HIST 1020 Final exam study guide
HIST 1020 Final exam study guide HIST 1020-008
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Patricia Quizon on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020-008 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Bohanan Final Exam Guide Spring 2016 Nationalism in the Middle East The revival of Islam occurred with rising nationalism in the Middle East. There are two sects of Islam, the Sunnis and the Shi’ites. In Turkey, a patriot named Mustafa Kamal wanted to get rid of the British and French military presences. Kamal led a revolution and succeeded. He also saw a change of the current government led by a sultan into a republic with a president, a position he filled. As president, Kamal set out major reform with modernization/westernization; this policy became known as Kemalism. In order to be independent and avoid Western control, he had to westernize. Under Kemalism, Turkey became a secular state and the Islam hold on Turkey was reduced, decreasing its influence. He also abolished the caliph (person in charge of Islam faith by region—not to be confused with prophet) as there was a power struggle between himself and the caliph. Kamal also abolished Islamic law—a big deal; he instead institutes a Western-style, secular law code, which included abolishing polygamy. He enacted universal suffrage and a metric system, and also promoted education, a Roman alphabet, and Western clothing. All these adoptions and promotions were symbolically important—they represented how the belief that old Islam ways were backwards. Being like the West would put Turkey on the same playing field as them. In Iran, a shah rules the country and a nationalist Reza Pahlavi rules it in 1925. In 1941, the British and Soviets need the oil in Iran and encourage a government overthrow among citizens. It succeeds, and Pahlavi’s son Muhammed Reza Pahlavi (mentioned as MRP from here on) becomes shah. Like his father, he is unpopular among his people—his policies were repressive and brutal. There was no free speech or civil liberties, and it was a pro-West government. In class, it was descried as neo-colonial/imperial. Iran was basically a Shi’ite nation; in Shi’ite culture, the clergy played a very important and large role in civilian life, embedded in local communities. MRP had a poor relationship with the clergy and constantly fought with them, trying to de-emphasize their power. One figure in particular was Ayyatollah Khomeini, whom he fought with a lot. In 1963, Khomeini was part of a movement to repress MRP’s power and in result, is forced into exile to Paris until his return in 1979. While in Paris, he was not cutoff from the happenings in Iran; he was seen as a mythical hero among the people in Iran, so they let him know what was going on in his absence. His influence grows even in exile; this represents all that is wrong with the relationship between the shah and Shia Islam. In the 1960s, a modernization program called the White Revolution took place in Iran. All the land in Iran was owned by the wealthy elite. Peasants wanted their own plot of land, so the shah carries out reform to help them by distributing the land among them. In theory, this was a good policy, but it backfired on him. The plots of land the peasants received were so small they couldn’t live on them. This leads to them become impoverished, forcing them to leave the countryside to the cities. They tried to find employment that wasn’t available to them. Instead, they are forced to live in shantytowns outside the cities, struggling to find work. This reform was a disaster. To add more to his unpopularity, MRP’s lifestyle was very different than his nation’s. Both him and his wife displayed their richness and lived lavishly. This contrasted with the poverty in his nation. For example, when the price of oil skyrocketed and the Middle East gained profit, he spends the money on royal palaces instead of reform. The Iranian Revolution took place in 1978-1979. On January 8, 1978, student protesters and Shi’ite clergy stage a sit-in to protest the regime, censorship, etc. MRP sends troops in to disperse them violently, resulting in 70 dead. In Shia Islam, it is customary to have mourning processions. For every person are 3 days of processions. The Shah does not want these processions to take place; sometimes he lets them happen, and other times he tries to shut it down, killing more people. This only causes more processions to happen. By the end of the year, a lot of processions and a lot of protests are happening. The shah also has cancer and is very weak. At the end of 1978, he leaves Iran in exile to the US (he’s a friend of President Carter). On February 1, 1979, Ayatollah returns to Iran with a hero’s welcome. The streets of Tehran are filled with his supporters. He takes control of the government and establishes a Shi’ite state. The modernization of Iran happens religiously. Egypt was the object of western imperialism for a long time in the 19 century. After the break of the Ottoman Empire, the British ordered a mandate over Egypt, reviving colonialism and established control of foreign power under the guise of a protectorate. A national decolonization revolution eventually occurs, led by army officers. They overthrow the Egyptian king (controlled by the British) and replace him with a nationalist, Nasser. Nasser was Arab and Egyptian, and also a socialist. He carried out land reforms, distributing tracts of land controlled by wealthy elite to agriculture workers. During the Cold War, Nasser practiced a non-alignment policy, not wanting to be part of USSR block. His desire to modernize and improve economy was introduced with the Aswan Dam. This was his biggest project to introduce modern tech. It stopped the flow of the Nile River. Nasser had to relocate national monuments that would be submerged to complete this project. In 1956, Nasser took more steps toward nationalizing Egypt’s economy by ordering the army to take control of the Suez Canal, which was still under British and French rule. An alliance of British, French, and Israeli forces invaded to retake the canal in what is known as the Suez War. When the Soviet Union offered help to Egypt, the US negotiated a cease-fire that granted Egypt control of the canal (against wishes of the British and French) to prevent any Soviet intervention and the possibility of a Soviet-Egypt alliance. Israel was created after WW2, founded as a homeland for the Jews. Jewish nationalism is known as Zionism, and it emerges first in Europe among Germans, who wanted the Jews to have their own nation because of the dispersion of Jewish people across nations. In 1947, the United Nations passed resolution to create state for Jews in what used to be Palestine; it consisted of two states: one for immigrating Jewish and the other for the Arab population. The Arabs opposed this and started a war instantly after the creation of Israel in 1948. Arab nationalists could not accept the existence of Israel. Arab frustration also came from the Balfour Declaration back in 1917. It was made by the British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour, which made contradictory promises to Jews and Arabs. It guaranteed that Jews in England and France would not lose their citizenship if an independent Jewish state were to be created. The British genuinely supported the Zionist vision of a homeland for the Jews, but also hoped that Jews would be grateful to the British for this declaration and help maintain British control of the Suez Canal. In 1967, Israel is aware that Egypt and Arab states were amassing troops. Israel determines to engage in pre-emptive strike and attacks Egypt by surprise in devastating air raids. They defeat Arab in 6 days, known as the Six Day War. Israel at this point looks invincible, with victories from the Six Day War and the Suez War. They’ve also obtained new territories: Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. It increased their size 4x over. In 1973 during the holiday and month of Ramadan, a surprise attack by the Arabs occurs against Israel with what is known as the Yom Kippur War. Israel manages to counterattack, resulting in another victory. However, a resolution is passed to saw off their new territories gradually. After Yom Kippur, a lot of fighting became terrorism. After 4 defeats, Arab nationalists used more terrorism against Israel. In 1964, the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed. They stood for Palestinians and their plight. It was headed by Yassar Arafat, who endorsed terroristic tactics (suicide bombing, 1972 Munich Olympics). Israel responded by shooting down Arab jetliner. This back and forth terrorist activity lasts for a while. A peace process eventually occurs, starting in 1979 with the Camp David Accords. President Carter was concerned with foreign affairs and brought together Anwar Sadat, president of Egypt, and Menachim Begin, the prime minister of Israel. This meeting was for Egypt to officially recognize Israel as a state and to stop violence for three years to settle on peace agreement. Sadat and Begin both receive Nobel peace prizes, but extremists assassinate Sadat. Areas of Arab regions occupied by Israeli troops produce Intifada in 1987. A significant Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation of West Bank and Gaza with civil disobedience occurs. It wasn’t only extremists who took part, but also women and children. It was extremely violent, and led to another set of peace talks. In 1993, Bill Clinton, Yasser Arafat (PLO) and Yitzhak Rabin (Israel) meet with the Oslo Accords. This meeting specifies the PLO recognizing the existence of Israel, and Israel agrees to begin slower process of turning over governments in Gaza Strip and West Bank to Palestinians. The PLO morphs into governments, led by Yasser Arafat. The Hammas, a political party and terrorist group, is created out of turnover. A second Intifada occurs in 2000, and leaves us with unresolvable mess in relations between Israel and Arab states. U.S. Civil Rights Movement African nationalism resembled similar movement in Asia and the Middle East against European colonialism. The first nationalist push came from the US. W.E.B. Dubois was an important figure in black nationalism. He was a cofounder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and organized Pan-African congresses in Paris during the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and also in Brussels in 1921. Pan- Africanism sought for black solidarity and a vast self-governing union of all African people. Among the Pan-Africanists was Marcus Garvey, who was one of the most influential figures of Pan-Africanism. He rallied young, educated Africans to his call of “Africa for the Africans” and adopted a “Back to Africa” mantra. This mantra encouraged African Americans to return to the African homelands of their ancestors. The Back to Africa movement mobilized thousands of African Americans who wished to leave for the Republic of Liberia. After WW2, postwar America experienced a social revolution. African Americans were beginning to experience major victories against the system of segregation and discrimination after a long struggle. The NAACP challenged segregation in schools in court. In 1954, it won in the Supreme Court, in Brown v. Board of Education, which stated that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” Blacks often challenged injustice with nonviolent peaceful resistance, much like Gandhi’s methods of civil disobedience. A significant event that occurred during the civil rights movement was the Montgomery Bus Boycott, in which African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, protesting segregated seating. It is regarded as the first large-scale demonstration against segregation in the U.S. Four days before the start of the boycott, Rosa Parks had refused to give her seat to a white man on a Montgomery bus; she was arrested and fined afterwards. The boycott began on her court hearing, and it lasted for 381 days. Eventually, Montgomery was ordered to integrate its bus system by the Supreme Court. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was one of the leaders of the boycott and became a leading figure in the civil rights movement. He saw the end of legal segregation of African Americans in the South and other areas of the US, as well as the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited discrimination in public services and on the job, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which prohibited discrimination in voting. In 1957, a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School, and were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by the governor of Arkansas. After intervention of President Eisenhower, they were allowed admittance. Other figures in the school segregation were James Meredith, the first African American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi, Vivian Malone, one of the first two African American students to enroll at the University of Alabama and their first African American graduate, and Harold Franklin, Auburn University’s first African American to enroll and register as a graduate student. Fred Shuttlesworth was US civil rights activist who led the fight against segregation as a minister in Birmingham, Alabama. He co-founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). He also helped Martin Luther King Jr. with his efforts in the Civil Rights Movement. He also took part in the Freedom Rides, the sit-ins against segregated buses. In March 1965, Martin Luther King Jr. and James Bevel (SCLC Director) organized a plan for a peaceful march in Montgomery after the killing of Jimmie Lee Jackson by police. This march required them to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge. On March 7, 1965, armed policemen attacked peaceful civil rights demonstrators in an event known as Bloody Sunday. The design of the bridge made protestors unable to see the police officers on the other side of the bridge until after they had reached the top of it in the center. The brutal attack was televised. Decolonization in Africa Ghana was a British colony in West Africa in 1948. The people had no say in political or economic life. Large trading companies increased prices on scarce items to maintain profits during WW2, and after the war ended, the prices did not change. Chief Nii Kwabena Bonne formed the Anti-Inflation Campaign Committee in Accra in response to the inflated prices. He demanded the European firms to lower the prices of goods, particularly cotton textile goods. The idea to boycott the European’s goods was supported widely by other towns and cities throughout Ghana. When they received no response from the Chamber of Commerce or the United Africa Company, the plan to boycott was carried out on January 26, 1948. It resulted in the closure of many shops. It led to a reduction of prices, but not as reduced as they had hoped. This boycott campaign became part of the preparation for the 1949-51 campaign for independence. Kwame Nkrumah led Ghana to independence from Britain in 1957 and served as prime minister and president. He first came to power as leader of the colonial Gold Coast, which he renamed Ghana, until he was deposed in 1966. Ghana became the first sub- Saharan state to emerge from colonialism. Nkrumah gained power by building a radical party appealing to modern groups: veterans, merchant women, union members, urban toughs, and cocoa farmers. Their mantra was “self-government now”. Even after being imprisoned, he still campaigned and his nationalist party defeated westernized moderates and traditional political parties in free elections. By 1957, Nkrumah had worldwide fame and influence as Ghana gained independence. Patrice Lumumba was the first democratically elected leader of the Congo as prime minister. He founded and led the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC) party, and he played an important role in campaigning for independence from Belgium. After Congolese independence was obtained in 1960, a mutiny broke out in the army, known as the Congo Crisis. Lumumba tried to gain support from the Soviet Union, leading to differences with the US and Belgium. Lumumba was imprisoned by state authorities and executed. The UN was asked to come to the Congo, but did not intervene to save him. In 1948, the South African National Party created a racist and segregationist system of discrimination. This is known as apartheid, meaning “apartness” or “separation”. South Africa’s population was divided into four groups: whites, blacks, Asians, and racially mixed “coloureds”. South Africa was the most highly industrialized country in Africa at this time, so the groups were heavily defined. Good jobs in the cities were reserved for the whites, living in luxury in nice neighborhoods. Blacks were restricted to townships outside the city, plagued by crime, poverty, and mistreatment from white policemen. By the 1950s, black South Africans mounted peaceful protests. In 1960, police in Sharpeville fired at demonstrators and killed 69 black demstrators. The African National Congress (ANC), the main black nationalist organization, sent some leaders abroad to establish a new headquarters. Other members were led by Nelson Mandela to mount armed resistance in South Africa. In 1962, Nelson was captured, tried for treason, and sentenced to life imprisonment. The Soweto Uprising was a series of protests led by high school students in South Africa in June 1976. The protests were in response to the introduction of Afrikaans as the medium of instruction in local schools. Many of the protests were met with police brutality, estimated up to 700 casualties. The association of Afrikaans with apartheid prompted black South Africans to prefer English rather than Afrikaans. Afrikaans was viewed widely as the language of the oppressor. The aftermath of the protests established the role of the ANC in the anti-apartheid struggle. In French-speaking Africa, decolonization took a different course. France tried hard to strengthen its hold on Algeria after losing its colonies in Indochina in 1954. Algeria’s large European and Catholic population, known as pied noirs (black feet—because of the black shoes they wore instead of sandals) wanted to keep Algeria part of France. In November 1954, Algeria’s anticolonial movement the National Liberation Front (FLN), began the war for independence. The FLN won in 1962 and created the independent Algerian state. The war was long and violent, and it divided France and compromised its political stability. This resulted in France being unable to respond to nationalists in its other African colonies until Charles de Gaulle returned to power in 1958. He sought to maximize France’s influence over the future independent nations, so he devised a divide-and-rule strategy by dividing the French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa federations into thirteen separate governments. This created a French commonwealth. Collapse of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union underwent a social revolution: the urban population rapidly expanded, the number of highly trained experts in science, business, and other specialized fields increased 4x over between 1960 and 1985. This helped foster Soviet public opinion. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev sought to reform the Soviet system with policies he named democratic socialism. The first set of reforms was implemented to transform and restructure the economy. The economic restructuring, perestroika, permitted freer prices, more autonomy for state enterprises, and established profit-seeking private cooperatives. Gorbachev’s popularity gradually declined when the economy stalled. He implemented a new policy called glasnost, which was a campaign of openness. Introduced in 1985, it was more successful. This campaign encouraged free speech, marking a significant drift away from censorship and uniformity that characterized the Soviet Union before. Gorbachev continued to democratize the Soviet Union by holding free elections, the first since 1917. Democratization encouraged demands for greater autonomy from non- Russian minorities. Gorbachev drew back from repression and nationalist demands began to grow. Gorbachev also began to overturn Communist regimes, influencing eastern Europe. In Poland, strikes grew into a working-class revolt in August 1980. Lech Walesea led the workers to organize the independent trade union Solidarity. Communist leaders responded by imposing martial law in December 1981 and imprisoning Solidarity leaders. Solidarity maintained its organization and still had strong popular support. By 1988, Poland was on the brink of economic collapse due to labor unrest and inflation. Solidarity pressured Poland’s Communist leaders into legalizing Solidarity to allow free elections for some seats in the Polish parliament. They were allowed, and also won every contested seat. A month later, a noncommunist prime minister was sworn in for the first time. Latin America since 1945 Liberation theology was developed in Latin America in the 1950s. It was a movement within the Catholic Church to support the poor in situations of exploitation that emerged with particular force in Latin America in the 1960s (definition taken directly from the textbook). The movement emerged amid reforms of church doctrine by Pope John XXIII who called on clergy to engage more directly with the contemporary world. Until the 1930s, Cuba remained essentially an American colony. It was when a series of socialist- and Communist-leaning rulers seized and lost power. In March 1952, Fulgencio Batista staged a coup with American support to institute a repressive authoritarian regime, favoring wealthy Cubans and multinational corporations. Despite Cuba being one of Latin America’s most prosperous countries, there was a stark difference between the rich and poor. The Cuban Revolution was led by Fidel Castro and began in 1953. His second-in- command was Ernesto “Che” Guevara, the legendary Argentine revolutionary. Along with a force of guerrilla rebels, they overthrew the Cuban government on New Year’s Day, 1959. Castro promised land reform, nationalized industries, and imposed limits on rent to help the poor. At this time, some Cubans fled to the US to Miami. Castro did not initially come to power as a Communist; his main goal was to regain control of Cuba’s economy and politics from the US. After the US overthrew him and starved the Cuban economy, it drove him to form an alliance with the Soviet Union. Central America experienced immense violence in Latin America during the Cold War. Many Latin American governments long supported interests of US companies like the United Fruit Company, which grew export crops and relied on cheap labor. Nationalists in Central America were seeking economic development less dependent on the US and its corporations. Groups of peasants and urban workers began to press for political rights and improved living standards. Central American conservatives and the US government saw these nationalists, peasants, and workers as Communists. Many workers and peasants formed Marxist revolutionary movements in response. This resulted in many casualties. In Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz, the reformist president, was overthrown in a military coup staged by the CIA in 1954. Guatemalan leaders supported by the US government began to suppress peasant movements, resulting in an estimated count of over 200,000 deaths of indigenous people. Nicaragua faced civil wars as well. In 1979, the Sandinista movement overthrew dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle. The Sandinistas conducted a revolutionary transformation of Nicaragua, which was inspired by Communism in Cuba. The Sandinistas were compromised by war with the US-trained and US-financed insurgent army, the Contras. In the 1970, Salvador Allende became the president of Chile after voters pushed for greater social reform. Allende redistributed land and nationalized foreign businesses, which drew opposition from conservative Chileans, foreign businesses, and the US government. They felt their economic interests and political power was threatened by these reforms. Chile became a big producer of the world’s copper, and Allende used the revenue produced to fund housing, education, health care, and other social welfare projects. President Nixon ordered a financial blockade to disrupt the Chilean economy in response. In 1973, Allende was overthrown and killed himself rather than surrending as his palace was stormed by the military. General Augusto Pinochet took power, instituted radical economic reforms, and gave neoliberal economists a free hand to conduct “shock treatment” to remake Chile into a free-market economy. All institutions were turned over to private companies. The US gave Pinochet significant economic aid to help transform the economy. Chile became flooded with foreign investment, but also suffered from great unemployment. Pinochet dealt violently with any critics, strengthening his dictatorship over Chile. Juan Peron was the President of Argentina from June 1946 to September 1955. He and his wife Eva were very popular among many Argentines. Eva was viewed as a symbol of hope to the commoners during Peron’s presidency. She introduced social justice and quality into the national discourse.
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