Psych 360 - Exam 3 Study Guide
Psych 360 - Exam 3 Study Guide Psych 360
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This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by Winny Lu on Monday May 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 360 at University of Maryland Baltimore taught by Bernard Rabin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Motivational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Maryland Baltimore.
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W. Lu 1 B.Rabin Psych 360 Exam 3 Study Guide Social Motivation I. Introduction a. Social motive: motives that involve an interaction between organisms b. Are they innate or learned? II. Innate or learned a. Innate i. Darwin: Social instincts 1. Taking pleasure in the society of a group and performing services for them ii. William James 1. Sociability, love, jealousy and imitation b. Learned i. Derived motivation 1. Social motivation 2. Mother-infant bond III. Social Motive as Derived Motives: Freud a. Boys i. Mother necessary for the gratification of instincts ii. Give rise to the Oedipal Conflict iii. Resolve: identify with father b. Girls i. Cannot resolve Electra conflict because the lack of motivation means the lack of motivation ii. Come to realize that their mother has obtained a surrogate penis by marrying their father 1. Goal: to get married to obtain a surrogate penis or to have a son iii. Resolve: Identify with mother c. Social motivation is derived from the relationship between the mother and the child i. Ex: boys 1. According to Freud: a. Boys want to marry their mother (Oedipal Conflict) b. But ends up identifying with the father in fear of castration ii. Ex: girls 1. According to Freud: a. Views mother as successful in getting a penis from marrying their father b. Ends up adopting the behavior of the mother in order to get a penis themselves W. Lu 2 B.Rabin Psych 360 IV. Social Motives as Derived Motives: Dollard and Miller a. Transforms Freudian Theory to learning theory b. Mother is a source of “primary drive” reduction c. Mother becomes a secondary reinforcer i. The child receives food every time they see their mother, as a result the mother becomes associated with food. ii. As a secondary reinforcer 1. Mother changes behavior in an socially acceptable directions d. This idea is then generalized to the father and then to the wider community e. Social motivation derives from mother-infant relationship i. no mother-infant relationship = no motivation V. Harlow: Mother Love a. Baby monkeys are removed from their mother when they were born b. Surrogate mothers were placed in separate cubicles and attached to monkey’s cage c. 8 infant monkeys assigned to 2 groups i. Group 1: cloth mother with feeder 1. Cloth mother: a. Smooth wooden body b. Covered in sponge rubber and ii. Group 2: wire mother with feeder 1. Wire mother: a. Made out of wire mesh b. Considered by Harlow to provide no contact comfort d. Time spent with each mother was recorded for 5 months e. Results: i. After the first few days, all the monkeys were spending nearly all their time each day on the cloth mother ii. Monkeys being fed by wire mother only left the cloth mother for a short time to get food 1. if wire mother has food: Goes to the wire mother for food and then immediately go back to the cloth mother iii. Regardless of where the monkeys were fed (food on wire mother or cloth mother) 1. The monkeys spent more time with the cloth mother than the wire mother iv. This demonstrated the importance of contact comfort. VI. Harlow: Follow-up W. Lu 3 B.Rabin Psych 360 a. After six months of being in contact with the surrogate mothers (wire/ cloth mother) Harlow wanted to see if attachments were formed after periods of separation i. Placed monkeys in small unfamiliar room with various objects ii. Results: 1. Monkeys with cloth mother: a. Cloth mother present (security) : the monkey will go immediately to the cloth mother, play with the objects and then go back to the cloth mother i. Motherplaymother b. Cloth mother not present ( no security) : the monkeys will freeze with fear, start crying, crouching and thumb sucking i. No mother = No play 2. Monkeys with the wire mother: a. Regardless of whether the wire mother is present or not (security or no security) the monkeys will act the same VII. Social Motivation: Harlow a. The need for contact comfort is innate i. Not related to feeding ii. Not secondary b. It is only for the first step i. Another step is needed in order for social motivation to develop properly c. Living as a part of a social group i. Peer group interactions are necessary 1. Harlow a. Placed female and neo-natal males monkeys in a room b. The female was in heat c. Chased after the males i. The males did not know why the female was chasing him d. Sets up a different room with a small door to allow the infant monkeys to come and interact with other monkeys ( mothers could not enter) i. The monkeys then learned appropriate social behavior d. Two staged process i. Contact comfort (1) ii. Living as a part of a social group (2) 1. Acquire behaviors appropriate to the group e. Distinction between derived and learned motives i. Contact comfort is innate W. Lu 4 B.Rabin Psych 360 ii. Social motives are learned but not derived 1. Example: a. In LA, there is a law that the pedestrians have the right of way i. People go off the curb without lookingexpecting the cars to stop BUT!! b. In NY, there is no law about pedestrians having the right of way i. People go off curb without looking expect to get hit by a car f. If the need for contact comfort has not been satisfied then the animals are overly aggressive and show poor social adjustment i. No Contact comfort = high aggression and low social judgement VIII. Harlow: Mothering a. When surrogate-reared females gave birth, they did not care for their infants i. Pushed them away ii. Did not care for them iii. Similar to how their surrogate mothers were to them b. Mothering is a learned behavior i. One of the indicators of parenting is how their mothers treated them IX. Attachment theory: Evolutionary Psychology (Bowlby,1969) a. Baby is releasing stimulus eliciting care-taking responses from adults b. Genetic programming i. The baby needs the adult to survive ii. The adults must respond in order to have offspring ( increased fitness in evolutionary terms) c. Passing of signals (crying/smiling) back and forth leads to attachment X. Attachment theory: Evolutionary Psychology (Buck,1999) a. Adults need to protect and succor child b. Infants evolved mechanisms to bond with adults i. Prosocial affects system (crying/hugging/smiling) ii. Basis for attachment c. Lead to two fundamental social motives i. Need to follow and exceed expectation ii. Need to be loved (contact comfort) XI. Human Attachment: Ainsworth W. Lu 5 B.Rabin Psych 360 a. Secure attachment style i. Mother is responsive to the child’s need for contact ii. Child: 1. self-confident 2. independent iii. Adult: 1. High job satisfaction 2. Low fear and anxiety about performance 3. More intrinsically motivated a. More inclined to seek social support b. Anxious/Ambivalent style i. Mother inconsistent in meeting contact needs ii. Child: 1. Inhibited 2. Dependent 3. Lacking self confidence iii. Adult: 1. Lower job satisfaction 2. Higher fear and anxiety about performance 3. Treat work largely as a search for approval c. Avoidant Style i. Mothers avoid/ reject need for contact ii. Child: 1. Exploratory behavior designed to escape mother XII. Adult attachment: Positive Incentive (Beck, 2004) a. Assistance i. Reinforce affiliation by receiving assistance in achieving goals b. Stimulation i. Stimulus variation is a source of arousal c. Information i. Information is reinforcing d. Self- evaluation i. The basis for social comparisons e. Freedom from Internal Constraints W. Lu 6 B.Rabin Psych 360 Conflict I. Conflict a. Conflict: two incompatible responses i. Making one response precludes making the other 1. Making one response means one cannot make the other II. Assumptions a. Gradients of approach and avoidance i. Closer to the positive goal stronger motivation to approach ii. Closer to the aversive goal stronger motivation to avoid iii. Goal Gradient Distance to goal iv. Avoidance gradient is steeper than approach gradient 1. the motivation to avoid a negative goal changes more rapidly than to approach a positive goal v. Gradients vary as a function of the intensity of the underlying motivation 1. Motivation to approach = function of intensity of underlying motivation a. Example: grasshoppers as food i. High hunger = high motivation to approach as food vi. The stronger of the two incompatible responses will occur III. Conflicts: Approach-Approach a. two positive incompatible responses Center b. c. Once off the center W. Lu 7 B.Rabin Psych 360 i. One motivation increases while the other one decreases d. Resolution: can choose one and the conflict will be resolved IV. Conflicts: Avoidance- Avoidance a. two negative incompatible responses b. c. Example: Would one prefer to be roasted alive or boiled alive? i. Both negative and high in avoidance ii. If one chooses to be roasted, as one is getting roasted “being boiled might actually be better” iii. Switch to boiled, as one is getting boiled “being roasted might actually be better” iv. As one gets farther from the point of minimal aversive stimulation the higher the motivation to avoid would be d. Point of Minimal Aversive Stimulation is the ideal situation e. Resolution: outside intervention V. Conflicts: Approach-Avoidance a. One negative and one positive incompatible response b. c. W. Lu 8 B.Rabin Psych 360 d. At first it seems as if it is positive (high approach motivation) however, the negative (high avoidance motivation) comes to play a role later e. Vesselation Zone: the behavior around the conflict zone i. Example: rats gets shocked as they bar press for food 1. Attempts again and gets shocked again 2. Afterwards the rat scoots closer and closer to the bar press because of the food (positive) and then stops and retreats (negative) f. Resolution: i. In this situation, there is no escape or resolution ii. BUT!! iii. Once motivation is changed (ex: hunger) the motivation to approach will be higher than the motivation to avoid iv. v. vi. There are no more conflict zone 1. Example: If the rat gets hungry enough then the rat will go up and bar press VI. Conflict: Double Approach- Avoidance a. W. Lu 9 B.Rabin Psych 360 b. c. Example: Jaguar vs Volvo i. Jaguar 1. Admiring glances from friends (+) 2. Not safe for baby car seat (-) ii. Volvo 1. Safe for baby car seat (+) 2. No admiring glances (-) d. Resolution: go back to single approach avoidance by utilizing the values i. Example: friends more important? Or safety more important? Possible Test Question: According to Miller’s analysis of conflict, approach and avoidance gradients can be distinguished on the grounds that________ Avoidance gradient is steeper than approach gradients. Aggression I. Definitions a. Behavior: i. Class of negative behaviors in which one individual attacks or threatens harm to another, or inflicts harm or injury b. Motivation: i. Intent to harm 1. Animals are aggressive but they do not have the intent to harm 2. Example: a. Young children can show forms of aggression but they usually do not have the intent to harm W. Lu 10 B.Rabin Psych 360 c. Most common definition : Behaviors that are designed to do physical or psychological damage II. Introduction a. Types of aggression i. Verbal/ physical 1. Verbal can have a longer effect on an individual than physical ii. Active/ passive b. Sex differences in aggression i. The difference between sex in aggression is form NOT amount 1. Female: more passive and verbal 2. Male: more direct and physical a. These differences are learned i. Example: Situation “Tommy hit me” 1. Girlstells Dad a. Dad goes to see Tommy and maybe punish him 2. Boys tells dad a. Dad does not care as much because it is viewed that boys play like that all the time III. Animal Aggression a. Moyer (1976) i. 8 types of Aggression 1. Predatory 2. Territorial defense 3. Fear induced 4. Internal ii. Different neural circuits control the different types of aggression IV. Animal Aggression: Agnostic behavior a. Cannot get at “intent” i. Animals do not have intent b. Specific causal stimulation i. Presentation of aversive (”irritating” stimuli” 1. Shock elicited aggression 2. Proximity to other animals (territorial) 3. Dominance hierarchy males 4. Ritual fights for mates V. Human Aggression: Introduction a. Behaviors that are designed to do physical or psychological damage i. INTENT IS THE KEY COMPONENT W. Lu 11 B.Rabin Psych 360 b. Most relevant to the type of aggression defined in the frustration-aggression hypothesis i. Emotional aggression VI. Frustration- Aggression Hypothesis a. Impulsive or emotional aggression i. Original frustration-aggression hypothesis 1. Frustration necessary connection between frustration and aggression 2. Frustration is a necessary precursor to aggression a. Frustration: the failure to achieve anticipated goal 3. Aggression always presuppose frustration Frustration leads to aggression FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION 4. Problem: there is not always the necessary connection between frustration and aggression a. Frustration does not always lead to aggression b. Aggression can occur with prior aggression ii. Berkowitz frustration-aggression hypothesis 1. Frustration causes an emotional arousal which created a readiness to respond with aggression a. Whether or not aggression will occur depends on the nature of the target FRUSTRATION EMOTIONAL AGGRESSION AROUSAL 2. Some example forms of aggression would be a. Crying passive aggression b. Cursing verbal aggression 3. EMOTIONAL AROUSAL GIVE RISE TO AGGRESSION 4. Aggression is stimulus bound a. Whether or not aggression will occur depends upon the nature of the target i. direct aggression aggression to perceive cause ii. Indirect aggression 1. Change in form a. Example W. Lu 12 B.Rabin Psych 360 i. From verbal to physical aggression 2. Change in object 5. Support a. Berkowitz and LePage (1967) i. Asked participants to give shocks to a confederate in the room with different object in the room 1. One had a gun in the roomaggression 2. Another had a racquet in the room not aggression ii. Results: 1. Found that participates gave more shocks to the stooge with the gun in the room 2. How we respond to the emotional arousal caused by frustration varies as a function of the target a. Example: i. It is more appropriate to act with aggression towards a boxer as opposed to a grandma VII. Instrumental Aggression a. Aggressive behavior that is instrumental in obtaining reinforcement i. Harmful behavior rewarded by some event not itself directly related to aggression 1. Example: boxing a. do not engage in boxing because they enjoy hitting people i. they did it for the money 1. aggression is rewarded by money and not actually hitting b. Green and Pigg: i. High awards high shocks 1. did not care about the pain but just the awards VIII. Social Learning Theory a. Theory of aggression stressing the role of models and imitation in the occurrence of aggressive behavior i. Bandura (1963) 1. Took children and asked them to observe aggression (hitting a bobo doll) from a. Live adults b. Films of adults W. Lu 13 B.Rabin Psych 360 c. A cartoon 2. Results: a. Children that observed aggressive models were more aggressive than the children who did not observe aggression b. Independent of live adult, film adult or cartoon characters c. boys were more aggressive d. same sex model more aggression e. children viewed aggressive model as “bad” and non- aggressive as “good” f. preferred aggressive model when they did not receive punishment (achieved goal) i. child who saw the adult punished for hitting the doll were less likely to hit the doll themselves IX. obedient aggression: Milgram (1974) a. aggression in obedience to authority i. Task: administer increasing levels of electric shock to a “learner” whenever they got a question wrong 1. The “learner” was a paid actor a. They were not really shocked 2. The shocks were labeled with increasing levels of severity b. Results: i. 26/40 subjects administer potentially lethal levels of shock ii. No effect of age or gender iii. Moderating factor: the degree on contact between the “learner” and the subject 1. If the learner is in the same room as the subject, they are less likely to go to the full shock iv. Criticism: 1. Rabinthe way it was debriefed was not as serious and can have serious psychological implications a. Milgram: “just kidding, the person in there was an actor.” b. Subject: “ Wow, I would do that just because someone told me to?” X. Zimbardo (1970) : factors the affect the occurrence of aggression a. Deindividuation i. Reduced capacity to think of oneself as an individual, particularly in terms of societal or moral standards, resulting in a loss of self-awareness ii. Disguised subjects delivered larger electric shocks to an innocent victim than did non-disguised subjects wearing name tags 1. Disguise= High electric shocks lower moral standards W. Lu 14 B.Rabin Psych 360 XI. Zimbardo (1972): Prison experiment a. Do individuals with certain personality types become prison guards or does the environment elicit certain types of behavior? b. Normal college students randomly assigned as guard or prisoner i. Guards: 1. maintain order but not abusive 2. Go home after 8 hour shift ii. prisoners: 1. arrested, fingerprinted and maintained in a “prison” c. results: i. Prisoner: 1. Highly emotional (negative emotion) 2. Depression, extreme anxiety, psychosomatic illness, thoughts of harming others ii. Guards: 1. Gave commands 2. Insulted /threaten 3. Verbal/physical aggression 4. Some guards were so abusive that they would be characterized as sadistic d. Conclusion: i. The situation of the model prison produced behavioral changes in normal, well-adjusted college students 1. Followed roles a. Environment can elicit behaviors XII. Cause of aggression: Biology a. Genetics i. Organisms can be bred to be more or less aggressive ii. Difference in aggression between the sexes are in form and not amount b. Brain mechanisms i. Destruction of certain parts of the limbic system aggression 1. Some parts of the limbic system can be related to taming a. Ex: monkey hierarchy i. alpha male 1. tamed them by removing parts of the limbic system 2. went down to the bottom of the hierarchy c. Hormones i. Testosterone W. Lu 15 B.Rabin Psych 360 1. Related to some types of aggression in non-primate mammals offensive aggression 2. No reliable evidence of similar role in human aggression d. Neurotransmitters i. Serotonin 1. Low serotonin= high antisocial behavior, aggression, suicide, impulsive violence 2. in monkeys a. dominant male = high serotonin ii. maybe related to an organism’s happiness level 1. lower serotonin= more happy XIII. Causes of aggression: environment a. Aversive incidents i. Impulsive/ hostile aggression 1. Ex: cheating spouse murder spouse impulsively a. Death penalty is not good for these situations because impulsive aggression usually does not happen again b. Attacks i. Become aggressive when attacked by others c. Painful stimuli i. Shock causes animals to attack one another ii. Humans will do this too d. Crowding i. Being cramped leads to aggression ii. Under social control 1. Evidence: urban area with denser populations found to have higher violent crime rates 2. Against: more likely to report crime in an urban area e. Temperature i. High temperature = high aggression f. Cultural factors i. Cultures vary in degree to which they foster aggression and competition 1. High individualism = high aggression I. TV Viewing and Aggression a. Does watching violent TV cause children to become aggressive? b. Direct Effects: i. TV executives say no to aggression however, they would agree to ads c. Indirect effects: i. Watching violence may affect how the individual responds to violence. II. Direct Effect W. Lu 16 B.Rabin Psych 360 a. Some children directly model violent behavior they have seen TV i. Correlational studies 1. there are low correlations a. but significant correlations between watching violent TV programs and ratings of aggressive behavior b. accounts for 4-10% of the variance III. Indirect Effects a. Social Learning Theory i. TV shows that violence is rewarded 1. Perpetrators go unpunished in 73% of violent scenes 2. 1 in 4 acts of violence involves a gun b. Berkowitz: Frustrative- Aggressive i. Shows aggression as an acceptable response to frustration ii. Shows viewers acceptable targets for aggression IV. Effect on Adults a. Desensitization: undermines feelings of concern, empathy, or sympathy i. Experiment: 1. Men were shown violent films a. Results: i. more desensitized to brutality ii. less empathetic towards victims b. higher fears of victimization V. Factors that predict Aggression a. Aggressive or Type A personalities b. Alcohol use i. Under the influence, one is more likely to do things that one normally wouldn’t do c. Watching violence (movies/ TV) d. Anonymity i. cannot identify as an individual 1. lose moral standards 2. more likely to go with the crowd e. Provocation i. “eye for an eye” f. Presence of weapons i. The presence of weapons leads increased aggression g. Group interaction i. One loses one’s self-identity when one is part of a group W. Lu 17 B.Rabin Psych 360 Consistency Theories I. Attitudes and Behavior a. Attitudes i. Positive or negative feelings about something 1. Can lead to approach or avoidance b. Acquisition i. Classical Conditioning 1. “guilt by association” a. Example: i. Friend is a communist, therefore you are a communist 2. Celebrity advertising ii. Reinforcement and imitation come from parents and peers II. Attitudes and Behavior a. Factors influencing extent to which attitudes will predict behavior i. Specific behavioral endpoint ii. The degree to which the attitude measure is specific to an object or an issue iii. The degree to which the attitude measure is reliable iv. Non-attitudinal factors may be more important expressed attitudes 1. Non- attitudinal factors can be more predictive 2. Example: a. Attitude: Hates shag roe b. But will eat it if presented because that is what one’s significant other wants III. Consistency as Motivation a. The arousal of goal directed behavior by aversive motivational states i. Conflict ii. Uncertainty iii. Inconsistency b. Incongruity/ incongruency occurs when an event or an outcome is perceived to be different from what we expect i. Dependent on the perception of the individual c. Behavior aroused to eliminate the inconsistencies and uncertainty i. Cognitive homeostasis 1. Inconsistency does not lead to cognitive homeostasis 2. People like to have cognitive homeostasis IV. Heider: Balance Theory W. Lu 18 B.Rabin Psych 360 a. Concern with perceived relationships between individuals and objects and the arousal of behavior b. Most general case: A, B, X i. A = one person ii. B = another person iii. X = an entity, object or third person c. Relationships can be described as balanced or unbalanced i. Balanced: when the algebraic products is positive (+) You like your roommate Both you and your roommate hates Motivation 360 (+) x (-) x (-) = (+) balanced ii. Unbalanced: when the algebraic products is negative (-) 1. Aversive 2. Behavior will be aroused to restore balance You like your roommate W. Lu 19 B.Rabin Psych 360 You are on the diet Your roommate is not on diet, does not need to diet 3. (+) x (+) x (-) = (-) unbalanced behavior aroused Change behavior to make it balanced: This would make the i. Hate your roommate (-) or algebraic product to be ii. Your roommate gets on the diet (+) positive (+) iii. You don’t diet iii. Ambiguous Relationships 1. No changes in behavior despite unbalanced relationship 2. Content with the unbalanced relationship You hate the enemy. You hate the IRS. Enemy hates the IRS (-) x (-) x (-) = (-) unbalanced does not alter behavior W. Lu 20 B.Rabin Psych 360 V. Balance Theory: Evaluation a. Support: i. Jordan (1953) 1. Judged that unbalanced relationships are more aversive ii. Zajonc and Bernstein (1965) 1. Balanced relationships learned faster than the unbalanced relationships a. Only when the balanced relationship is relevant b. Against i. How much imbalance is needed to initiate behavior? ii. Lack of the definition for balance 1. There is no solid definition of balance iii. All of the bonds are treated as if they are of equal importance 1. Example: you and your significant other on where to squeeze the toothpaste a. You like your spouse (+) b. You squeeze from bottom ( +) c. Spouse squeezes from the middle (-) 2. Unbalanced but you are more likely to change your own behavior than to change your relationship to (-) c. Important conclusion from Heider: i. Help lead to the Festinger Theory of cognitive theory VI. Festinger (1957): Cognitive Dissonance a. Concerned with relationships between cognitions b. Cognitions i. Things a person knows about him/herself about his/her behavior and about his surroundings 1. Includes opinions, attitudes, beliefs and values ii. May not be accurate reflections of reality 1. Important: despite the inaccuracy in the reflection of reality the individual believes that they are accurate VII. Relationships between Cognition a. Consonant i. Agreement between belief and reality b. Irrelevant i. One cognition does not impact on another 1. Example: most scientists believe that evolution and genesis are irrelevant a. Evolution how humans are W. Lu 21 B.Rabin Psych 360 b. Genesis the human spirit i. One does not affect the other c. Dissonant i. Discrepancy between belief and reality ii. Discrepancy between expectations and actual outcome VIII. Motivation a. Dissonance is aversive b. Dissonance is an antecedent condition i. Arouses behavior designed to reduce dissonance c. Individuals attempt to maintain consistency of beliefs i. As long as consistency is maintain ii. No motivation exist behavior is not triggered IX. Dissonance a. Cause of dissonance i. Expected events turns out differently than was anticipated 1. Inconsistency between behavior and attitudes b. Magnitude of dissonance i. Importance of elements 1. Values of the situations ii. Effort evolved 1. High effort high dissonance iii. Relative number of dissonant cognition iv. Intensity of reward X. Dissonance a. Reduce dissonance by i. Changing one of the dissonant cognition ii. Changing the behavior iii. Introducing new cognition 1. Example: smoking a. Smoking is bad but… you are more likely to be in a car accident than from smoking i. Justification from new thoughts to make reality and attitude match b. Many not act to reduce dissonance because: i. change may be painful or involve a loss ii. Present behavior may be otherwise satisfying iii. Making the change may not be possible 1. Example: boss is causing the dissonance a. You cannot really do it because you might lose your job iv. May not recognize that cognitions are discrepant W. Lu 22 B.Rabin Psych 360 XI. Research on Cognitive Dissonance a. When prophecy fails b. Post decisional dissonance c. Effort d. Forced compliance i. Paired with insufficient justification e. Partial reinforcement extinction effect XII. When prophecy fails a. How believers respond when a prediction fails to materialize? i. Intuitive hypothesis: 1. Believer completely reject prediction ii. Dissonance theory: 1. Lower dissonance by strengthening their beliefs b. Festinger, Riecken and Schacter (1956) i. Group predict “end of the world” and they would be saved by alien space ship ii. Prediction was not validated iii. Response: new message received that groups effort had saved the world iv. Reduce cognitive dissonance without abandoning original belief Consistency Theories Part 2 I. Post Decisional Dissonance a. Brehm (1956) i. Posed as a consumer testing service ii. Asked women to rate appliances (ex: toasters..) iii. After the rating they were allowed to choose one of two appliances that were rated equally attractive as a reward iv. 20 minutes later they were asked to rerate the appliances v. Result: when the women rerate the appliances they found that the chosen alternative ratings went up and the rejected alternative went down 1. The participants needed to reduce the dissonance a. when one usually chooses something, the object that is being contemplated usually have some positive and some negative qualities i. accepting some negative in the chosen alternative ii. rejecting some positive in the rejected alternative b. the participants accentuated the positive of the chosen alternative while accentuated the negative aspects of the rejected alternative W. Lu 23 B.Rabin Psych 360 b. underlying inference: dissonance is aversive i. 2 ways to reduce dissonance 1. Change cognition 2. Introduce new cognition II. Factors Affecting Dissonance a. Importance of the decision i. High expense, monetary, effort b. Similarity i. Relative attractiveness, actual similarity (one’s own perception of similarity) c. Certainty of the decision i. is the decision irrevocable? 1. Irrevocable high dissonance III. Effort a. Aronson and Mills (1959) i. Female undergraduates were recruits to participate in a discussion group about sex ( at that time sex was not openly discussed) ii. initiations ( to prove maturity) 1. severe a. read aloud explicit passages to male experimenter b. the participants were embarrassed 2. mild a. read aloud sex related words 3. no initiation a. read aloud words that were not related to sex iii. were told that they were going to play a tape on the discussion of sex iv. played a boring sexual reproduction discussion on lower animals v. Results: 1. Severe initiation liked it more a. Cannot get rid of the dissonance (embarrassment) i. Have to have a greater interest to reduce the dissonance 2. The discrepancy between the embarrassment between caused by the severe initiation and what they actual heard was a source of dissonance. a. Since dissonance is aversive, when it occurs the individual has to engage in behavior to reduce the dissonance i. Behavior to reduce dissonance is not a conscious decision IV. Forced compliance W. Lu 24 B.Rabin Psych 360 a. Forced compliance is paired with insufficient justification b. Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) i. Asked participants to complete a boring task ii. Asked to recruit new subjects by telling them how interesting the task was 1. Half of the group were told that they will be given $1 for new recruits 2. The other half of the group were told that they will be given $20 ($400 equivalent) for new recruits iii. Asked to rate how interesting the task was 1. The $1 group rated the task as more enjoyable a. Because since that they did not have the money as the means to reduce the cognitive dissonance from lying to say that the task was interesting to get new recruits, they had to change their cognition 2. The $20 group were more honest since they did not have cognitive dissonance a. they had money as a reason to why they were lying to their friends iv. this is forced compliance because it was difficult to say no after the experimenter emphasized the importance of the study but they also did not have a reason to say yes (to recruit new people) either a. difficult to say no but no reason to say yes forced compliance with no justification V. Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE) a. It takes a longer time for rats trained under a partial reinforcement schedule to stop responding ( extinction) i. Discrimination hypothesis: 1. Difficult for the rat to discriminate between the end of acquisition and the start of extinction ii. Dissonance hypothesis: 1. Lack of reinforcement is a source of dissonance a. Rats continue to respond due to the development of an extra “liking” for the task which maintains responding during the extinction i. “did the task for no reason” must like doing the taskreduced dissonance VI. Cognitive Dissonance : Evaluation a. Dissonance is an ambiguous concept i. What causes or constitutes as dissonance is defined as a result of the experiment b. Results are somewhat inconsistent W. Lu 25 B.Rabin Psych 360 i. Hard to replicate 1. Need to hire a really good actor to get the stage well in order to get the same results c. Results open to multiple interpretations i. Ex: Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) 1. Observer looking at forced compliance might argue that for the $20 one does not have to believe in lying to get recruitment but since the $1 does not have much motivation, they could sincerely like the task d. Why is inconsistency motivating i. Inconsistency is motivating because inconsistency is aversive e. Inconsistency can reinforce behavior f. Individual differences in the importance of consistency i. One’s thoughts are not always consistent 1. Consistency is important in some cases but not all VII. Alternative to Cognitive Dissonance a. Bem (1970): Self Perception theory i. Behavior determined attitude as much as attitude determines behavior 1. when attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous , one infer those attitudes and feelings by observing our behaviors and the situation in which our behavior occurs 2. experience of arousal is NOT involved ii. iii. VIII. Evaluation of Self- Perception Theory W. Lu 26 B.Rabin Psych 360 a. (Zanna and Cooper, 1974) i. The experimenters already knew the view of the participants on a particular topic ii. Require the participants to write counter-attitudinal essay iii. Gave participants a “vitamin pill” (placebo) 1. 3 experimental conditions (told the participants that the vitamin pill will…) a. No side effects b. Make people anxious/aroused i. Expected outcome: most change in attitude because there was nothing to attribute their arousal to, therefore they would have to change their cognition c. Make people relaxed i. Expected outcome: least change in attitude because they can attribute the arousal to the pill iv. Results: consistent with cognitive dissonance theory IX. Alternatives to Cognitive Dissonance i. Consonance is an incentive rather than dissonance (drive- Antecedent to behavior) ii. Not aversive Sample Test Questions: 1. According to Heid, a relationship is unbalanced when… a. The algebraic product sign is negative 2. According to Festinger, the presence of cognitive dissonance should lead to… a. Arousal of behavior to reduce dissonance and avoid information that further increases dissonance Achievement and Affiliation I. Achievement: Introduction a. Murray: Social Motives i. Need for achievement (nAch) 1. To master or accomplish 2. to manipulate ideas, objects and people ii. Need for affiliation (nAff) 1. To draw near 2. To please 3. To win affection W. Lu 27 B.Rabin Psych 360 iii. Need for rejection iv. Need for dependence This is not drive because drive is innate and not learned. These four social motives are LEARNED. II. Murray: Social Motives a. Is this motivation? i. Personality Variables 1. Habitual modes of responding to certain situation and stimuli a. No, this is not motivation ii. Incentive Theory 1. Define reinforcers that arouse goal directed behavior a. Example: i. People who scored high on nAch respond differently than high nAff 1. High nAch and high nAch have different factors that arouse goal direct behavior b. Yes, this is motivation c. Incentives are learned!! III. Achievement Motivation: McClelland a. nAch i. Drive or tendency to “overcome obstacles, to exercise power to strive to do something difficult as well as quickly as possible” b. Measurement i. Thematic apperception test (TAT) 1. Way of measuring nAch independent of acheivement a. Tell story about a picture i. What led up to the scene? ii. What is happening now? iii. How does the character feel? iv. What is the outcome 2. Personality characteristics will determine the story about the picture a. Example: a picture of a boy looking distraught in a classroom i. the boy is studying hard in school in order to go to a This shows an achievement good college imagery ii. He needs to get in to a good college in order to get into a good medical school
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