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CSU - BC 103 - Class Notes - Life 103- Animals week 6

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CSU - BC 103 - Class Notes - Life 103- Animals week 6

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background image Immune System ~Immunization­ purposely generating an immune response to protect for future exposure By 2 methods:
­Inoculation­ slight exposure to live disease agent to prompt a minimal infection and 
future immunity from that disease ­Vaccination­ exposure to modified disease agent (dead or altered) to induce an immune  reaction that relates to immunity to the disease ~Herd immunity­ term that applies when the largest portion of a community is immune, 
therefore reducing the chance that people who are not immune will receive the disease.
Immune system: Purposes 1. Prevent entry of pathogens Barrier defenses­first line of defense, prevents things from entering Skin Mucous membranes (trap pathogens) Secretions (bathe surfaces and contain lysozymes that destroy the cell walls of bacteria) Acidic body pH (kills many) 2. Detect entry of pathogens
3. Eliminate pathogens
Through innate and adaptive immune systems­ Innate Immune System =first responders, always there, includes barrier defenses and 4 types of  white blood cells: Neutrophils­ in blood Macrophages­ throughout blood and tissues Dendritic cells­ in tissues in contact with environment, once activated they migrate into 
lymph nodes to stimulate adaptive immune system
Natural killer cells­ recognize infected or cancerous cells and trigger lysis or apoptosis 
(cell suicide) of those cells
                  ­Antimicrobial proteins recognize pathogens and trigger response­
~Inflammatory response­ systemic response to injury or infection that involves swelling and 
heat. Process:
a. Mast cells release histamine as signaling molecules
b. Histamine causes dilation and increased permeability of capillaries (increases fluid in 
tissuesswelling) c. Cytokines released by specialized cells also increase blood flow redness and heat
d. Phagocytic cells and debris pus
Adaptive Immune System =one responder specialized to one invader Specific to vertebrates
*Antigen­ toxin or anything foreign that induces an immune response from the adaptive system
background image ~Lymphocytes: B Cells­ have specific antigen binding sites (receptor proteins) to detect intact antigens on
cells or circulating in the body; one B cell to one type of antigen
o Receptor proteins include heavy chain and light chain, each with constant and  variable regions o Mature in bone marrow
o Clonal proliferation= that cell makes more of itself
o Proliferation of plasma cells results in antibodies (proteins) that are all specific to 
the antigen that signaled the replication o Memory B cells= some from the proliferation remain for future defense T Cells­ *NO direct contact with the antigens o Dendritic cells recognize a specific antigen on MHC molecules of host cell  surfaces (specific binding sites) o T cells must be signaled by dendritic cells
o Results in proliferation of the T cell with clonal selection
o Produce cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells
o Memory T cells
4 Characteristics of Adaptive Immunity: 1. Diversity of lymphocytes and receptors There are tons of genes, all have random rearrangement, can be variable, joining, 
or constant regions in antigen receptor sites, and there can be different 
combinations of light and heavy chains
About 3.5 million different combinations 2. Self­Tolerance B and T cells must mature then be tested against self before released into body 
(cannot be self­reactive or else they are destroyed)
3. Cell Proliferation When cells encounter an antigen they are stimulated to reproduce themselves Some become memory cells, some release antibodies 4. Immunological Memory The result of memory cells Summary:
Adaptive ­ All animals
­ Rapid response
­ Response to broad categories of 
pathogens ­ Same response with each infection ­ Only vertebrates
­ Slower
­ Specific response to specific 
pathogens ­ Immunological memory (strong 
background image response with another future 
Improper functioning leads to… a. Allergies= use of inflammatory response to something that is not actually a  hazardous invader o It was meant for special B cells to target parasitic worms
o Hygiene hypothesis­ too clean; lack exposure to infections and parasites so
the immune system does not develop properly o Developed regions have a high rate of allergies and autoimmune disorders, while regions with common parasitic infections have low incidence of 
allergies (thought that body needs something to fight off, so it makes up 
that random things are enemies)
b. Autoimmune diseases= not recognizing self
c. Immunodeficiency= SCID, AIDS
Hormones and Chemical Signaling: ~Hormone­ chemical secreted into bloodstream to impact target cells, often regulate cells 
reactions by changing gene expression
~Target cells­ have hormone­specific receptors
­Anti­Diuretic Hormone (ADH) ­ stimulates absorption of fluids in collecting duct of nephron so 
that body tissues retain more water (diuresis=production of excessive urine)
Hypothalamus detects increased concentration of blood, signals pituitary gland to release ADH, 
ADH receptors in kidney leads to increased permeability of membranes in kidney which 
increases water absorption
Note: ­ Tag team between central nervous system and endocrine system
­ Feedback mechanisms (specifically negative because working to take away the stimulus 
of hyperosmotic blood (too concentrated)) ­ Chemical signals effect distant tissues (collecting duct and distal tubule)
­ Result= maintain homeostasis (blood becomes more dilute)
5 Modes of Chemical Signaling:
*For first three: ‘­crine’= ‘secretion’, these effect by hormones
1. Endocrine­ ‘endo’= ‘global’­ endocrine glans secrete hormones into blood so that it can  reach target cells anywhere in the body 2. Paracrine­ ‘para’= ‘local’­ secrete hormones to effect nearby target cells
3. Autocrine­ ‘auto’= ‘self’
*Last two involve neurons: 4. Synaptic­ local­ neurotransmitters (little molecules) sent across synapses to signal

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Name: Life 103- Animals week 6
Description: Immune systems and reproduction
Uploaded: 05/02/2016
12 Pages 10 Views 8 Unlocks
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