Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide BIO 304
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Casey on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 304 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Garrie Landry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Economic Botany in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Key Box: ***: Term given on study guide Final Exam Study Guide ***: Explanations from Psycho Stimulants notes The use ofpsychostimulants inprimitive societies useditin ***:Additionalnotes religious practices to communicate withthe gods mentionedinexam review Medical Marijuana Cannabis Sativa Marijuana (mostcanbe foundinnotes) The Chinese say Godgave man one plant(hemp)that cansustainus o Why?: 1. Durable fiber(makes clothes,ropes,etc.) 2. Edible Seeds (containa fairamountofoil, canbe roasted-good source ofnutrition) 3. Oil (seeds have so much oil, Chinese would extract oil for lamps and paints) 4. To correct spiritualimbalance (psycho-activity) Marijuana began in the Orients/China,thentraveledtoIndia,thentothe restof the world Africa Caribbean/Americas o Medical Use:China for gout, rheumatism, malaria and even poor memory (Googled) o India pain and stress relief THC Marijuana – Main ingredient – THC – compound that gives it the psycho-activity Opium, Source of the drug opium Poppy Plant has a milky latex that produces opium (latex capsule plant) A. Greeks refer to this plant as happy/joy plant – it induces sleep and relieves pain a. Started in Middle East and worked its way to the Far East o Britain, China, Opium Wars b. Became the most important trade item between British and China – Brit grew opium in India for quick transport to trade in China for treasures c. Opium became veryaddictive inChina i. In 1837, China officials destroyed British ship containing opium supplies 1. This was the start of the opium wars ii. British in return invaded China and forced them to take/sell/&trade opium, plus they took over Hong Kong and used it as main port for opium trade iii. 1865, China tried again to stop opium trade… thus, another war 1. Chinese lost again 2. In 1906, Brits finally agreed to reduce it 3. In 1949, Brits could no longer trade/force opium into China Codeine & Morphine Ingredients in opium Morphine history and use, Origin of Heroin A. Morphine (potent ingredient) was isolated from opium Morphineis10timesstronger thanopium a. After the civil war ended – men went home addicted to morphine i. Then it became known for its addictive tendencies Heroin Chemist attempted to make morphine less addictive and made heroine – complete opposite affect – more addictive Coca plant and cocain Coca Cocaine used by natives for centuries in high elevation in the Andes Produces feeling of joy, makes you immune to hunger and tiredness 90% of natives still eat plant today TheuseofCocainewaspublicizedbyFreud The first Coca Cola was brewed with Coca leaves Originally marketed it as head ache relief As of today, still use Coca leaves as a flavoring agent minus cocaine (extracted cocaine from leaves) Peyote Used by natives in North America in religious practices They have to be members of the Native American church of North America in order to use it LDS & Ipomoea tricolor seeds Ipomoea tricolor common name: Morning Glory A. Native to North America, used by natives in religious practices B. The seeds of this morning glory has LSD compounds; ingest seeds to go on a trip C. TheseedscontainLysergicAcidAmide(LSA),whichiscloselyrelatedtoLSD NativesinMexicousedthisplantasa psychoactiveplantwhichledtotheuseof LSD. Nicotiana tobaccum = Tobacco Thank Christopher Columbus – he brought Tobacco to Europe Then the Frenchman Jean Nicot is the primary agent in importing tobacco and selling it a. When Linnaeus decided to name the plant, he thought of Nicot. PeriquetobaccoGrowninGrandPoint,LAinSt.James Parish a. NativestaughtthisLAfamilies how togrow andproduces thisdistinctlyunique tobacco b. East Coast tobacco businesses contract these families to harvest this crop in order to mix this particular plant with their own tobacco because this particular tobacco is like no other and flavors their own tobacco Nicotiana tabacum plant and name = Nicotine Stimulates nervous system Causes nausea Pure form considered a serious poison Research is happening on how this can be used as a serious insecticide: if you mix the stuff in a cigar with water, that mixture can kill insects in your garden Stimulating Beverages Allinvolvea fermentation process Calledastimulantbecauseofthecaffeinecontent Effects:stimulates thenervoussystemandthemetabolicfunction Origin of Coffee, Chocolate, Tea 1. Coffee:comes fromEthiopia,Africa,butwasfirstbrewedinArabia 2. Chocolate: Comes froma treenativetotheAndes in SouthAmerica 3. Tea:Comes fromanevergreenfromSouthEastAsia Coffee monopoly, History of coffee in the Americas First coffee brewed in 500 in Arabia; before this the plant’s leaves were chewed in order to receive the caffeine Arabians (first place of brewed coffee) dipped seeds into hot water to sterilize the seed before roasting the seeds to stop competitors from making the same coffee Whywasitsoimportanttoboil/watertreattheseeds?TheyareSelf-compatible (can producemorebyitself) Even ifoneseedgotinhandsofcompetitors,theycouldproducesame coffeeplant Arabianshadthe1stcoffeemonopoly East Indies (Dutch) broke the Arab coffee monopoly – they smuggled coffee seed out of Arabia 1 coffee plant was brought to the Americas from Paris, France to the Caribbean island of Martinique (1723) brought a single plant – within a matter of years, a decade or so, there then were thousands of coffee plants From Martinique coffee spread from the Caribbean to South America Reached Brazil now the place of the highest world production **Theseplantsdowellinotherplacesawayfromtheirhomelandbecausetherearenonatural predatorsinnew areas A. Decaffeinating coffee a. A German chemist discovered three different methods: i. Water soak the seeds in water ii. Steam steam the seeds iii. Solvent soak seeds in methyl chloride b. Caffeineis extractedfromunroastedseeds – the most common form of decaffeinating coffee is by solvent roasting removes any trace of the solvent Coco plant Theobroma Cacao = genus for Chocolate major beverage in Aztec to give to the gods, the people didn’t drink it because it was considered scared Original beverage included roasted, ground up chocolate seeds with red pepper, corn meal, and other spices Herevs.There Christopher Columbus is responsible for bringing chocolate to Europe Europeans changed the way chocolate was consumed by adding sugar and vanilla Spain at one time held a monopoly on chocolate sales on the island of Trinidad and Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) This monopoly was short lived: The Dutch broke it by bringing the it to Africa and South East Asia Cacao Dutching chocolate Dutchchocolate: The Dutch invented pressure treating outcome: 30% less fat and oil 90% of chocolate in the market are/have been Dutched The fat and oil removed in the treatment is used and not disposed of o Valuable the fats and oil= Coco butter o Reduces scar tissue appearance Big in the cosmetic industry Cameila sinensis (Knowname) Every society drinks coffee, but popularity of tea came from the fact it was cheaper than coffee Ex: the British became accustomed to tea due to its cheapness Important trade item: Brits and others got most of their tea from China Both green tea and black tea come from the same plant Green tea: collect leaves, shredded and heat treatment to prevent any fermentation that would occur, then sold as is Black tea: collect leaves, allow leaves to wilt, roll and crush it, then a slow fermentation (don’t do anything for 24hours) World’s fair in St. Louis, MO invention of iced tea. Tea bag – began with a New York importer/ seller trying to give out samples. That too became popular Stimulating beverages vs Alcoholic Beverages Fermentaion processes: chemical vs microbial Central nervous system Central nervous system DEPRESSANT STIMULANT Fermentation process is caused by a Fermentation process is only true microbial a chemical change that occurs (Yeast = CO + ethanol) 2 inside of a plant o 18% or higher kills yeast Distillation vs fortification Two methods that produce alcoholic beverages greater than 18%: i. Distillation ii. Fortification B. Ethanolissolublebywaterthebodyabsorbs itsoquicklythatwecannotbreak itdown asfastaswecanconsumeit=inebriation/drunkenness Mead madebydilutinghoneyinwatersoitcanfermentandproducealcohol Wine fermented fruit juice (any fruit; fruit of choice today = grapes) Greeks were the first to use wine as a COMMON beverage Stored wine in vats that were sealed with pine resin often the resin seeped into the wine and changed the flavor of the wine (bitter) Romans were the 1 to improve the flavor of wine They basically just didn’t use pine resin to seal their vessels; eliminating the pine resin open the door to many different, flavorful wines Draw wine very carefully from one tank/container to another, leaving behind the sediment= this is called racking Whatdetermines quality? 1) Fermentation 2)Climateoftheyear 3) aging/handing-racking 4)kind/typeofgrapes White wine vs Red Wines Color of wine is determined by pigment in the skin of the grape White wine can be made from either red or green grapes (just remove the skin before fermentation) Red wine can only be made from red grapes (remove the skins after the first part of fermentation to color the wine) Champagne Sparkling Wine Champagne is basically sparkling wine Add extra sugar at the end of fermentation and conceal it so the yeast would produce high carbonation naturally Now champagne is produced in many ways: The mostexpensiveway = produce liquid in individual bottles store/age bottle upside down to collect sediment in the neck of the bottle once sediment settles freeze the neck in liquid nitrogen and uncork the bottle, remove the sediment and recork the bottle can repeat this process multiple times Another way = Ferment the liquid in sealed containers and bottle it under pressure Leastexpensive = Take a still wine and add carbon dioxide to wine as it is bottle (similar process to carbonating soft drinks) Main ingredients used in beer making Beer , ingredients 5 main ingredients: 1. Barley Malt 2. Yeast – there are many types of yeast - each affects the taste of beer differently 3. Hops – use of hops dates back 100s of years (discussed later) 4. Water – also greatly affects taste of beer 5. Adjuncts most recent addition to beer ingredients (not used in ancient times) These adjuncts are used more by US brewers than Europe and many other places); one reason for this is because they are cheaper to ferment/use Examples: corn syrup, potato starch, un-malted grains (rice) Lite beer (history of) was first offered in 1960, but was not widely accepted Onlydateyou willneedtoknowon theexam:MillerLitebecamethe1stacceptable Litebeerin1975 . 1980 No less than 30 additional Lite beers were offered in the US market 2methodsinmakingLiteBeer: Begin the beer process using fewer carbs The more preferred/typical way: add enzymes to the brew that will then convert all starch to sugar = fewer carbs, but also generates a slightly higher alcohol content o Because of the higher alcohol content, some dilute the beer with water because the content is too high o Thus, in general most Lite beers are slightly lower in alcohol content malted grain Northern Europe fermented grain to make alcohol due to their weather conditions being so drastically different from Southern Europe who used fruit to make wine Basically,germinatedgrain=maltedgrain,maltedgrainisused inthefermentation process.Itfirsthastobe maltedthrougha process ofgermination inordertoallow the brewertouseitinfermentation. Saké 2fungi areusedintheproduction (2verydifferent) Koji fungispores=Aspergillus oryzae Yeast Saké is the only alcohol beverage that produces the highest alcohol content produced naturally Natural alcohol content = 18% On market (add ethanol) = 22-24% Shortest shelf life of any beverage – should be consumed with at least 1 year of production Bourbon Whiskey, Scotch Used peat moss as a natural fuel to roast the barley used in whiskey – the peat moss gave off an aroma that made best scotch (this method has been used since the start of Scotch) Bourbon WhiskeyAmerican product: Began in Pennsylvania with Irish immigrants Proof vs percent Proof = twice the concentration of the alcohol content 100proof=50%alcohol Rum Fermentation of sugar cane juice Where sugar cane is grown, rum is soon to follow (Recall the sugar triangle from previous chapters- sugar went to New England, and out of New England came rum) This beverage is aged: Distilled to a high alcohol content Tequila Tequila & Mescal Both made from the Agave plant also referred to as a century plant o The flowering stock of agave is what makes tequila and mescal A. New World beverage –uniquetotheAmericas,originatedinNew Mexico i. When cutting up the plants, these larva are removed 1. They save these larvae and use them later by: a. Drying the larvae and selling them b. Put at the bottom of the bottles c. Or mash the dried larva and mix it with red pepper and salt to take after shots of tequila and mescal Brandy o distilled wine resulting a concentrated liquid = brandy A. Cheap brandy = distill wine and then flavored B. Expensive brandy = take the fruit, ferment it, MAKE wine, and then distill it Gin Vodka Ginisflavoredbyadding juniper berries toaccountforitsbitterflavor Made in a similar process to whiskey use malted grain Main difference = gin and vodka are NOT aged Are distilled to a higher alcohol % than whiskey Know all Plant families that have 2 acceptable names and be able to match all of the by old and new names example Leguminosae /Fabaceae Cannabis Sativa Marijuana Poppy Plant genus: Papaver Coca Cocaine Lophophora Williamsii Common name: Peyote Ipomoea tricolor common name: Morning Glory Nicotiana tobacum = Tobacco Coffea arabica genus for coffee Theobroma Cacao = genus for Chocolate
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