History and Systems Spring 2016 Study Guide
A. On top of the short answer questions below, you should be able to do the following tasks for the major Psychological academic traditions:
a. Understand the key principles (what they stood for)
b. Compare and Contrast between any two
c. Have an understanding of where they fall in the major debates
i. Nature vs. Nurture
ii. MindBody Problem
d. Those academic traditions are:
iii. Gestalt Psychology
v. Cognitive Psychology
1. What are the four Types of Knowledge? Give one example of how one type can affect another type.
1) Scientificsystematic observations/measurements peer reviewed research 2) Folkevery day theories we develop
3) IdeologicalValues Religion, rigid cultural norms
4) Legalestablished by authority does not have to agree w/scientific knowledge One example of how one type can affect another= Engrams in Scientology (An engram is a recording in the reactive mind of something which actually happened to an individual in the past and which contained pain and unconsciousness ... It must, by definition, have impact or injury as part of its content.)
2. If the Greek philosophers Plato and Democritus were alive when Behaviorist and Psychoanalysis were the major Psychological traditions, whose side would they be on and why? We also discuss several other topics like hlth 370
Plato: Greek philosopher. A realist that believed in universals (object’s properties can exist in multiple places at same time), and an idealist (believing in what things might or should be instead of how they appear). Believed intellectual truth was completely separated from what was being portrayed on the outside.
Would side with Psychoanalysis because they both had thought of an internal factor not matching it’s outside appearance. Freud thought people repressed their true thoughts. Both thought the mind and body were separate from one another. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the demographic equation?
Democritus: Greek philosopher. A materialist (view that everything is made up of indivisible elements. For ex: the soul is made up of fine, spherical atoms). Would side with Behaviorists because they both studied observable and quantifiable aspects of a counterpart.
3. What happened to Greek Philosophy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire?
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Dark Ages began, but in the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire arose and the Arabic world kept Greek philosophy alive (Middle East through North Africa). We also discuss several other topics like comp 130
4. What is the Condillac statue?
Everything is a product of sensations; it has to do with the senses, attention, memory, understanding and complex ideas. (Sensationalism)
5. How has the relationship between religion and psychology changed from the earliest recorded history, to modern times?
People’s subjective culture (connection between oneself and physical/social environment, such as religion, art, education, etc.) changed over time.
Religion and psychology arose separately from one another. There were subcategories to both religion and psychology. For example, religion differed as the subcategories of materialism and idealism emerged.
Differing from the past of your religious beliefs usually correlating with your mind/body and nature/nurture outlook on the world, religious beliefs and psychology now interconnect all mind/body and nature/nurture thoughts. There is now a more openminded view of the connectedness between psychology and religion, whereas everything was strictly one way before.
6. Why do we start out historiography with Mesopotamia?
They left us evidence that they were the first civilization with legal codes; Hammurabi’s Code= 1st legal knowledge. God and spirituality interacted daily and that dreams could have specific meaning.
7. Describe Plato’s “shadows on the cave wall” analogy.
It’s a theory put forward by Plato, concerning human perception. Plato claimed that knowledge gained through the senses is no more than opinion and that, in order to have real knowledge, we must gain it through philosophical reasoning. We also discuss several other topics like psy 322 syracuse
Overview: In the allegory, Plato likens people untutored in the Theory of Forms to prisoners chained in a cave, unable to turn their heads. All they can see is the wall of the cave. Behind them burns a fire. Between the fire and the prisoners there is a parapet, along which puppeteers can walk. The puppeteers, who are behind the prisoners, hold up puppets that cast shadows on the wall of the cave. The prisoners are unable to see these puppets the real objects that pass behind them. What the prisoners see and hear are shadows and echoes cast by objects that they do not see. We also discuss several other topics like alzheimer's punnett square
8. In what ways did Arabic philosophers contribute to Psychology? (At least one name and what their specific contribution was.)
Ibn alHaitham= Dissected the eye and correctly explained: How the eye perceived light and binocular vision; Why the sun gets bigger on the horizonPonzo Illusion 9. Describe “Master Values” and discuss how they affected society and psychology during the Industrial Revolution.
Mastery Values were individuals using science and technology who could control: environment, society and themselves. There was a population shift and more people lived in cities; the middle class was on the rise!
10. How did Wundt and Ebbinghaus change the field of Psychology?
Hermann Ebbinghaus – a pioneer of memory research. In psychology, he established the learning curve which denotes a graphical representation of the rate at which you make progress learning new information.
Wilhelm Wundt created the 1st psychology lab and invented experimental psychology! Experimental Introspection
11. What issues faced Clinical Psychology that Experimental Psychology did not have to deal with?
Physicians (medical community) thought it was their sole place to diagnose and treat mental health problems.Psychiatrists
Legal climate supported this argument: Licensing Boards, created to protect society and served as an excluding barrier
12. Detail Whitmer’s rules for treating mental health problem.
Whitmer’s 3 Rules:
1) Be free of idle speculationonly use observable behaviors If you want to learn more check out eg5513
2)Cause no harm w/ our methodsemotional, psychological or physical 3)Work closely w/ other professionalsmedical, teachers, parents & community 13. What is Occam’s Razor?
The simplest explanation is usually the right one.
14. Describe the differences between a Thorndike Box and a Skinner Box. Thorndike Box: an animal must escape from the box in order to earn its' reward. Once it is outside the box the experiment is over.
Skinner Box: lets you measure a number of successful responses on the part of the animal because the animal stays in the box and can push the lever (or other mechanism) many times to receive multiple rewards. Positive/Negative Reinforcements
15. Compare and Contrast Freudian, Adler’s, and Jungian Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis Conclusion( Religion)
Freud: our fears need a physical manifestation
Jung: personification of our archetypes
Where Freud saw the past as the main psychological motivator, Adler theorized it is people’s perceptions of their future.
Adler believed in birth inferiority (inferiority complex at birth)
Carl Jung used archetypes to explain the way people act; ancient primordial exemplars that reflect our shared ancestry. Jung believed these archetypes influenced everything in our lives.
16. What is Introspection, and how did Behaviorist feel about it?
The examination or observation of one's own mental and emotional processes. Behaviorists rejected introspection for its lack of scientific reliability.
Behaviorism’s objection to introspection focused much more on its unreliability and subjectivity which conflicted with behaviorism’s focus on measurable behavior.
17. Describe Operant and Classical Conditioning
Operant: are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment.
Classical: a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.
18. What is the “Pavlov’s Dog” experiment?
*Salivation (is unconditioned because it is an innate reflex) = UCR *Bell (initially neutral b/c no response except curiosity)= NS
*Continue to pair the bell with the food...
19. What separated Gestalt Psychology from all previous psychological traditions? It focused on the holistic approach to consciousness as opposed to individual parts. It didn’t set out to displace other schools or “take over” psychology; merely created an explanative framework for evidence contrary to Behaviorist teaching. 20. In Gestalt Psychology what does the “Figure vs. Ground” effect refer to? the determination of what is the figure (the depicted object, displayed against a background and what is the ground)
21. Who are the “Three Musketeers” of Gestalt Psychology?
Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffa, and Wolfgang Kohler.
22. What were the results of the new wave of Psychological testing studies that occurred around World War II? (i.e., Iowa Child Welfare Station, Ellis Island Studies) Ellis Island: this belief stemmed from the idea that knowledge was inherited; Accepting the "feebleminded" would hurt everyone
Iowa Child Welfare Station: Showed that IQ scores for the children that were pulled out greatly improved versus their peers; shows bad environment decreases test scores; welfare home kids do better
23. Compare and contrast all four of Piaget’s cognitive stages.
Sensorimotor birth to 2 years old; infants acquire info about world through their mental representation (schema) of the object; no object permanence; reflexive responses develop into more deliberate actions through motor schema.
Preoperational 2 to 7 years old; children think symbolically about objects: ability to make one thing a word or an object stand for something other than itself; reason based on intuition and superficial comparisons rather than logic; therefore,
has difficulty take the viewpoint of others; tendency to believe their experience is identical to others; focuses on one aspect of situation...doesn't understand that a basic amount remains the same regardless of appearance.
Concrete Operational 7 to 11 years old; begin to think about and understand logical operations; child can work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in real world); Reversibility: ability to perform mental operations forward or backward; Decentration: involves taking into consideration multiples aspects of a situation (ex: skinny container hold same volume as wide container)
Formal Operational 12 years old and beyond; can think abstractly and logically test hypotheses.
24. Compare and contrast Social Facilitation and Social Loafing. When do they occur? Social Facilitation: faster performance on boring task when other people were present.
Social Loafing: phenomenon of a person exerting less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone.
25. Describe the Fundamental Attribution Error.
Fundamental Attribution Error: tendency for people to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics (personality) to explain someone else's behavior in a given situation rather than considering the situation's external factors.
26. Describe the differences between the “Little Albert” and “Little Peter” studies. “Little Albert” classical conditioning= creating a phobia
“Little Peter”counter conditioning= reversing the phobia by rewarding=getting over phobia
27. Detail how the Scientific Method impacted at least two different academic traditions in Psychology.
Behaviorism: changed to Neobehaviorism later on, which was based on the general principles of behaviorism but broader and more flexible in concept. Its focus on the experimental method and empirical evidence allowed it to study subjective phenomena that cannot be directly observed and measured, such as fantasies, love, stress, empathy, and personality.
Didn’t say they could explain it all, but could later on collaborate with other academic tradition’s findings due to the experimental method.
Experimental method kept behaviorism afloat even after great advances in other areas, because they continued to have quantitative proof of success in studies. Psychoanalysis: changed to have less emphasis on psychosexual principles. Psychoanalysis quickly declined after the breakthroughs with pharmaceuticals and CBT. Although we still use Anna Freud’s child psychology ways today, other areas of psychoanalysis declined in popularity due to its clinical methods (observation and treatment) instead of experimental approach (laboratory studies).
The quantitative studies demonstrated the clear advantage of pharmaceuticals and CBT over psychoanalysis.
28. How did the development of new imaging technologies for the brain affect Psychology? These new technologies established basic facts about the brain researchers never had before; psychological processes are linked to psychological processes. "Nodes in a computer": idea that the brain has different isolated parts that all work together to have consciousness.
29. What is the Turing Test?
Created by Alan Turing, it’s a test for intelligence in a computer, requiring that a human being should be unable to distinguish the machine from another human being by using the replies to questions put to both.
30. What two breakthroughs resulted in Psychoanalysis slowly dying as one of Psychology’s core traditions?
Pharmaceuticals: drugs used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease/help disorders.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): focuses patients on their conscious thoughts and implementing how these processes relate to the way a person behaves, as a way of dealing with emotional problems. Help them change their mindset.
31. How does the “QuantumMind” tradition break from mainstream Cognitive Psychology? Branch within cognitive psychology that questions its own foundational principles; Cognition can be compared to information and algorithms; These researchers believe the brain functions at a level beyond computation (Beyond physiological)