant reassurance of uncritical acceptance . Deep cravings for affection and social acceptance . Slightly more common among women - Obsessive- compulsive personally disorder (OCPD) . Not the same as obsessive compulsive disorder 1) Overconcern with rulers and details 2) Perfectionism 3) Workaholism 4) Inflexibility of thinking and behaving 5) Packrat behavior 6) Inability to delegate 7) Miserliness 8) Rigidity and stubbornness Cluster B tend to be the most stable What is PD-NOS? (more info about this in the textbook) - Most common personality disorder diagnosis - A pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) - Became the diagnosis applied to children or adults who are on the autism spectrum but do not fully meet the criteria for another ASD such as autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome What were the goals of the committee assigned to reorganize/update the Personality Disorders section for the DSM-V? - Assess whether personality functioning is seriously impaired - Asses whether a personality disorder is present - Assess degree of each of the maladaptive traits . Cutoffs are used - Avoid necessity of single diagnosis - No more PD-NOS What are the advantages of a trait model of personality disorder (versus the categorical model) - More complete description of each person’s self . Recognizes and appreciates that the person is more than just the personality disorder . There are aspects to the self that can be adaptive, even commendable, despite the presence of the personality disorder . No longer would a personality disorder be conceptualized as something that is qualitatively distinct from normal personality . Personality disorder represents simply the presence of maladaptive variants of personality traits that are evident within all persons - Better assessment of how much progress/improvement is being made over time What is the PID-5? How was the PID-5 created? - (Most) clinicians were against using normal personality scales to predict abnormal functioning - Working group realized quickly that the status quo would prevent the use of standard trait measures - Contacted as many clinicians as they could and asked them to provide descriptions of symptoms they saw in their personality disorder patients - Used these response to empirically create the Personality Inventory for DSM-V (PID-5) What are the five maladaptive traits assessed by the PID-5? Which Big Five traits do they correspond to? - Negative affectivity—anxiety, depression, suspicion - Detachment- tendency to withdraw from and avoid emotional contacts with others (low E) - Antagonism—including deceitfulness, grandiosity, callousness and manipulativeness (low A) - Disinhibition—lack of self-control leading to impulsive behavior (low C) - Psychoticism—tendency to have bizarre thoughts or experiences, and to exhibit eccentric behavior (correlates with the Openness aspect of O/I) ((you don’t need to know the 25 facets of the PID-5)) What are the major limitations of the PID-5 as discussed in class? - Not a perfect solution - Assesses ‘level of functioning’ independently of traits . No clear evidence that is necessary or even useful . Really a clinical impression - Lack of normal trait level evaluation . If a score of 0 is obtained on Antagonism, that doesn’t mean the patient is highly Agreeable—just that they aren’t highly disagreeable - Limited # of traits – misses important ones . Workaholism, aggressiveness, shame, entitlement . Fearlessness, glib charm, selflessness, subservience - Does not recognize the bipolarity of trait structure—being extreme on either end can cause issues
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