GEOG 123 FINAL REVIEW SHEET
GEOG 123 FINAL REVIEW SHEET GEOG 123
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The exam will be comprehensive but with a slight emphasis on weeks 611. The exam will take place Thursday, December 4th in class (11:301:20). You will not need a blue book or scantron. This exam is closedbook and closednote. I. Short Answers (6 points each, 30 points total) The exam will contain 7 short answer questions. You will choose 5 questions to answer. Responses should be short (24 sentences), but specific and clear. Bullet points are acceptable where appropriate. 1. List and explain the “three myths” of globalization. 1. Globalization is new history of global commodity chains like the silk road 2. Globalization is inevitable if it was really inevitable, why do politicians have to keep saying that to push through new global policies? 3. Globalization is a leveler interdependency creates inequality 2. How does Professor Sparke distinguish “g”lobalization from “G”lobalization? globalization is The extension, acceleration, and intensification 强化of consequential worldwide interconnections like political, economical integrations, Globalization is a term of political speech that is used by politicians, business people and protesters to make politically charged arguments 3. What is the ‘globalization 3step’? 1. Hyperexaggeration exaggerations about global interconnectedness radically changing the world so that we live in a boarderless flat world 2. Hyperskeptical saying globalization isnt real its just historical change we've seen before 3. Academics are going to find a third step middle way and avoid hyperskeptical and hyperexaggerated extremes. Says there have been changes but theyre not as radical as some might suggest 4. What is meant by the term “timespace compression” and how does it contribute to globalization? P74 The shrinking of distance which is seeking profit by which time and space have been shorten.Before and at the start of the twentith century, the production mainly happened in only one place from where finished goods were sent to their final site of consumption in another place. Today, all kinds of intermediate goods that represent component parts and semifinished commodities on the move from on production site to another.One of the key results of the timespace shrinkage produced by containerization, airfreight transportation and the Internet, is that both the production and consumpsion stages of the normal commodity chain can be broken up and globally distributed. cellphone, and Skype, container on container shiptime it takes is less and can contain more. example of that, airplane, cost is releveant, Time : ship banana to New York, 5. What does Thomas Friedman mean when he describes the world as “flat”? P38 While Friedman is illustrating the myth of global leveling, he refers to “The world is flat”. He wants to state that globalization had created a single, integrated, open plain to explain further that today the plain grows wider, faster, and more open everyday, as more walls get blown down and more countries get absorbed. It is also linking to the idea of time space compression. 6. What are some examples of antiglobalization reactionary responses? p394 They are rightwing antiGlobalization responses like Limit migrant access to services/ Blame foreigners & stop immigration/ Punish debtors and return to golden standard for money a nti immigration, afraid people take away your jobs. 7. What are some examples of antiglobalization resistance responses? p394 Alterglobalization. aimed to increase the globalization of global justice, global human rights, and global health eg:Fair trade with worker right/ Re regulate business globally/Redistribute wealth with taxes 8. What are some examples of resilient 弹力的 responses to globalization? p394 Ultimately, your goal should be to make your planned selfimpression equal to how other people perceive you. eg:Be a booster of your local community/ Rely on your friends and family members and find private deals/Invest in self and family. It’s one thing to have Facebook or Twitter, but actually using it right for your personal brand is another thing. You should remember that everything you do, say and share is reflective of ‘Brand You’, both personally and professionally. Adidas going to horizontal integration, rather than trying to go along with other companites, outsourcing, only way to compete is to ADAPTING: neoliberalism, the only way get ahead is became the best you can be and focus on individual and self result. ME INｃ 9. Name 4 of the 10 “commandments” of neoliberalism. Expand free trade— “adopt free trade” Deunionize– “respect right to work” Reduce inflation– “maintain price stability” Cut public spending– “shrink government” 10. Define and provide one example of “commodity fetishism”. Focusing on just the product (usually just the image of the product)and ignoring how and where it’s made Example: buying the cheapest tshirt without thinking about the fact that it was probably made in a sweatshop 11. What are the major consequences of the trend away from producer driven commodity chains toward buyer driven commodity chains? The shrinkage of distance – “timespace compression” Increasing demands for free trade– from corporations, businesses, governments, consumers Creation of increasingly global markets “Sourcing efficiency” &“Race to the bottom” Creation of global networks, but …◦ Triangular concentration of global trade in ties between EU, East Asia, and NAFTA countries ◦ Increasing global movement of components◦ Increasing amount of global trade is intracorporate ◦ Approximately 40% of global trade is within specific TNCs ● more outsourcing ● more offshoring ● Increased demand for sourcing efficiency (lowering of worker's wages & working conditions, increased corporate profit) ● Increased effort by the public to discover when and where commodities are made 12. Explain the causes and consequences of the 1980s debt crisis. In the 1980s, the world experienced a debt crisis in which highly indebted Latin America and other developing regions were unable to repay the debt, asking for help. The problem exploded in August 1982 as Mexico declared inability to service its international debt, and the similar problem quickly spread to the rest of the world. To counter this, macroeconomic tightening and "structural adjustment" (liberalization and privatization) were administered, often through the conditionality of the IMF and the World Bank. This crisis involved longterm commercial bank debt which was accumulated in the public sector (including debt owed by SOEs and guaranteed by the government). The governments of developing countries were unable to repay the debt, so financial rescue operations became necessary. (from result to start) Developing countries taking loans from British banks to buy oil, investment projects,build their own economy. European banks’ money is from OPEC (Oil company). OPEC got money from the United States. The gold standard (US currency stable, keep economy stable help to inflation, keep glbal economy exchange set a certain rateregulated vs free finance) Nixon get rid of it because Vietnam War cause a lot of time and other economic shift so that US need moeny. When print a lot money, value of currency goes down, people have all the reserved currency, OPEC gets pissed so that raise price of oil. Then, Nixon raised the value of US dollarincrease the loans, default on the debt, like Mexico, Latin America. Global institutions like SAPwhy put SAP?? need money to pay back. hearing and fix the financial system to help developing countries to pay back the loans. SAP IS DOING ex. 13. What was the role of the IMF and World Bank in addressing the 1980s debt crisis. As the global economy became mired in recession in the early 1980s, the Bank expanded the scope of its lending operations like IMF and World Bank which include Structural Adjustment Policies. These help developing countries adjust their economic policies and structures in the face of serious balance of payments problems that threaten continued development. They provide new short term refinancing loans. and by Paying debt by earning more in exports, attracting foreign investment (FDI) and developing exports and increase FDI through privatization, liberalization, and stabilizatioThe main objective of structuraladjustment lending and IMF and World Bank is to restructure a developing country's economy as the best basis for sustained economic growth and to help a country repay its debts by earning more hard currency. 14. What are the key differences in production models of Fordism and postFordism? P115 •National Mass Consumption VS Uneven Global Consumption •Governments regulate fiscal nd monetary policy •Gold Standard and Global currencies pegged to US Dollar vs Governments abdicate control of monetary policy •BusinessLabor arbitration by government VS AntiUnion Laws; probusiness place promotion •Development of Welfare States VS Development of Workfare States •National economies and financial regulation VS Transnational economies and deregulation Fordism:1) national consumption and national production. Ford Cars, because of that, people buy the car is someone produce them so that pay them high in order let them to buy cars.2)verticalinhouse V.S. Post Fordism: 1) America dont buy cars out of American consume. Production base and consumption base is not in the same country. 2) horizontal outsourcing… 15. What is the “Nike paradigm”? This is the “Nike Paradigm,” held up when first tested as the future of the corporate world: a maze of contracted and subcontracted and subsubcontracted factories designed to make it as cheap as possible to produce the actual product. This new paradigm, set up to lower the cost of production, relies at base on finding the cheapest labor force possible : because a baseline level of product quality must be maintained, companies achieve savings by finding ways to pay – and invest in – workers as little as possible. Reliance of companies on market mediated networks to supply component parts. Workers are dependent on making sure their part of the supply process continues to get the contract. 16. Identify the five main forces that make national currencies go up in value in global forex markets. A. ExportImport Balance: 1) Other things being equal, a national currency tends to rise in value against other currencies when the country in question exports more than it imports – because foreigners tend to have to buy more of the country's currency in order to purchase its exports. B. Interest Rates Set by Central Bank:Other things being equal, a national currency tends to rise in value when its central bank increases interest rates – because foreign investors tend to buy more of the currency in order to buy bonds and other assets that will provide increased returns due to the rising interest rates. C. Safety and Profitability:Other things being equal, a national currency tends to rise in value when foreign investors believe that the country is a safe and potentially profitable place for investment – because they tend in such cases to make more investments in the country, and to do this they need to buy more of the country's currency. D. Central Banks Buy Back their Own Currency: Other things being equal, a national currency tends to rise in value when the country's central bank and/or other central banks buy the currency – because such central bank interventions deliberately increase demand for the currency and hence its value in global currency markets. E. National Inflation Rates:Other things being equal, a national currency tends to rise in value when the national rate of inflation is reduced – because reducing inflation equates with stabilized purchasing power for the currency and thus its reliability as a holder of value. 1. The country exports more than it imports 2. The country's central bank increases interest rates 3. Foreign investors believe that the country is a safe and potentially profitable place for investment 4. The country's central bank and/or other central banks buy the currency 5. The national rate of inflation is reduce 17. Identify the five main forces that make national currencies go down in value in global forex markets 1. The country in question imports more than it exports. 2. The country's central bank reduces interest rates. 3. Foreign investors believe that investments in the country are risky and/or when the government of the country becomes highly indebted. 4. The country's central bank and/or other central banks sell the currency 5. The national rate of inflation increases 18. Why do foreigners buy US debt? ● To recycle their dollar profits and keep their own currencies pegged at a low level to the US dollar ● To protect themselves against global speculators and contagion effects ● Because they have become locked into pre serving the value of their existing dollar holdings by buying more 19. What is microcredit? P175 Microcredit is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to impoverished borrowers who typically lack collateral, steady employment and a verifiable credit history. Small loans funded through foundations to individuals, esp. poor women, who could not get commercial loans and were extremely vulnerable to loan sharks Very high, over 98% payback rates Recirculation of interest revenue in new loans to more poor borrowers 20. Name and explain the three “constitutional effects” of trade law. P186 competition (less, low tariff, WTO between business and places (countries, cities), attract new business ( seattle want more business friendly advantage, encourage more harmonization and race to the buttom) increased cross border competion, including both comepetition between business and much more siginficant ly from a legal perspective, competition between places competing forbusiness activityand the jobs... harmonization (non tarriff barrierpollution laws, buy national laws( supr national job growth), reduce and remove barrier) monopolzation TRIPS trade related aspects of intellectual property / Copyright.. / corporate intrest from cuticals, tech companie TRIPS “The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights”/ An instrument of (or agreement under) the WTO/ Gives TNCs right to charge fees for use of their intellectual property/Protects TNCs investment/ they argue that they cannot research and develop new ideas if they are not guaranteed right to profit Competition can import/export w/o paying tariffs, so business located based on cost efficiency. Countries rewrite laws to attract new business investment. 1)COMPETITION between firms 2)competition between places: cities like Seattle has Amazon that verse Sanfransico. Building Waterfront competing for international tourism, investment. // Harmonization same trade laws apply to all countries traded with, no preferential tax even to own country. Race to the bottoe, find lowest wage of labor. Special economic zone, laws like union rights, workers rights, downward harmonization. Monopolization Trade Related Intellectual Property Standards agreement. global commercial law is right. medicine. environmental protection and consumer rights, and goverance. 21. How have Transnational Advocacy Networks( contributed to the globalization of law? Using global workers rights, ini swap shop (NIKE, student, organization) P216 Use social movements to extend and transform human rights law globally and make commodity chains more visible. University student corporate with some TNC to reduce sweatshops. 22. How has globalization changed governance? Triangle of Global Governance: G20 countries • leadership United Nations • legitimacy through accountability Memberdriven international organizations •Rules (WTO) •Policies (World Bank) •Programs (UNDP) The “Problem” of Global Governance according to Lamy 1.Leadership 2.Efficiency 3.Coherence 4.Legitimacy SO THAT •Need a platform of common values •Need to use values to understand, defend Public Goods •(But… who gets to define these values?) –Director of WTO –Former European Commissioner for Trade –French political adviser –Businessman •Example of Globalization – a powerful form of political speech –May seem “reasonable,” but is based on a large set of assumptions about what is right, what is “needed,” and how to go about getting there Brought about death of nationstate ● Global institutions have eclipsed national sovereignty (controlling influence) ● Inevitability of global change has ended national authority ● The global level playing field has ended national dominance by strong nations 24. What is a “risk rating” and what is its relationship to globalization? Evaluation of economic status (debt) and ability to pay back debts by assessing profit making capacity. These ranks are placed on countries, regions, cities, etc. and affect competition in attracting business. They have regulatory role and shape policy. 25. Why are private institutions like Moody’s and Standard & Poor so influential? What do they do? They are considered to be creditrating agencies. They assign credit rating, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default. An agency may rate the creditworthiness of issuers of debt obligations, of debt instruments,[1 and in some cases, of the servicers of the underlying debt,[2 but not of individual consumers. 27. What is Professor Sparke’s main criticism of Jeffery Sach’s approach to global poverty? Jeffrey Sachs seeks to introduce a new attention to the uneven geography of what he calls poverty trap. A large number of the extreme poor he explains are caught in a poverty trap, unable on their own to escapre from extreme poor material deprivation. They are trapped by diesase, physical isolation, climate stress, environmental degradation and extreme poverty itself. Sachs argues thus new form of foster care intervention are necessary to enable those who are unable to help them climb out of these traps. The poverty trap that Sachs provided are unnaturally preconditioned by all sorts of sorts of political and economic forces far from being just local endogenous ecoloies of vulnerable He is preoccupied with physical geography (location mountains, rivers, etc) and how it causes poor economic outcome and bad health He ignores that "bad geography" is only influential with different patterns of economic development and underdevelopment. Ex. Switzerland and Haiti Africa so much sickness, that just the way is because it has mosquitos, poverty trap, thisis tha place always gonna be poor and sick. Focus on me and you in system. important to invest in certain areas, instead critique neoliberalism, but to critique the country’s poverty. SPARKE: cities(competitive, collebative health ( 3 R( reaction, resistance, resillience) ***HEALTH 28. Why did the Bretton Woods agreement begin to shatter in the early 1970s and what have been the consequences globally? The Post WWII gold system set the stage. At Bretton Woods, Keynes promoted a system of fixed Exchange Rates + “reserve currency”. End of the golden system is the debt crisis stage one. 1971 Nixon abandons the $Gold system for generalized system of floating exchange rates because it can decline competitiveness & growing US national debt. It set an efficient monetary tool to avoid unpopular domestic macroeconomic structural adjustment including taxation. It maintain high living standards without a loss of monetary control. At the same time, many fixed currencies (such as thepound sterling, for example), also became freefloating. 29. How do different interpretations of globalization lead into different approaches to global health research and practice? 3 economic accounts of global health trends ¡For market fundamentalists l‘Wealthier is healthier’ or ‘good growth > good health’ ¡For critics of structural market failure l‘Social justice is healthier’ & ‘inequality > illhealth’ ¡For advocates of corrective market fostercare ‘Healthier is wealthier’ or ‘good health > good growth’ II. Short Essay (20 points): The exam will contain each of the following short essay prompts. You will respond to one of them. Your response should be 23 paragraphs 30. In your opinion, what forms of resistance to Globalization are most desirable and why? (Choose one or two). What are the biggest obstacles to implementing alternatives? 31. Based on a critique of specific forms of resistance toGlobalization (choose no more than two), defend the position that “There is no alternative” (TINA) to Globalization. globalization is inevitable and neoliberalism is not. resistance to globalization is about gaining control of the state by democratic means in order to advance anationalpopular political project and the rafter realign international political relations to transform globalization. It is also about contesting the accepted and institutionalized knowledge and ideology that legitimates the common sense of neoliberal globalization and its faith in the market (Mittelman 2004) 33. Describe and explain the causes and consequences of the 1980s debt crisis. Be sure to include the historical processes that contributed to the crisis, and the response to the debt crisis by the international community. Speaking of the external cause, the there were some changes in interest on international financial market. The interest rate went down in 1970s and roared up in 1980s like the United States’s currency during 1970s was not reach to 2%, but in 1980s, it came up to 7.6%. Countries leading with the United States occurred inflation situation and even caused crisis. Trying to get rid of the economic dilemma, they raised up interests in succession which also lifted up the interest in international capital market. In the 1980s, the world experienced a debt crisis in which highly indebted Latin America and other developing regions were unable to repay the debt, asking for help. The problem exploded in August 1982 as Mexico declared inability to service its international debt, and the similar problem quickly spread to the rest of the world. Developing countries taking loans from British banks to buy oil, investment projects,build their own economy. European banks’ money is from OPEC (Oil company). OPEC got money from the United States. At that time, the United States is undergoing the gold standard to keep US currency stable which help to inflation and keep global economy exchange set a certain rate. Nixon then got rid of it because Vietnam War cause a lot of time and other economic shift so that US need money. When print a lot money, value of currency goes down, people have all the reserved currency. OPEC made an action that raise price of oil to respond US’s invidual policy and Nixon raised the value of US dollar. While increasing the currency, which meant that the money that the Latin American country borrowed went higher so that they could not pay back the loan at the moment and they had to default on the debt, like Mexico. There are some inside reasons. This first cause is Latin American countries’ careless loan raise. After WWII, some developing countries in Latin America developed well. Even though before 70s, Latin America had some debts but they were careful and since they knew their power so that the it did not cause crisis. Afterwards, Latin America depended their sufficient mineral resource, they asked for a lot money from the bank in order to pursue high speed of development. The other causation is that once they asked for loans, they did not use that money properly. For example, Mexico raised a large amount of money to build up facilities instructions which accumulated a lot more loans. So did Argentina, it brought out develop policy that only focused on import and by neglecting the export, Argentina also be caught in a debt trap. To counter this, macroeconomic tightening and "structural adjustment" (liberalization and privatization) were administered, often through the conditionality of the IMF and the World Bank. This crisis involved longterm commercial bank debt which was accumulated in the public sector (including debt owed by SOEs and guaranteed by the government). The governments of developing countries were unable to repay the debt, so financial rescue operations became necessary. Global institutions like SAPwhy put SAP?? need money to pay back. hearing and fix the financial system to help developing countries to pay back the loans. SAP IS DOING ex. CONSEQUENCES: SAP, microcredit, III. Comprehensive Essay Question (50 points) All students will respond to the essay below. Your essay should be 56 paragraphs in length. Excellent responses will include specific examples from course readings and lectures. There is no single “right” answer—you have considerable flexibility in how you approach the question. Your primary goal should be to demonstrate serious reflection on the causes, benefits, and consequences of the different facets of globalization studied in this class. Over the quarter and in your own research, you will have encountered a variety of instances where transnational corporations have engaged in illegal or unethical behavior resulting in deaths of workers or consumers, environmental destruction, displacement of locals and other controversies. At times, these consequences are unintentional, while at others they are the result of overt acts of malfeasance. Are such cases the result of isolated bad acts or oversight by individual companies (or executives), or do they reflect \\\\\\characteristics of Globalization as presented in this class? Defend your answer with specific examples and Globalization is an instrumental term put to work in shaping as well as representing the growth of global interdependency. Globalization is the key facor for international businesses. This new era of globalization brings with it opporunities and also new considerations and challenges with the dynamics of a free marker. GLobalization grant access to benefit from the international division of labor, technologies, international specialization, intercultural exchange and the consumers enjoy a wider varity of products at a lower price. With the globalization, therecomes a higher level of thinking and strategizing. Busniess evolves in new ways. Globalization is a leading concept which has become the main factor in business life during the last few decades. This phenomenon affects the economy, business life, society and environment in different ways, and almost all corporations have been affected by these changes. These changes are mostly related to increasing competition and the rapid changes of technology and information transfer. To challenge these changes, companies need to keep in mind various aspects of the main effects of globalization. While doing the research paper about the company IKEA and reaading newspapers daily, it is not a single case that transnational companies violated some laws towards workers and also environement, etc. While public accuse them disobey the societal and business rules to make money, has someone think about that what actually lead to those violations in succession of the companies? In fact, under the environment of globalization which not only brings opportunities but also competitions, companies struggle a lot to compete with low price. Combining with the idea of neoliberalism, the deregulaion policy and free market is acutally a double eged sword to those multinational companies. It seemed that those policies gave companies space to develop and leave them chance to develop their business and may ignore some laws. Under those situations, transnaional companies should not be the only one be accused but also the big G concept. Firstly, societies queried companies about their treatments to workers. IKEA, BJB…. Companies, offshoring, outsourcing, competition, downward harmonaization. SeattleWTO G let The societies’ concept of commodity fetishism. an exanple: When speaking of this idea, the text book is presenting a example in the labor chapter. On New York Times newspaper, two journalists talked about the Apple product but one talked baout how Apple products filled wtth American people’s life and other front page news is talking about Chinese labor making the techonologies like Apple, Dell and other electironic gadgets. One news is talking about overtasked Chinese labor and other is talking about the multitasing Americansw with doing different stuffs one time. Thwo typesof labors, Why there are so many scholars put focus on CHines labor beacuse globalization and development brings DOWNWARD HARMONIZATION which tie toghether which refers to the relentless downward pressures on wges, worker benefits and pensitons, and worker protections like workplace health and safety at a global scale While a part of people knew that some products they bought are from China they felt unworth. LIke the example that professor said Louis Vuitton made from China and customers felt angry. They accused the LV company why they set factory in China and I like the comment that professor said. Since China made a lot electronic products, why people still did not trust Chinese skills and distrust they cannot make a LV bag like France made. It is globalization and WTO made the People’s Republic of China opened its market to the rest of the world. Also speaking the word competition, American leading companies like IKEA, Apple were able to take advantage of the far cheaper labor. This is known as outsourcing. Cheaper labor contributes to cheaper costs, which in turn contributes to larger profits. Sometimes, but not always, this may also mean cheaper products and services.Companies acutally think of the interest consumers and provide htem low price but get doubt from consumers which is unbelivable but also usual these days. IKEA is also accused by relying on the Turkish government’s anti union policy to exploiting workers’ rights. Because of suffering unfair treatment, workers in Istanbul assembled and protested for IKEA’s violations from workers’ freedom. IKEA made several actions to discourage workers to join the union and this behavior was opposite to the IKEA’s usual management, which is totally support the union organization. This is not first time that IKEA got complaints from the workers but this case was related to government’s policy. Because Turkey have week laws about managing workers and protecting union, IKEA seems like accompanying with Turkish government and takes advantage of workers’ rights which this company will not behave like this in other countries like Sweden. The idea of neoliberalsm lead the business market and one of the command is deunionzation and deregulation. and it means to repsect the right of workers. free market deregulation….THE RULE OF THE MARKET. Liberating "free" enterprise or private enterprise from any bonds imposed by the government (the state) no matter how much social damage this causes. Greater openness to international trade and investment, as in NAFTA( is an agreement signed by Canada ,Mexico , and theUnited States, creating a trilaterarulesbased trade bloc inNorth America . The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994.It superseded the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement between the U.S. ) and Canada. . Reduce wages by deunionizing workers and eliminating workers' rights that had been won over many years of struggle. No more price controls. All in all, total freedom of movement for capital, goods and services. To convince us this is good for us, they say "an unregulated market is the best way to increase economic growth, which will ultimately benefit everyone." It's like Reagan's "supplyside" and "trickledown" economics but somehow the wealth didn't trickle down very much. BUT some companies went so far and went across the line of deregulation. This aspect reflect on their behaviors on environment. Chinese government accused companies like Panasonic, Pepsi and others release waste water to the river and did not process the water before let it run to the river which pollute the Chinese water. Even though there is deregualation policy, polluting environment is bad for all over the world. It should be the topWhat concerns environmentalists more, however, is the weak governmental and legal oversight of multinational corporations. Lo observes that as local governments seek to attract foreign investment, their affiliated environmental protection bureaus dare not take strict measures to address pollution by multinational corporations. He also believes that since multinational corporations typically perform better than domestic enterprises environmentally, the subpar activitie of foreign companies won’t attract the attention of the country’s top environmental authority, the State Environmental Protection Administration. This leaves a void in supervision. Overall, globalization let all these happen even though it provide more opportunies to the workers and some compnaies like IKEA have soical and environmental responsibilities to their basis of business. G did gave chance to companies to behave bad…. globalization. poor working conditions: IKEA China and Swedwood. But one the other side, globalization has positive effect onto TNC to make them bigger and wealthier. GOOD: Meanwhile, competition brings Brings techonology , and protect the patent of technology. which is one of the idea of constitutional effect of trade lawmonopolization .Technology is also one of the main tools of competition and the quality of goods and services. On the other hand it necessitates quite a lot of cost for the company. The company has to use the latest technology for increasing their sales and product quality. Globalization has increased the speed of technology transfer and technological improvement. Customer expectations are directing markets. Mostly companies in capital intensive markets are at risk and that is why they need quick/rapid adapting concerning the customer/market expectations. These companies have to have efficient technology management and efficient R&D management. Video: No logo, brand becomes lifestyle. Globalization bad to workers, but good to development of TNC. references to course materials. Wokers in China and India benefit a lot from globalization. Book talks about four feature roles that labor represent and also globalization. The first is that labor is the basic even though companies can make profit from different ways, outsourcing or sth like that, they still need labor to make products. Companies brings opportunies to people like integration of countries like CHina and India into global economy meant that there are hundreds of new workers competiting for work and pushing the cost of labor back down on a global scale. The second is that workers also become consumers. in mid twentith century, US and UK view their labors as their consumers. But since 1970s, the interest in the national workers as national consumer has been transcend by the turn TNCs have made towards transanional consumer markers. of course, low paid workers have only small portion of demand. when TNC integrate with investor, workers can easily buy stuff. The idea of commodity fetishism is that focusing on just the product (usually just the image of the product)and ignoring how and where it’s made. . While people gloalization brings WTO. What democratic is shows Seatlle citizens’ revolt on WTO because they thought they were getting exploit. Companies are the one getting benefit. Companies get rid of tax in order to move to the low tax places and workers and citizens are the one bear high tax and also low wage. globalization brings competition so that off shoring and outsourcing globalization brings to exchange idea and so that there comes law issues about violence on copyright. which is one of the idea of constitutional effect of trade law: monopolization. http://www.globalissues.org/article/55/corporationsandtheenvironment Over the last three years, the Chinese government has punished 33 multinational corporations for violating the nation’s environmental laws and regulations, according to Ma Jun, director of the nongovernmental Institute of Public & Environmental Affairs . Ma’s announcement in September came as a surprise to many, as the Chinese public has tended to assume that multinational companies abide more strictly by the law than some in fact do in this heavily polluted country. The exposed companies include subsidiaries of worldrenowned corporations such as American Standard, Panasonic, Pepsi, Nestle, and 3M. They were punished mainly for discharges of substandard waste water and for unauthorized construction activities that occurred in the absence of proper environmental impact assessments. When researchers at Ma’s institute began building a database to map China’s water pollution earlier this year, they used data from the websites of various Chinese environmental protection authorities. During the process, they came across a list of multinational corporations that had been cited for environmentally harmful activities for the years 2004–06. Ma, who once worked as an environmental consultant for multinationals in China, was shocked by the discovery. “Those enterprises have been talking about corporate responsibility, yet they could not even abide by the law,” he says. “On the one hand, multinational corporations have not kept their environmental promise with respect to a global uniform standard; on the other hand, the implementation power of environmental laws and regulations in China is very weak.” Mr. Zhao, an authority with the Jilin Provincial Environmental Protection Bureau agrees that, “Multinational corporations have relaxed their environmental standards in China.” And according to Lo Sze Ping, campaign director of Greenpeace China, the “words” of multinationals are often better than their deeds. To address their wrongdoings, companies are more willing to invest in public relations than in actually cleaning up the manufacturing process, he says. What concerns environmentalists more, however, is the weak governmental and legal oversight of multinational corporations. Lo observes that as local governments seek to attract foreign investment, their affiliated environmental protection bureaus dare not take strict measures to address pollution by multinational corporations. He also believes that since multinational corporations typically perform better than domestic enterprises environmentally, the subpar activities of foreign companies won’t attract the attention of the country’s top environmental authority, the State Environmental Protection Administration. This leaves a void in supervision. But Lo also points out that domestic enterprises are more likely than multinationals to lack the capacity to meet environmental protection standards, while for the foreign firms it is more often a matter of willingness to address such problems. “Multinationals should be the ‘lead goat’ of their industries,” he says. William Valentino, general manager for corporate communications for Bayer Corporation and the chair of the Corporate Social Responsibility Working Group of the European Chamber of Commerce in China, agrees that the poor environmental performance of domestic enterprises should not be used as an excuse for multinationals. “Talk about home electronic appliances, Chinese people will think of Sony; talk about soft drinks, they will think of Coca Cola. As an international enterprise trusted by the Chinese people, one is obliged to bear more responsibilities,” Valentino says. Jianqiang Liu is a senior investigative journalist with China Southern Weekend . Outside contributions to China Watch reflect the views of the author, and are not necessarily the views of the Worldwatch Institute.
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