Psych study guide part 2
Psych study guide part 2 Psyc 2010
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kala Dunnigan on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Frank Weathers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 05/02/16
Chapter 14 Study Guide Abnormal behavior: General concepts -- Medical model- proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease -- Borrowing medical terms and applying them to abnormal behavior Ex. Illness, disorder, psychopathology, diagnosis, etiology, prognosis -- Criticism of medical model 1) outlived its usefulness 2) potentially derogatory labels put on people 3) Illness is for the body; the brain cannot be sick with a disease –Thomas Szasz -- Criteria of abnormal behavior -- Deviance behavior deviates from what is socially acceptable -- Maladaptive behavior everyday adaptive behavior is impaired -- Personal distress subjective pain usually by people with anxiety orders or depression -- Psychodiagnosis: classification of disorders -- Categorical vs. dimensional approach - People many times can have overlapping symptoms of different psychological disorders and may qualify for more than one diagnosis. Rather than shoving them into set categories, we should test them on different dimensions of disorders to see what degree of symptoms they possess, such as anxiety, depression, agitation Anxiety disorders- class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety -- Specific disorders and defining features -- Generalized anxiety disorder marked by chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat -- Phobic disorder persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger -- Panic disorder and agoraphobia Panic disorder- characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anziety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly -- Obsessive-compulsive disorder marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) -- Posttraumatic stress disorder involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event -- Etiology of anxiety disorders -- Biological factors Genetics- moderate genetic predisposition to anxiety disorders GABA- neurotransmitter blocked by medicine such as Xanax and Valium Serotonin- One of the happy chemicals in brain -- Conditioning and learning Anxiety and fear often acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning -- Avoidance acquired through operant conditioning (negative reinforcement) -- Preparedness People are biologically prepared by their evolutionary history to acquire some fears much more easily than others -- Cognitive factors some people are more likely to suffer from anxiety problems because they… a) misinterpret harmless situations as threatening b) focus excessive attention on perceived threats c) selectively recall information that seems threatening -- Stress There is reason to believe that high stress often helps precipitate the onset of anxiety disorders Mood disorders Class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes -- Major depressive disorder- people show persistent feelings of sadness or despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure -- Primary symptoms -sadness -despair -anhedonia (diminished ability to experience pleasure) -physical symptoms -low self-esteem -- Age of onset - onset of depression can happen at any point in a life span, but the majority of cases emerge before the age of 40 -- Prevalence -Twice as high in women -Over 30 million people in the USA have suffered, or will suffer from depression -- Bipolar disorder- also known as manic depressive disorder, marked by the experience of both depressed and manic periods -- Primary symptoms depression and manic episodes -- Age of onset typical age = late teens -- Prevalence - affects roughly 1% of the population - equally affects men and women alike Mood disorders and suicide -- Etiology of mood disorders -- Genetics - evidence strongly suggests that genetic factors influence the likelihood of developing major depression and bipolar disease -- Neurochemical and neuroanatomical factors -- Norepinephrine and serotonin- correlations have been found between mood disorders and abnormal levels of these two neurotransmitters -- Hippocampal volume correlation between depression and reduced hippocampal volume -- Cognitive factors Learned helplessness- passive “giving up” behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events (such as uncontrollable shock in the lab) Pessimistic explanatory style- People with this style tend to attribute their setbacks to their personal flaws instead of situational factors. They tend to draw global, far-reaching conclusions about their personal inadequacies based on these setbacks. Rumination- people who respond to depression by rumination repetitively focus their attention on their feelings of depression. They constantly think about how sad, lethargic, and unmotivated they are. -- Interpersonal roots - inadequate social skills put people on the road to depressive disorders -- Stress - moderately strong link between stress and the onset of mood disorders - stress also appears to affect how people with mood disorders respond to treatment and weather they experience a relapse of their disorder Schizophrenic disorders Schizophrenic disorders- encompass a class of disorders marked by delusions hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior -- General symptoms -- Delusions and irrational thought -- Deterioration of adaptive behavior -- Distorted perception (auditory hallucinations) -- Disturbed emotions (flattening of emotions or inappropriate emotions) -- Subtypes and course -- Paranoid- dominated by delusions and persecution, along with delusions of grandeur -- Catatonic- marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity -- Disorganized- particularly severe deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen -- Undifferentiated- marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms -- Course and outcome - usually emerge during adolescence or early adulthood - usually have long history of peculiar behavior and cognitive, social deficits, although most do not manifest a full-fledged psychological disorder during childhood. -- Etiology of schizophrenia -- Genetics -heredity has a lot to do with vulnerability of schizophrenia - child born to one or two schizophrenic parents has a 48% chance of inheriting schizophrenia -- Neurochemical factors -- Dopamine hypothesis- excess dopamine activity is the neurochemical basis for schizophrenia -- Structural abnormalities -- Enlarged ventricles- association between enlarged ventricles and occurrence of schizophrenic disturbance -- Reductions in gray and white matter - reductions in both gray and white matter in specific brain regions seem to reflect losses of synaptic density and of myelinization -- Neurodevelopmental hypothesis- schizophrenia is caused in part by various disruptions in the normal maturational processes of the brain before or at birth - viral infection, malnutrition, obstetric problems during birth process -- Expressed emotion- the degree to which a relative of a schizophrenic patient displays highly critical or emotionally overinvolved attitudes toward the patient (highly critical or emotionally overinvolved family members) -- Stress stress is assumed to play a key role in triggering schizophrenic disorders Chapter 15 Study Guide Elements of the treatment process -- Different types of treatment -- Insight therapies - insight therapy is also known as “talk therapy” in the tradition of Freud’s psychoanalysis - clients engage in complex, often lengthy verbal interactions with their therapist -- Behavior therapies - based on principles of learning - makes direct effort to alter problematic responses and maladaptive habits -- Biomedical therapies - approaches to therapy involve interventions into a person’s biological functioning - most popular are drug therapy and electro conclusive (shock) therapy - drug therapy is dominant mode of treatment -- Who seeks therapy : Client - people seeking mental health treatment represent the full range of human problems - two most common are depression and anxiety - willingness to seek out psychotherapy varies - Women more likely to seek out treatment - white people are more likely to seek out treatment - people more likely to seek treatment who have insurance and are educated - lack of insurance covering costs is a big reason given for not seeking treatment - the biggest reason for not receiving treatment is the stigma around mental health treatment -- Who provides therapy -- Psychologists Specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavior -- Psychiatrists Physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders -- Other mental health pro fessionals - psychiatric social work - psychiatric nurses Insight therapies- involve verbal interactions intended to enhance client’s self -knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior -- Psychoanalysis- insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference -- Probing the unconscious free association- clients spontaneously express their thoughts and fee lings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible dream analysis- the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client’s dreams -- Resistance – refers to a largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy -- Transference- occurs when clients start relating to their therapists in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives -- Modern psychodynamic treatments Central features of modern psychodynamic treatments 1) a focus on emotional expe rience 2) exploration of efforts to avoid distressing thoughts and feelings 3) identification of recurring patterns in patient’s life experiences 4) discussion of past experience, especially events in early childhood 5) analysis of interpersonal relationships 6) a focus on the therapeutic relationship itself 7) exploration of dreams and other aspects of fantasy life -- Client-centered therapy - insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy -- Therapeutic climate a supportive environment for therapy must provide three conditions: 1) genuineness (honest communication) 2) unconditional positive regard (nonjudgmental acceptance of the client) 3) accurate empathy (understanding of the client’s point of view) -- Therapeutic process - therapist acts like a mirror for the client for them to become more aware of their true feelings - key task is clarification - therapist stays relatively hand off, providing little guidance and keeps advice and interpretation to a minimum -- Group therapy- simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group -- Couples and family therapy - involves the treatment of both partners in a committed, intimate relationship, in which the main focus is on relationship issues -- Effectiveness of insight therapiesà about 50% of all patients show a clinically meaningful recovery within about twenty sessions, and another 25% recover in about forty sessions Behavior therapies- involve the application of the principles of learning and conditioning to direct efforts to change client’s maladaptive behaviors -- Systematic desensitization - behavior therapy used to reduce client’s phobic response s -- Three steps 1) therapist helps the client build an anxiety hierarchy 2) training the client into deep muscle relaxation 3) client tries to work through the hierarchy, learning to remain relaxed while imagining each stimulus -- Exposure therapies more generally- clients are confronted with situations that they fear so that they can learn that these situations are really harmless -- Aversion therapy- uses classical conditioning to create a negative response to a stimulus that has elicited problematic behavior -- Social skills training- behavior therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasizes modeling, behavioral, rehearsal, and shaping -- Cognitive-behavioral treatments - use combinations of verbal interventions and b ehavior modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive patterns of thinking -- Goals of cognitive therapy - use specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders -- Combining cognitive and beh avioral techniques - use combinations of verbal interventions and behavior modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive patterns of thinking -- Effectiveness of behavior therapies Biomedical therapies- psychological interventions intended t o reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders -- Drug treatments -- Antianxiety drugs Intended effects- reduce tension, apprehension, and nervousness Side effects- drowsiness, lightheadedness, cottonmouth, depression, nausea, and constipation -- Antipsychotic drugs Intended effects-used to gradually reduce psychotic symptoms, including hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations, and delusions Side effects- Drowsiness, constipation, and cotton mouth. Tremors, muscular rigidity, and impaired coordination may also occur. -- Tardive dyskinesia- neurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and ticlike movements of the mouth, tongue, face, hands or fee t -- Atypical or second-generation antipsychotic drugs à drugs that seem to be similar to the first -generation antipsychotics in therapeutic effectiveness, but they offer several advantages over the older drugs -- Antidepressant drugs- gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of depression Intended effects- slow the reuptake process of serotonin Side effects- increase risk for suicide -- SSRIs and suicidalityà SSRI drugs may increase risk of suicide -- Mood stabilizers - drugs used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorders Side effects- high concentration of lithium risk, kidney and thyroid gland complications -- ECT – biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions - open to some interpretations - Overall, seems to be enough favorable evidence that
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